Fruit plants in pots
Question: Potted fruit plants
Hi, now, in the month of March, I have had some fruit plants in pots as a gift. Cherry, medlar, 3 year old peach tree. I would like to keep them in pots for a while longer due to lack of space, what should I do?
Potted Fruit Plants: Answer: Potted Fruit Plants
Dear Vito, good morning and thank you for writing to us in the questions and answers section of our website. Cherry, medlar and peach are beautiful fruit plants that if cultivated with care can give great satisfaction. In the first years of their life these plants grow a lot in height as they invest all their resources to reach in the shortest possible time a height capable of ensuring a priority as regards access to resources. Growing tall stem plants in pots is not recommended as the rapid growth in height makes normal-sized pots (30-40 cm in diameter) too small in a short time. However, this problem can be solved by using larger pots, able to guarantee all the space necessary for fruit plants in the growth phase. However, by cultivating a plant in pot for several years that will subsequently have to be buried, you run the risk at the time of transplanting to have an old plant that is not very flexible and reactive to changes. The older the plants, the less they are able to get used to new living conditions and it is for this reason that the success of transplants decreases with increasing age of the transplanted plants.
If in the place where you have decided to grow these fruit plants you do not have enough space to bury these 3 species, you might consider growing in pots. By equipping himself with large tubs (greater than 1 meter in diameter) he will be able to transfer the cherry, medlar and peach trees when necessary. Subsequently with the pruning he will have to decisively adjust the size of the plants in order to avoid a clear disproportion between the underground portion of the plant and the aerial portion. The root area and the trunk and branch areas must always be proportionate to avoid physiological imbalances and the risk of overturning.
A final precaution to take when growing potted plants is certainly fertilization. Since the cultivation substrate is something artificial, far from the naturalness of which fields and meadows are endowed, the soil of the pot must be fertilized regularly and enriched directly with nutrients.
Dwarf Fruit Plants Online Sale, the ideal solution for fresh, healthy and healthy harvests, dedicated to those who have little space available.
Fruit Dwarf Plants are ideal for growing in confined spaces such as terraces, verandas or small gardens and being able to enjoy a splendid ornamental plant during flowering, and which, once ripe, will give us excellent fresh fruit. to be consumed as soon as it is picked from the plant.
The varieties of Dwarf Fruit Plants for sale online that we offer are compact and productive, suitable for cultivation in pots, but above all self-fertile, therefore they pollinate in a totally autonomous way, thus guaranteeing a seasonal harvest of your favorite fruit.
Very few tricks are enough, such as direct exposure to sunlight and paying attention to air currents to be able to give even to those who have very little space available the pleasure of a plant that produces real-sized fruits with a pleasantly sugary taste that only Mother Nature knows how to give.
Fruit trees in pots, from A to Z
In alphabetical order, all you need to know if you want to grow fruit trees in pots.
Purchase: today it is quite easy to find specific fruit plants for growing in pots, of low size (dwarf) and already set up in the form of farming. Alternatively, contact a nursery specializing in fruit plants, preferably by going in person even if the company sells online on the web, in order to obtain plants "tailored" to your needs. The nurseryman can also create just for you, one year for the next on order (and deposit), the plant you want: the variety you prefer grafted onto a dwarf rootstock for pots! Furthermore, some specialized nurseries cultivate the plants with biological or biodynamic methods, ensuring specimens that have never received anything chemical for their entire existence, more robust and less sensitive to diseases and parasites.
Self-fertile / self-sterile: there are self-fertile (or self-compatible) cultivars and other self-sterile (or self-incompatible) cultivars. The former have flowers whose pollen is compatible with the ovules of the flower itself, that is, it is able to fertilize them in such a way as to make the small fruit develop, the latter, vice versa, have incompatible pollen, therefore unable to fertilize the flowers of that same variety. The latter, in order to bear fruit, must be fertilized by the pollen of a different variety, present nearby (within 300 m of diameter): by choosing a self-sterile cultivar, it is necessary to have a second variety of the same species alongside, which are compatible with each other, which that is, they fertilize each other. With just one self-incompatible plant you will never get fruit. On the other hand, from a single self-fertile plant you will obtain a fair production, which increases a lot if you add a second variety (self-fertile or self-sterile), the presence of which, however, is not essential. So, if you have room for only one variety of each species, make sure when purchasing that the chosen one is completely self-fertile or self-compatible (there are also partially self-fertile varieties, which alone bear very little fruit). The pot varieties are generally self-fertile and do not need a companion of the same species but of different varieties there are also already grafted pot fruit trees, which produce different fruits on the same specimen, of two compatible varieties. A good nurseryman creates plants on request with the grafting of the variety you want and compatible with.
Low maintenance: if you have little time to take care of fruit plants, choose berries, which ensure low maintenance, attributable to a few weekends from spring to autumn (but you must remember to pick the fruits ...). All the other species require more assiduous maintenance, at least a couple of times a month during the summer, even if only to keep diseases and parasites under control, and in winter the pruning interventions.
Climate: not all fruit trees are good in all areas of Italy! Berries require low winter temperatures (from +5 ° C downwards) to induce fruiting in the following year, while others abhor them, or because they compromise the flowering that occurs in autumn-winter (e.g. Japanese medlar, almond tree ) or because they damage the physiology of the plant (e.g. all citrus fruits except kumquat, jujube). Raspberry and currant can only be grown in the hills and mountains because they cannot bear summer temperatures above 32 ° C; others, such as olive trees, vines and peaches, cannot be grown above 700 m asl because they cannot withstand the frost peaks of the apricot tree. altitude only a specially selected cultivar, the Val Venosta. Near the sea, with the salty winds, all fruit trees have a hard time surviving, but especially the berries. In areas subject to frequent frosts between March and April it is not advisable to cultivate early cultivars, whose early flowering is decimated by the timeless frost, and with it the production of fruits.
Care: fruit trees in pots require more care than those grown in the ground. First of all, irrigation which, during the hot season, must always be regular, then fertilization which cannot be reduced to just two interventions as in the garden, but repotting must also be more frequent, at least as long as the size allows them, followed by renewal periodic of the superficial soil then the pruning which often sees prevailing reasons of encumbrance compared to the productive ones, finally an assiduous observation to catch the first signs of any fungal or parasitic attacks.
Defence: pathogenic fungi and insects find it easier to come out of fruit trees grown in pots, because their physiological state is in any case altered compared to the open ground are weaker plants, less robust because they do not benefit from the "infinite" resources of the soil, and must live in an environment often not very suitable (in summer on a terrace facing south it can reach 50-70 ° C, while in winter the wind blows more lashing). It is therefore easier for a passing pathogen to be able to penetrate the plant tissues, which are also more palatable for harmful insects. But on the terrace it is better to minimize phytosanitary interventions, to be carried out only with products allowed in organic farming: it is better to prevent adversity, strengthening the specimen as much as possible with the most prudent care, and monitoring it at least once a week to identify suspicious signals in the bud. In this way it will be possible to eradicate the enemy with a single treatment or at most two, which is impossible if the disease or parasites are neglected or discovered when they have already invaded a large part of the plant (and in this case we need synthetic chemicals ...).
Training system: if in the garden the recommended training system is that of a vase, ie with 3-4 main flared branches, in a confined environment it is preferable to direct the specimen towards the much more contained spindle shape. A good alternative is the espalier shape, which can be achieved either by leaning the plant against a wall or by placing it on a sturdy trellis: developing on a single level, the specimen will take up less space and will be more easily manageable, even if production is slightly penalized. . Finally, there are plants, specific for the vase, with a columnar bearing, which remain slender with minimal pruning.
Fruits: during the first year the small fruits hardly attach, and even more rarely do they develop. Indeed, if you notice a fruit set, it is better to remove the fruit immediately, cutting the stalk with the nail without damaging the surrounding buds, to prevent the plant from wasting energy which it must instead concentrate on growth. The sapling will take about 4-5 years to go into production, that is to say to give its maximum in terms of fruit, the same time is necessary to obtain a stabilization of the flavor, which in the first years can be insignificant. A plant raised in a pot of adequate size and with the right care, produces about 5-10 kg of fruit depending on the species. An insufficient quantity to feed even one person, but which makes us proud for the satisfaction of having succeeded!
Irrigation: in pot it is essential for the whole life of the plant. In the first year because the plant still has few roots, later because the earth dries out much faster than in the garden. The soil at a depth of 5 cm must always be slightly humid in the summer: provide large quantities (10 l in pots) but spaced, rather than a little water in close turns. In the first years, the interval is 2-6 days depending on the temperature, then it passes to 4-10 days. The saucer is used as long as it is possible to lift the pot to put it in April and remove it at the end of September, then it is permanently eliminated. If you are absent, during the summer, for more than a weekend, you must foresee how to wet the plant: relatives or neighbors, or three upside down bottles equipped with special sprinkler cones, or the terrace irrigation kit, equipped with control unit and pipes with nozzles to be inserted into the potting soil.
Grafting: it consists in taking a branch (graft, or scion, or object) of a variety to insert it on a branch of another variety, on a tree that thus acts as a rootstock (or subject). It is species-specific, that is, apple trees are grafted onto apple trees, pear trees onto pear trees, apricots onto apricots, although interspecific grafts are possible among the stone fruits, for example. apricot on plum or almond, peach on almond etc. on potted fruit trees it allows you to have a branch of another variety that acts as a pollinator, to have two branches grafted onto a single plant in order to taste different varieties with a single footprint, to completely change variety if the initial one does not like, shortening the times of entry into production because the tree is already adult. There are about twenty grafts, from the simplest to the most complex: the easiest are split, eye and crown grafts.
Winter: while some species need to "feel the cold" winter (see Climate), others, such as citrus fruits, should be protected in a cool room, or at least wrapped with one or more non-woven sheets, also covering the pot with a mat and mulching the base of the plant with straw, as in the case of kumquat and olive tree .
Ligatures: during the spring, check the ligatures on the brace, loosening those that are too tight or replacing them. Throughout the summer, direct the raspberry shoots along the supports, fixing them with ties.
Gardening exhibitions: excellent opportunities to contact specialized nurserymen and buy seedlings. Almost all the best participate in the various exhibitions that are held throughout Italy between March and June and in September-October, a period in which it is possible to see the displays of seasonal fruits (grapes, apples, pears, peaches, plums, walnuts, hazelnuts , almonds, jujubes, azzeruole, etc.), each with an indication of the variety: sometimes it is also possible to taste the fruits, offering an additional element for the choice. Among the most recommendable: Three days for the garden / Two days for autumn (www.fondoambiente.it, early May and late October), Spring / Autumn alla Landriana (www.aldobrandini.it, late April and early October), Orticola (www.orticola.org, early May), Orticolario (www.orticolario.it, early October), Nel Segno del Giglio (www.comune.colorno.pr.it, www.artourparma.it, late April and mid-October ), Verdemura / Murabilia (www.verdemura.it, www.murabilia.com, beginning of April and beginning of September), Lost plants and animals (www.pianteeanimaliperduti.it, end of September), In spring flowers, waters of castles / In autumn fruits , waters, castles (http://castellodistrassoldo.it/blog, mid-April and mid-October), Frutti Antichi (www.fruttiantichi.net, early October).
Nutrition: fertilization is essential to first obtain a correct growth of the plant and then the maximum possible production in such a restricted environment. Use slow release granular products, to be spread on the surface of the pot by lightly scratching the soil to cover them (they must not be visible especially if you have children or pets, who might get curious when they see them and try to pick them up and eat them!): They will slowly decompose with the irrigation and rains. In the first 3-4 years, give a balanced product, then one for vegetables and fruits. Additions must be frequent, according to what is indicated on the packaging of the chosen product.
Weight: inquire well about the capacity of the terrace, available from the designer if the building is new, or can be calculated by a professional (surveyor, architect, engineer). There is also an empirical formula that can be approached to reality, given by "surface in square meters per operating load (fixed value of 150 kg / sqm) = maximum terrace load": a 50 sqm terrace will have a maximum load of 7,500 kg. To lighten (see Jar), use only plastic or resin pots, also decorated or in perfect imitation of the Tuscan festooned terracotta basins, however robust, anti-freeze, and able to guarantee a good environment for the roots.
Pruning: that of formation (in the first 3-4 years of life) for potted plants is that of the spindle or columnar axis forms the latter retains only the trunk, up to 3 m high, from which only the branches depart laterally ( the branches must be eliminated), in order to obtain a footprint of 1.5 m in diameter at most, more suitable for Pome fruit, it can also be applied to Stone fruit, and is carried out when they are at rest. Production pruning is carried out on almost all fruit trees and consists in the elimination of branches and twigs that do not produce flowers and therefore fruits (that is, without flower buds) can include cutting some flowering branches in case they are overabundant and, letting them go to fruit, let the plant strain a lot, it too takes place on plants at rest. The green pruning is given by the thinning of the overcrowded branches and the reduction of the foliage to ventilate the plant: always light, it is carried out in summer, especially on stone fruit. The rimonda pruning involves the elimination of dry, broken or diseased, and is carried out in every season on all types of plants as soon as possible. Suckering (elimination of suckers from the base of the plant), especially if they come from under the graft, and suckers along the trunk, is practiced during the summer, tearing them as soon as possible affects all fruit trees. Reform pruning is necessary on terraces to eliminate bulky or out-of-shape branches (therefore not based on production, but according to personal aesthetic-practical needs), and it would be better to apply it only when the specimen is at rest or not in production (after harvest) by cutting according to the footprint, it is easy to sacrifice a part of the production the following year.
Repotting: the planting in containers can take place all year round, with the exception of the summer months, between June and August, when it is too hot. The container must be 3-4 measures more than the previous one. Insert the support pole, 1.50-1.70 m long then the drainage of 5-6 cm of gravel or expanded clay, on which to spread a layer of half garden soil, half garden soil and a handful of sand river, mixed with 20 g of dry manure, for a total thickness of another 5-6 cm. If you are repotting a citrus fruit, use the appropriate soil for citrus fruits instead if it is a blueberry, use the specific soil for acidophilic plants if it is another fruit of the forest, replace the garden soil with that for acidophilic in the mixture indicated. Insert the plant in the pot to evaluate if the collar remains 3 cm below the upper edge of the pot in case you adjust the soil on the bottom by adding or removing it. Place the plant straight and fill by adding the substrate keeping it, after pressing, below the edge for 3 cm. Tie the trunk to the brace and affix the variety tag. Put a saucer, perhaps with a platform with wheels, and water it with 10 liters of water, without eliminating it if it stagnates for a few hours in the saucer.
The potted peach tree can give great satisfaction.
In the first 5-6 years, in February-March before flowering, repot in a container of one or two measures more in the following years proceed every 2-3 years (unless the roots come out from the drainage holes or from the surface of the soil, in which case repot immediately), up to the maximum possible size, which can range between 50 and 80 cm in diameter or side.
When it is no longer possible to increase the size of the pot, carry out the annual renewal of the surface soil, to stimulate the spring vegetative restart: gently scratch with a fork, without damaging the roots, the first 5-10 cm of soil, replacing them with the same substrate new and fertile, mixed with fertilizer granules, pressing well and irrigating immediately afterwards.
Sun: fruit plants need at least 6 hours of sunshine a day during the summer. The positions to the east, south, west or in intermediate degrees are therefore indicated, while in a position facing north it will not be possible to cultivate anything. The exception is berries, which prefer the early hours of the morning and, especially in the Center-South, do not tolerate exposure to midday rays during the summer (but not even in the Po Valley).
Terrace: a terrace of at least 10 square meters gives the pleasure of growing up to 3-4 specimens of fruit plants in pots, chosen from the least expanded species and varieties and with fewer needs at the root level (dwarf cultivars), which can also live a twenty years. However, the restricted environment entails, in addition to a meager harvest, also greater difficulties in cultivation, because the care (see Care) they must be much more assiduous than in the open ground. The fact that the terrace is an extension of the domestic walls helps in finding ten minutes every day to devote to potted fruit trees.
Variety: choose those specially selected for growing in pots: with columnar and dwarf growth habit, they each produce from 30 to 40 fruits per year, but in return they take up little space and do not require huge containers, stopping between 40 and 50 cm in diameter or side. If you prefer open ground varieties, opt for those that are not very vigorous and look for them on dwarfing rootstocks: they will still require the maximum size of the pot, they can grow up to about 2 m in height and 1.50 in diameter, but full production can reach even over 10 kg. Do not buy "normal" plants, from the ground, because if they live they become very bulky and then unmanageable, or they can remain stunted and not productive at all until they die.
Jar: a rod normally lodges in a pot of 24 cm in diameter, and must be transplanted upon arrival at home in one of 30 cm, then repotting it every year in one or two more sizes. Each plant will not only become quite bulky starting from the pot, but also very heavy, since container + soil + adult plant can weigh up to 80 kg. To move the pot, you need a trolley with a blade that has adequate capacity, or the plant will be left forever where you put it. Jars with water reserve are not recommended, which would be fine from May to September, but must then be replaced in October, because the water stagnates in winter and freezes the roots.
Fruit trees in pots: the apple tree
There is not the slightest doubt: every person who reads this article, at least once in their life will have tasted the taste of an apple, perhaps ignoring all the process that led to the birth and production of this famous fruit.
In our country, the largest apple producer is undoubtedly Trentino Alto Adige thanks to the resistance to low temperatures enjoyed by this tree and its fruits. However, deciding to grow a small tree on the terrace or in the garden could be a source of great satisfaction.
The choice between one fruit or another may depend on the areas in which you live so, before choosing between apple, peach or others, check what is most suitable for your area in order to make life easier for you and your tree. The apple tree, for example, is more suitable for the areas of Central / Northern Italy due to its adaptability to the low temperatures we mentioned above.
There position inside your garden it is of fundamental importance because exposure to strong currents could harm your little tree which, at the same time, must enjoy a good air exchange in order to "breathe" and be exposed to the sun and rain . In practice, if you can leave it alone in a point where there is a lot of wind, try to repair it with a bamboo or wooden screen without this also sheltering it from the sun.
The jar it is another fundamental element because, in any case, we are talking about a tree that in nature would be better planted in the ground! Always choose the best and avoid plastic by choosing materials such as terracotta with a depth of more than half a meter!
The drainage capacity of the pot will be fundamental as the fruit trees "drink" a lot but, at the same time, need a good recirculation of water and any stagnation would do nothing but damage your plant.
Planting, pruning and flowering
Like any fruit tree, the period for planting is between April and February but in any case, for the apple tree, we always recommend the end of autumn when the leaves begin to fall. Although it resists low temperatures well, in the middle of winter do not exclude the possibility of covering your apple tree to protect it from the cold and ensure it in the best possible way for the following spring.
The potted apple tree that you find on the market is often self-pollinating (always ask) and therefore does not (apparently) require the presence of other species in the area that are necessary for pollination.
There pruning generally it should be done in February (or in the period of vegetative rest), taking care to eliminate the damaged branches.
The following spring, you will have beautiful flowers and maybe fruit in the months to come.
NB: watch out for the gems! In the apple tree there are gems from wood, that will become leaves and the flower buds that will become branches with flowers.
Good cultivation and good appetite
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Fruit plants grown on the terrace
Even a terrace, and even a small balcony if it has the right exposure, can host fruit plants in pots for one mini orchard which will allow you to see the fruits ripen and enjoy a small and precious harvest.
11 cultivation tips
- To avoid disappointment and have more guarantees on the well-being of the plants it is advisable to choose the most common fruit trees in the area where you live, with particular attention to the varieties known today as “ancient”, which have disappeared from the professional market as they are not very profitable according to the logic of large-scale distribution, real jewels for family cultivation.
- If you want to grow only one tree of a certain species, you need to make sure there are some self-compatible varieties, that is, that they can be fertilized by their own pollen. To promote pollination, it is essential to approach the plant with a variety of the same species or a different variety as long as it is compatible (i.e. with a flowering period that can be superimposed) with the first.
- One aspect to be evaluated well is the position: fruit trees need a lot of sun (the ideal is from morning to evening or at least in the central and afternoon hours, the morning sun is not enough) to ripen the fruits, and to protect them from strong winds that hinder pollination and damage leaves and flowers. If the terrace is exposed to strong air currents, frequent on the upper floors, it is better to repair the plant with a windbreak. Instead, avoid placing the plant underneath in a too closed corner, even if sunny: fruit trees need a good one air circulation.
- Equally fundamental is the choice of vases: fruit trees require capacious containers of medium-large size, with height and width between 50 and 100 cm. Large copper vases (you can also have wooden tubs of the desired size), resin, terracotta vases are fine. The deep wooden planters are excellent, naturally equipped with drainage holes for excess water to drain. The pots chosen must be equipped with drainage holes: if they do not have them, drill them yourself with a drill.
- At the plant, the bottom of the container must be protected with a net on it you will distribute a layer of expanded clay in turn covered with a filtering fabric: it prevents the water, coming out of the holes, dragging part of the soil with it and clogging the drains of the terrace. These must be clearly visible and easy to inspect: be careful not to cover them while placing the pots, because water stagnation would put a strain on the waterproofing of the floor. The topsoil it will necessarily be new, of the type "for plants" and enriched with organic substance (compost soil or manure in powder).
- The quantity of pots to be set up, especially if they are large and therefore very heavy, must be evaluated in relation to the span of the terrace floor. In principle, the capacity is around 450 kg per square meter in recent constructions.
- All fruit plants grown in pots need plenty of water in summer, drought should be avoided. For this reason, an automatic irrigation system is recommended and a mulch with chopped bark must be carried out at the foot of the plant. Water must be supplied regularly and generously even in winter, if the pot is not very large or after a few days of sun and relatively mild climate, it is better to moisten the soil. Especially at the vegetative restart, the water must be supplied regularly and generously even in winter, if the pot is not very large or after a few days of sun and relatively mild climate, it is better to moisten the soil.
- A good fertilization in autumn and spring it stimulates production from both a quantitative and qualitative point of view, the manure is fine but the composting soil is also excellent.
- Check it often plant health: it is necessary to intervene promptly, at the initial stage of a fungal disease or a parasitic attack, in order not to compromise fruiting and avoid having to carry out treatments with chemical products, almost inevitable if the infestation spreads. Since the fruits are destined for the table, in fact, it is advisable to use natural methods, such as manual elimination or infusions prepared at home, or organic products with low toxicity.
- An effective homemade vegetable preparation is macerated nettle. It is prepared by putting 5 ounces of fresh nettle without roots (or 100 g of dried plant) in 5 liters of cold water for 10 days, mixing it every day (less is enough if you leave the container in the sun). Per la lotta contro acari, parassiti come le tignole e la mosca del ciliegio, funghi come la bolla del pesco, la peronospora, la ticchiolatura e i marciumi, diluitelo in acqua (circa 20 g ogni 100 di acqua) e distribuitelo per 3 giorni di seguito, ripetendo il trattamento dopo 2 settimane.
- La potatura è indispensabile per contenere le dimensioni delle piante e stimolare la produzione. Meglio acquistare esemplari già formati: un albero da frutto di tre o quattro anni ha subito vari interventi di formazione, ha già un aspetto ben definito (a spalliera, a candelabro, a vaso, a piramide ecc.) e sarà in futuro più facile da seguire con le potature invernali di mantenimento e fruttificazione.
8 suggerimenti sulle piante da frutto
Quanto alle piante da scegliere, la gamma è vasta e dipende dalla dimensione dei vasi, dal clima, dal numero di piante che pensate di coltivare e dal tempo che metterete a disposizione: ecco l'elenco delle piante più adatte.
- Melo: ideale quando c’è poco spazio, previa garanzia che sia innestato su portainnesto nanizzante. Un albero di tre o quattro anni, già formato, sarà più facile da seguire con le potature invernali di mantenimento e fruttificazione. Prevedete o verificate la presenza nelle vicinanze di un melo di varietà compatibile oppure di un melo da fiore. Ideali per la coltivazione in vaso i meli Ballerina, snelli alberelli che fruttificano lungo il fusto e regalano molti frutti il melo Annurca, poco sensibile alle malattie, e il melo Belfiore, adatto a climi con inverni freddi.
- Pero: non esistono varietà autocompatibili, quindi occorre sempre un altro pero nelle vicinanze per l’impollinazione incrociata. Bello come alberello, è ancora più decorativo se allevato a spalliera contro un muro soleggiato: questa soluzione è particolarmente consigliabile nelle zone con inverno rigido. The variety Cannella è ideale per la coltivazione a spalliera e produce frutti molto aromatici.
- Vite da tavola: la vite in vaso è produttiva e molto decorativa: una pergola o un arco in legno, con relativi sostegni inseriti nel vaso, permettono di creare un angolo molto grazioso. Da provare la vita da Zibibbo, dai dolcissimi grappoli a frutti bianchi, tipicamente italiana e adatta al vaso.
- Ciliegio: in vaso si può coltivare il cosiddetto ciliegio nano, alto fino a 1,80 m, resistente alle malattie, con frutti tra la fine di maggio e la fine di giugno. Buoni risultati si ottengono con il ciliegio Compact Stella, poco ingombrante, resistente al gelo e molto produttivo (frutti in luglio).
- Kiwi: di vitale importanza per ottenere i frutti è procurarsi sia un esemplare maschile (ad esempio Actinidia arguta o la Tamuri) che uno femminile (ad esempio la classica Hayward). Coltivato in vasi molto grandi, ricoprirà velocemente pergole e archi e regalerà un raccolto abbondante.
- Melograno: alberello molto grazioso, che fornisce più di un motivo di interesse: la chioma armoniosa e tondeggiante, i bellissimi fiori arancio, i frutti decorativi e deliziosi. Inoltre è poco esigente e vive bene anche in un vaso medio-piccolo.
- Nespolo del Giappone: sempreverde folto e decorativo dai frutti dolcissimi. È autocompatibile, quindi basta un solo esemplare.
- Fico: facilissimo da coltivare, purché sia posizionato nell’angolo più soleggiato. La varietà Dottato non chiede impollinatore e dà frutti due volte all’anno.
5 idee per i frutti di bosco in vaso
Non solo le fragole, ma anche lamponi, ribes e uvaspina sono possibili in vaso, ma in condizioni particolari: clima fresco, posizione parzialmente ombreggiata, terreno acido. Per il resto, si accontentano di pochissimo spazio, sono facili e decorativi.
- Lamponi, ribes, uva spina sono decorativi e facili se il clima è fresco, la posizione parzialmente ombreggiata, il terreno con pH tendenzialmente acido.
- Attenzione: molte varietà di frutti di bosco non tollerano le innaffiature con acqua calcarea, che provoca clorosi e sofferenza.
- La natura ha dotato i piccoli frutti dei boschi di grande potenziale nutritivo: sono ricchi di vitamine A e C, che mantengono in percentuale elevata anche dopo la trasformazione in conserve o succhi. Sono d’aiuto per rinforzare i capillari, soprattutto quelli che irrorano la retina oculare, e sono ricchi di antiossidanti: un consumo regolare di ribes, mirtilli, lamponi e more rafforza l’organismo e, secondo alcuni studi recenti, potrebbe prevenire alcune forme di tumore.
- The ribes cresce bene in vaso, in mezz’ombra luminosa durante l’estate, se ben irrigato senza mai ristagni idrici nel terreno esiste sia a frutto bianco che rosso e i grappolini di frutti, molto belli, rimangono a lungo sulla pianta.
- Più difficili sono i lamponi e i loro ibridi, anche a frutto giallo come ‘Fall Gold’, che dà due raccolti, a luglio e settembre, in balconi freschi di collina e montagna, in vasi molto profondi.
Come coltivare piante da frutto in vaso
Abitate in città, vi manca un giardino, ma vorreste coltivare piante da frutto?
Se avete un terrazzo, potreste coltivarle in vaso, e avere il piacere di raccogliere frutti freschi e gustosi da voi coltivati. Esistono, infatti, alcune varietà di piante da frutto adatte alla coltivazione in vaso, che possono dare un raccolto soddisfacente.
Caratteristiche delle piante da frutto in vaso
Si tratta, generalmente, di piante a sviluppo contenuto, dotate di un apparato radicale che non richiede grossi volumi di terra poichè non cresce molto in profondità.
Le specie maggiormente indicate sono gli agrumi (limoni, mandarini, kumquattle …), ma anche alcune varietà di pesco, albicocco, ciliegio, melograni, uva. E poi, perché no, i piccoli frutti! Ribes, mirtilli, uva spina, … cespugli a ridotto sviluppo, generosi di frutti dolci e ricchi di vitamine a portata di mano!
Le varietà più adatte alla coltivazione in vaso sono innestate su un portinnesto nanizzante, che non cresce molto, ma rimane di dimensioni contenute, al massimo 2m di altezza.
Gli agrumi sono piante particolarmente adatte alla coltivazione in vaso!
Consigli per l'acquisto
Per acquistare le piante da frutto più adatte, oltre a seguire il vostro gusto personale, chiedete consiglio al rivenditore/vivaista della vostra zona: saprà indicarvi la varietà più adatta anche alle condizioni climatiche della vostra regione. Date sempre la preferenza a cultivar locali, più rustiche, resistenti e meglio adattabili.
- la pianta sia sana e robusta (che non vi siano segni di malattia o presenza di insetti).
- Il punto di innesto sia ben cicatrizzato.
- Il tipo di esposizione richiesto dalla pianta in relazione all’esposizione del vostro terrazzo.
- Si tratti di pianta autofertile e non autosterile, ovvero che non abbia bisogno di un’altra pianta maschile per essere impollinata e dare frutti (è il caso, ad esempio, del kiwi).
Scegliete vasi preferibilmente in terracotta sceglieteli della forma e dimensioni più adatte.
Oggetti necessari per coltivare le piante da frutto in vaso
- Vasi capienti, di dimensioni proporzionate a quelle della pianta, tali da permetterne la stabilità e un adeguato volume di terra necessario all’apparato radicale. Vaso in coccio o in plastica? I vantaggi del coccio sono la maggior stabilità, maggior traspirazione, miglior aspetto estetico. I vantaggi della plastica sono: maggior maneggevolezza (sono più leggeri), minor costo. In ogni caso devono essere dotati di fori di scolo, per permettere il drenaggio dell’acqua.
- Portavasi dotati di ruote, per poter spostare con facilità i vasi in posizione più riparata durante la stagione fredda
- Terriccio fertile, specifico per piante da frutto, di buona qualità, da rinnovare ogni 2-3 anni
- Ghiaia o argilla espansa da disporre sul fondo del vaso, per migliorare il drenaggio dell’acqua
- Concime specifico per piante da frutto, più che mai necessario per piante non coltivate in piena terra
- Prodotti fungicidi e insetticidi o acaricidi, per proteggere la pianta da malattie fungine e parassiti (cocciniglie, afidi, acari …)
- Teli in tessuto tnt per proteggere la pianta dal freddo durante la stagione invernale.
Un altro aspetto fondamentale per coltivare le piante da frutto in vaso è che vi sia un rubinetto dell’acqua vicino, da utilizzare per innaffiarle comodamente con l’aiuto di una canna di gomma. Se prevedete di assentarvi durante il periodo estivo, munitevi di un piccolo impianto di irrigazione goccia a goccia dotato di timer vi permetterà di non tornare a casa e trovare le vostre piante morte di sete!
Infine, per coltivare piante da frutto, è necessaria la giusta esposizione. Il sole è infatti necessario alla maggior parte dei fruttiferi per crescere e fruttificare, soprattutto per gli agrumi! Verificate, quindi, che il vostro terrazzo disponga una posizione ben soleggiata.