Miscellanea

Growing seedlings

Growing seedlings


I grow petunia both outdoors and in balcony boxes on the veranda. Usually I sow these flowers during February, but it is not too late to sow them in March: although the petunia will bloom a little later, it will delight you until the frost.


Top dressing tomato seedlings at home

Experienced gardeners know how strongly the future harvest depends on the viability of the grown seedlings. Therefore, enough attention is paid to the question of how to water tomato seedlings so that they are strong. Today we will also get acquainted with the basic conditions for obtaining healthy and high-quality seedlings.


What flowers to plant for seedlings in April: a catalog with names and photos

There are many charming flower crops to be planted this month. And in the summer they will delight you with a completely charming bloom. At the same time, they will bloom a little earlier than when sowing in open ground, in addition, when planting seedlings in the garden, you can plant plants according to the correct scheme, create interesting and beautiful compositions. What can be planted for seedlings in April? Consider a list of flower crops with names and photos.

Zinnia

The most popular variety of culture is Zinnia graceful. The annual is both brightly beautiful and easy to care for, resistant to heat and drought. Blooms from July to late autumn.

This article tells about the cultivation of zinnia seedlings.

Annual dahlias

Annual dahlias are distinguished by large inflorescences and colorful colors. They are planted through the seeds as an annual crop, but you can dig up the tubers in the fall and plant them in the spring next year. Here you will learn about planting and growing annual dahlias at home.

Statice

Statica (other names Kermek, Limonium) is a perennial culture, but in our country it is often grown as an annual. The statice is very resistant to the external environment, drought, heat.

Before sowing statice, it is necessary to scarify the seeds (due to their dense shell, they do not germinate well). Alternatively, you can lightly sand the seeds with a nail file or sandpaper. After scarification, it is advisable to soak them in a growth stimulator. After processing, you need to sow them in separate cups, sprinkle with earth on top with a layer of 0.3 cm.

Marigold

Marigolds (or Tagetes) are amazing flowers with cheerful beauty and phytoncidal, insecticidal properties that repel pests and slow down the reproduction of pathogens.

This article describes how to plant and grow annual marigolds through seedlings.

Ageratum

Ageratum is distinguished by bright and rich flowering throughout the summer (up to October). A wonderful highlight of an annual is its fluffy spherical inflorescences.

It is best to plant a crop at the very beginning of April, this material tells how to plant seeds.

Aquilegia

Charming perennial aquilegia (the second name is Vodosbor) practically does not need care. It differs from the rest of the crops in this catalog in that it prefers shady and damp areas in the garden. You can easily sow a crop in the first half of April, but the seeds need preliminary stratification (keep them in a refrigerator in a damp cloth for about a month).

This article talks about growing aquilegia seedlings.

Amaranth

Amaranth has a unique, very original beauty. At the same time, it is very simple to grow an annual plant; it does not require particularly complex agricultural cultivation techniques.

In general, the crop is planted during March, but you can do this in early April. Here's how to plant and grow amaranth from seeds at home.

Cochia (Summer Cypress)

Cochia (the second name is Summer Cypress) - the culture is slightly different from other representatives on this list. Indeed, despite the fact that the culture blooms (but very inconspicuous and imperceptible), summer cypress is grown as an ornamental deciduous annual plant. And kochii can also be planted for seedlings in the first half of April, here is how to do it.

Venidium

Venidium is very decorative thanks to its large and bright inflorescences. For sowing, a common wide and low bowl is used, grooves with a depth of 5 mm are made on the surface of the earth, the gap between them is 5 cm, the seeds are planted at a distance of 3 cm.The top is covered with soil with a layer of 0.5 cm.

Scabious

Scabiosa has an interesting, graceful flowering. We grow it as an annual, although it is a perennial.

It is better to plant a crop in early April. Sowing is done in a common box, the seeds are sown on the surface of the substrate, and then they should be sprinkled with earth with a layer of 3 millimeters.

Celosia

Annual celosia has a very beautiful, graceful, original flowering, reminiscent of a flame of fire. Inflorescences can have a variety of shades.

Here you will learn about the rules for sowing cellosis seeds and growing seedlings.

Morning glory

Ipomoea is a fast-growing climbing annual. Ideal for vertical garden landscaping.

It is optimal to plant a crop at the beginning of the month immediately in separate cups. Sow to a depth of 1 cm. But before planting, it is recommended to soak the seeds in a growth stimulator (according to the instructions) or just water for 24 hours.

Sweet peas

Sweet pea not only has a beautiful bloom, but also a pleasant, sweet aroma. In open ground, it needs support. April is the perfect time to plant a culture.

This article talks about growing sweet pea seedlings.

Gazania

Annual gazania (gatsania) has an interesting feature - it has large inflorescences and a small height. Better to hurry up and sow the crop at the very beginning of April.

This material tells about how to plant and grow gazania at home.

Godezia

Annual godetia pleases with long flowering and bright, colorful inflorescences.

The process of growing godetia seedlings is described here.

Ornamental cabbage

Ornamental cabbage surprises with its delicate, lush beauty in late autumn, when the whole garden has already lost its decorative effect.

Ornamental cabbage is planted in the first half of April. This article tells about the planting of culture.

Scented tobacco

Fragrant tobacco is grown as a fragrant plant because of its spicy, delicate, sweet aroma that unfolds in the evening and at night.

It is better to sow scented tobacco at the very beginning of April, here is how to do it.

Purslane

Ornamental purslane refers to a vibrant ground cover annual plant. It is completely unpretentious, resistant to drought, heat, grows well in poor soil.

This article describes the process of growing purslane at home.

Calendula

Calendula can not only decorate your garden, but also scare away pests.

Here you will find detailed information on sowing calendula.

Kosmeya

Cosmeya can be called one of the most unpretentious cultures. An annual flower is able to please with colorful flowering throughout the summer.

This material describes how to plant a cosmea at home.

Large-flowered flax

The decorative large-flowered flax is grown as an annual and is incredibly graceful. As a rule, they are immediately planted in the ground due to the peculiarities of the root system. However, in some cases, you can plant the crop at home.

Here you will learn about growing large-flowered flax at home.

Lupine

Lupine is a perennial unpretentious culture. The perennial is loved by many gardeners because of its watercolor inflorescences.

Here's how to properly sow lupines and grow seedlings.

Iberis

Iebris (the second name Iberijka) is an elegant ground cover annual plant. The culture is unpretentious, resistant to drought, diseases, pests. Looks great as a curb plant.

Here is information on growing Iberis seedlings.

Aster

In April, both annual asters and perennial asters can be planted. The wonderful flower has many species that have their own unique features. And also inflorescences can have a variety of colors.
Here it is told about growing asters through seedlings.


Growing tomato seedlings at home

The name of this culture was given by the Aztecs. They inhabited the American continent, occupying the lands of modern Mexico. Descendants of the Aztecs still live there. Tomatoes are also found to this day. It's not about cultivated plants, but about wild forms of tomatoes.

The Aztecs found them in the rainforests, domesticated them and "passed on" them to the French. The latter remade the Indian "tomato" on the "tomato", and the Russians dropped the last letter "e".

The plant became a tomato thanks to the Italians. In their language, the popular name of the culture is translated as "golden apple". We will learn how to grow his seedlings.

Selection and preparation of tomato seeds

The choice of seed begins with an inspection of the store packaging. They must have an expiration date. It is counted from the date of packaging, which is also reflected on the pack. Expired seeds and those whose storage is already running out, less germination.

Indicators of the latter are also printed on packages. For fresh seeds, 80-90% is considered the norm. 100% in the "germination" column should alert you. There is no such survival rate. A number less than 80% indicates the need to overuse seeds, and therefore overpay for them.

It is indicated on the packages with tomato seeds and the category of the variety. The F1 lettering confirms the hybrid origin. It consists in crossing different varieties.

Breeders are waiting for the combination of the advantages of two parent plants in one plant. However, these advantages are clearly manifested only in the first generation. It makes no sense to take seeds with the words "F2", "F3" and so on, and they are not sold.

The common advantages of hybrid varieties include disease resistance. For tomatoes, 20 ailments are typical, including mosaic, bacteriosis, macrosporiosis, late blight, stem necrosis, and leaf edema.

Tomatoes also suffer from chloratic curliness of greens, brown rot and cladosporia, that is, brown spots on the plant. In general, it makes sense to dwell on hybrids, closing your eyes to the fact that you cannot use their seeds.

Pictured are tomato seeds

When examining the package with seeds, pay attention to the indication of the batch number, GOST. Not superfluous, as well, information about the manufacturer. The packages contain the legal address and contacts of the supplier. If his name is known from previous landings and has not been overshadowed, it is logical to choose a product from a reputable manufacturer.

If possible, inspect the seeds, pay attention to the aroma. In tomatoes, it is characteristic, it is also present in grains, if they are fresh. The quality of the product is also indicated by the large size of the grains.

They testify that the seeds were taken from large and juicy fruits. The seed must not be wrinkled. This, like human wrinkles, is a sign of old age, dehydration.

Manganese treatment of tomato seeds before planting

Having chosen the seeds, they are prepared for planting. Pre-treatment enhances varietal properties, makes the plant stronger. There are several preparation schemes. Their simultaneous use has the opposite effect.

Therefore, we choose one method, for example, treatment with a solution of potassium permanganate. One percent is enough. Tomato seeds are kept in it for about half an hour. This disinfects the grains, because fungi spores and other infectious agents can "sit" on them.

After holding in a solution of potassium permanganate, the seeds are washed with warm water and placed between layers of moist matter. Water gives the grains strength for swelling and germination. This takes 3-5 days. The fabric is periodically moistened. After several days, well-swollen, and possibly root-bearing grains are selected.

The method with potassium permanganate is reputed to be folk. Less commonly, the method of heat treatment is used. The seeds are heated to 50 degrees, keeping the heat for 25 minutes. Then, the grains are dipped in cold water.

This hardens the seed and activates internal resources. It remains for 18 hours to place the grains in the Epin solution. Its temperature should be room temperature.

For 100 milliliters of water, take 2 drops of the drug. This is where they start growing tomato seedlings at home... Before preparing the seeds, only the selection of the soil. Let's talk about him.

Soil preparation for growing tomato seedlings

"Recipes" of soil mixtures for tomato seedlings are united by the presence of humus, sod land, peat. This is a required program. River sand and stale sawdust are optional.

Peat is ventilated. There should be 3 parts in the soil for tomatoes. Humus accounts for 2 parts. They are taken from a heap, which is from 3 years old. Sod land is removed from areas where perennial grasses settled several years ago. You can look into the forest by taking soil from its canopy. It serves as a sod substitute.

A glass of ash, a tablespoon of superphosphate and tea urea or ammonium nitrate must be added to the main mixture. The calculation is carried out for a 10-liter bucket of soil.

But, in the secrets of growing tomato seedlings at home also includes soil freezing. Can be kept in the refrigerator for several days. But, rather, to stretch the process for 8 weeks.

They are divided into cycles of 2 weeks outside and 2 at home. Variable temperatures contribute to the decontamination of the earth. Only freezing, especially short-term, does not always kill all microorganisms.

Another result of heat treatment is the death of weed seeds. Otherwise, technology for growing tomato seedlings at home will require weeding shoots.

Gardeners prefer to compose and process the soil on their own, not trusting mixtures from stores. However, in the absence of the opportunity to make a substrate, they buy it. For example, "Special No. 1" has recommended itself. It is collected in a bucket, adding about 3 handfuls of dressings for nightshades, for example, "Agrovit-Koru" or "Piksy".

If you have stale sawdust and vermicompost at hand, you can add “Gardener” soil to them. His line includes a substrate for tomatoes. Sawdust and vermicompost will bring it to perfection. The same is done with "Krepysh", "Flora", "Uralts" and "Ogorodnik".

Whatever the mixture for tomato seedlings, it is advisable to prepare it at least 10 days before sowing. This will allow useful microflora to develop in the soil. Store substrates, like homemade ones, are disinfected. Sterile earth, like the esophagus after taking antibiotics. You have to drink Linex with beneficial bacteria.

Exists unusual growing tomato seedlings at home... They do without soil. The method is called a roll-up. Take plastic tape and toilet paper.

We spread the last one on the first one and spray it. We put the seeds on the paper, keeping a distance of 4-5 centimeters between them. We retreat 1.5 centimeters from the edge.

We wrap the roll and place it on the edge in a plastic tray, filling it 4 centimeters with water. Soon, sprouts will break out of the folds of the roll. They are given a weak solution of mineral dressing.

After the first true leaf, the seedlings are dived and unrolled. The sprouts are cut along with the paper and transferred to open ground or a greenhouse.

Planting tomatoes

Growing tall tomato seedlings at home, like miniatures, requires a certain inventory. We stock up with a sprayer, napkins, a plate, plastic cups, a bucket. You also need transparent bags, pebbles, warm water, seeds and potting soil.

Instead of cups, they often take special pots and containers for seedlings. They are sold at gardening stores. Preferred plastic containers. They are simply disinfected, washed, transported.Drainage holes at the bottom of the pots are required. It's easy to make them yourself.

The seed planting itself is divided into 7 points. The first is to cover the drainage. This is half a centimeter at the bottom of a glass or pot. In the role of drainage - small stones. Sometimes, they are replaced with eggshells. The interlayer provides air exchange in the container.

The second stage of planting tomatoes is filling the cup with soil and watering it abundantly with warm water. After that, make 1-2-centimeter holes and put 2-3 seeds in each. They and the surrounding land are abundantly sprayed. The water compacts the soil, preventing the seeds from sinking deeply. Otherwise, they will not rise.

It remains to sprinkle the seed, spray the soil again and cover the cups with foil. In this form, the planting is left in a warm room. Temperature for growing tomato seedlings at home varies from 20 to 28 degrees. Up to 25 Celsius, seedlings are expected for about a week. From 25 to 28 degrees - conditions for a 3-4-day germination of tomatoes.

Without hardening and soaking the seeds, the germination period is delayed by 4-6 days. As a result, sprouts may appear only 14 days after planting. Having waited for the greens, we accustom ourselves to caring for it.

Care of tomato seedlings

Growing cherry tomato seedlings at home, like large-fruited tomatoes, is carried out under active lighting. Culture doesn't like shade. When planted early, it is avoided by artificial lighting.

The temperature regime for tomatoes drops below 20 degrees only in the first days after pecking out of the ground. We need 15-16 degrees. If you leave them for more than 5 days, the seedlings will begin to stretch. 20-25 degrees and abundant light guarantee compact shrubs.

Tomatoes are watered once a week. The first portion of moisture is given 5 days after germination of the seeds. The water is defended by bringing it to room temperature. On the 25th day after germination, tomato seedlings are fed. Both mineral and organic fertilizers are suitable. Before planting, feeding is repeated, but only for weak shoots.

Transplanting tomato seedlings into open ground

Tomato seedlings are transferred to open ground when the sprouts reach 25 centimeters. We are guided by the 40-57th day after landing. By this time, 6-8 leaves, and sometimes one inflorescence, are developing.

A couple of weeks before its formation, the seedlings begin to be taken out into the fresh air, or the room should be ventilated for 2-3 hours a day. The drop in temperature hardens the tomatoes, preparing them for the future in the garden.

On the day of transplanting tomatoes, they are abundantly watered and sprayed with a solution of boric acid. It is diluted in hot water. A teaspoon of acid is taken per liter. Spraying is carried out a couple of days before planting in open ground. If the average daily temperatures are below + 12 degrees, it is better to keep the plants at home.


What can you advise to reduce the cost of the process of obtaining seedlings?

First, plants need to be given as much light as they need during a certain period of growth. Secondly, you should know some of the intricacies of growing each crop.

So, to obtain vegetative mass (lettuce, onions, aromatic crops), less light is needed than for growing edible fruits (tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers).

Thirdly, the plants should be as close to the window as possible, to the light. Sills with a south and southwest orientation are best suited.

The main factor good growth of seedlings are the optimal sowing time. From a practical point of view, it is not necessary to start sowing before February.

Indeed, in December the length of the day is slightly more than 7 hours, and in early February - already 9. And the weather is clearer. On sunny days, it is not worthwhile to light up the seedlings for more than 1-2 hours.

On the window sill of the apartment temperature conditions are often very unfavorable for plants. It blows cold from the window, and hot and dry air comes from the central heating batteries. On fine days, overheating of plants can occur, and at night and in cloudy weather, there is a lack of heat.

To prevent cold air from entering young seedlings, it is necessary to carefully seal the windows. This is usually done at the beginning of winter with general insulation of the apartment. The effect of air flow from radiators can be reduced by fixing a transparent plexiglass partition along the edge of the window sill.

Dry air in an apartment is also a serious problem when growing seedlings. Spraying the plants regularly, installing trays of water and hanging wet towels will increase the humidity, but it is better to make a greenhouse by fencing the window sill from the room space with foil.

At elevated air temperatures, the soil quickly dries up. Often, when using plastic cups, the soil shrinks, and voids form between it and the walls. When watering, the water flows out quickly, so if there is no pallet, the seedlings will wither.

To prevent this from happening, it is better to pour river sand, gravel or other drainage on the bottom of the container than to pierce holes. Well-known methods help well against rapid drying: mulching the soil surface after watering with a thin layer of sand, peat, dried tea leaves, as well as loosening the top layer of the soil.

Recently, the cassette technology of growing seedlings has been widely introduced in industrial vegetable growing. Its use allows you not to use a pick. Thanks to this, seeds are sparingly consumed, plants develop evenly.

They are planted in a permanent place along with a lump of earth, so the root system is not injured, plants are less affected by diseases, better adapt to adverse weather conditions, take root well and do not spend energy on restoring the root system. As a result, you can get earlier products.

There are four types of plastic cassettes with a cell volume of 18, 26, 65 and 144 cm. In industrial vegetable growing, they are placed in greenhouses on special pallets or on plastic wrap. At the bottom of each cassette there is a hole through which excess water flows out after watering.

At home, cassettes cause some inconvenience, especially when placed on a windowsill. In addition, vegetable growers are not satisfied with the additional cash costs for their purchase.

Therefore, they try to use cups of sour cream and yoghurt, tetra packets of milk and juices. When using cups, two germinated seeds are sown in each of them.

Subsequently, the weaker plant is removed. Lightweight plastic makes it easy to provide drainage, for this, the bottom is pre-pierced.

In personal containers, when the time comes, the plants are taken to the dacha or taken out to the garden and planted directly from the “native” land on the garden bed. At the same time, the roots practically do not suffer, which is very important for seedlings of pumpkin crops (pumpkin, zucchini, squash, cucumber, etc.), which can hardly tolerate a transplant.

Tetra packets for juices and dairy products are also quite suitable. When using them, you need to carefully cut off one side of the bag so that the lid through which the juice is poured is at the bottom and serves as a drainage hole.

These sturdy, reliable small containers fit on any windowsill. But it is undesirable to use containers from transparent plastic bottles. The root system of plants should be in the dark, then it develops better and algae do not form on the roots.

When using non-standard containers for growing seedlings at home, you have to take into account the area of ​​the window sill. It is not limitless, so many plants will not fit there.

The use of small containers will lead to their underdevelopment and deterioration in the quality of seedlings. Therefore, when choosing containers, you should take into account the number of days during which the seedlings will be grown.

I want to note that there is a tendency in industrial vegetable growing to use mini-seedlings aged from 15 to 25-30 days, which gives a significant increase in yield. Therefore, it is not advisable to overexpose plants.


The seeds of this crop are too small. Their number in packages is different. It all depends on the variety of strawberries, as well as on the production costs of producing seeds.

Depending on the climatic region in which the site is located, there are periods for the preparation and planting of strawberry seeds. In addition, due to serious climate changes in the last decade, it is better to take into account the experience of experienced gardeners.

  • On the Kuban they begin to sow strawberry seeds in the last decade of February or in the first decade of March.
  • Gardeners middle band of the Russian Federation start sowing seeds in early - mid-February.
  • IN Siberia - in the first ten days of February.

Some gardeners sow seeds at the end of January. In this case, the seedlings will get stronger by the time they are planted in a permanent place.

The most serious problem with planting seeds during the winter months is the lack of daylight. For this reason, many sprouts do not survive or develop poorly. Young shoots need daylight for 10-12 hours. Therefore, additional lighting is created for them, which should not overheat the seedlings. The lamps are turned off at night.

Important! 30-45 days before sowing seeds, it is necessary to carry out stratification.


How and when to dive kohija seedlings

The timing of the picking of kochia seedlings should be chosen based on the appearance of the seedlings. If you see that they have two or three real leaves, then you should start the procedure.

You need to plant each plant in separate containers (cups, pots). The material can be made of plastic, peat. The optimal container diameter is 7-10 cm.

When picking, each seedling must be very carefully removed without damaging the roots. And transfer to the hole in a new container, carefully plant so that the roots do not bend, deepen to the cotyledon leaves, cover with earth and shed well.

Advice! The first two to three days after the pick, it is recommended to shade the seedlings from direct sunlight.


Varieties and hybrids of eggplant

Early ripe eggplants

  • Bibo F1 (87-93 days)
  • Black handsome (60 days)
  • Fabina F1 (40-50 days)
  • Mileda F1 (66-75 days).

Early eggplants

  • Alekseevsky (from germination to harvesting 90-100 days)
  • Valentine F1 (90-95 days)
  • Hippo F1 (100-105 days)
  • Quartet (107-122 days)
  • Maxik F1 (90-100 days)
  • Nancy F1 (75-85 days)
  • Lilac haze (102-105 days)
  • Purple miracle (95-100 days).

Medium eggplants

  • Diamond (109-150 days)
  • Comet (118-125 days)
  • Swan (100-130 days)
  • Sailor (104-110 days)
  • Surprise (116-120 days)
  • Ping Pong F1 (116-117 days)
  • Pelican F1 (116-117 days).

Late eggplants

Early ripe and early eggplants can be grown through seedlings in the northern regions of Russia. When creating the appropriate conditions for protected ground. Medium and especially late ones are suitable only for the southern regions and temperate zones of the Russian Federation. When choosing planting material, select zoned varieties and hybrids. They are close to the climatic conditions of the region, the longitude of daylight, and are more resistant to damage from diseases and pests.

Attention! As usual, we ask you to write about your methods and tricks of growing eggplant seedlings in the comments to this article. Please, do not forget to indicate in which region you grow them and in what time frame you carry out sowing and planting on a permanent basis. Thank you!


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