Potato Salute - fireworks of taste
There is no vegetable garden without potatoes. As you know, this is our second bread. And how many varied dishes our hostesses can prepare from this tasty and healthy product. We are used to the white or yellowish color of potato roots. But it turns out that they are red, blue, and purple ...
Brief historical background
Mankind first discovered potatoes in South America, in today's Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador. On the slopes of the Andes, sometimes at an altitude of more than a kilometer above sea level, you can still find wild potatoes of different varieties and with different colors of root crops. The ancient Indians knew this plant well and ate it. Scientists suggest that the Indians could breed and cross varieties of potatoes. Europe became acquainted with the vegetable in the middle of the 16th century, thanks to Spanish travelers. Europeans began to grow an exotic plant as an ornamental plant, not suitable for food because of its toxicity.
Botanical scientists described the potato in their writings and gave it the scientific name that is still used today - Solanum tuberosum - Tuberous nightshade.
Potatoes belong to the nightshade family
The tsar-father Peter I brought a sack of potato tubers to Russia with his own hand. It was not immediately that the Russian people accepted the "earthen apple". Because of the cases of poisoning with solanine when eating the fruit, potatoes were called "devil's apple" and they refused to grow in gardens.
Solanine is a poisonous glycoside found in all parts of potatoes - leaves, stems, roots, and most of all in berries. This organic compound is produced by exposure to sunlight. In large doses it is toxic to humans, in small doses it is harmless. The green color of some tubers betrays the presence of solanine in them. It is better not to eat them.
Gradually, potatoes, thanks to their taste and nutritional value, were appreciated by the people and became widespread. When crop failures occurred, potatoes became for many a salvation from starvation.
New varieties of potatoes for seed propagation
Nowadays, breeders biologists are developing new varieties of potatoes that would be high-yielding and not susceptible to numerous diseases, such as late blight, scab, potato cancer, fusarium, brown rot, etc. In solving this problem, the seed method of reproduction has become effective. Special varieties have been developed for this method.
Multicolored potatoes are exotic looking and very healthy
General characteristics of varieties of colorful potatoes
The tubers of these varieties are distinguished by their color. We are used to the fact that potatoes have white or pink peels. And the pulp of root vegetables is white or yellowish. In new varieties for seed propagation, both the skin and the flesh can be of different colors, from white to dark purple.
For gardeners, colored potatoes are still quite exotic. The unusual color of the pulp of tubers in some people causes mistrust and suspicion that this is a genetically modified product. In fact, multi-colored potatoes were not bred by geneticists, but by breeders in the process of a long and difficult work on crossing wild varieties with initially different pigmentation. Scientists have found that plant pigments that color tubers in unusual colors are carotenoids, which are antioxidants. And the more these pigments in potatoes, the more useful it is for our health. Therefore, the daily consumption of colorful potatoes is beneficial to everyone, without exception.
Antioxidants are substances that can neutralize the oxidative effect of free radicals entering the human body from the outside. Free radical molecules attack healthy cells of all organs and systems, disrupting their normal vital activity, which leads to many diseases and premature aging of the body. Therefore, antioxidants are essential for human health and must be present in the diet in sufficient quantities. The main groups of antioxidants include vitamins, minerals, and carotenoids.
Today in the world there are already many varieties of potatoes of different shades. Most of them are varieties bred abroad. But there are also domestic developments. They are engaged in by breeders of the Research Institute of Plant Growing.
Foreign varieties of blue-violet color:
- Linzer Blaeu,
- Bora Valley,
- French truffle.
All Blue has a blue flesh.
- Red Wonder,
- Cranberry Red.
There are specimens that are completely yellow:
- Russian Banana,
- Swedish Peanut.
And many more different color options.
Salute potatoes are a mixture of table varieties with different colors of peel and pulp
In addition to a beautiful, bright appearance, the tubers of these varieties are also remarkable for their excellent taste. It is richer than regular potatoes. The multicolored tubers are suitable for any culinary dish, whether traditional borscht or vinaigrette, or any embodiment of your creativity. Agree, blue or purple mashed potatoes, cubes of red or blue potatoes in a salad are original and very effective. And multi-colored potato chips are fireworks on your table!
Multi-colored potatoes have a rich flavor
The starch content in colored potatoes is less than in ordinary white ones, and there is more vitamin C, half the daily requirement for humans. Therefore, even people with diabetes can and should eat such potatoes.
Scientists also advise eating the tubers of red and purple potatoes raw. For example, grate washed and peeled potatoes or cut into small strips, hold them for a little in salted water, then drain the water, and add fruit sauce to the straws. Such a salad is a storehouse of nutrients. And doctors recommend taking freshly squeezed potato juice as a medicine for hypertension, to improve visual acuity, to prevent atherosclerosis.
What is potato Salute
Salute is not a separately created variety, but a mixture of some table varieties of multi-colored potatoes. The peel and flesh of these tubers showcases the entire palette of color shades from white to dark purple. In terms of ripening, Salute belongs to mid-season varieties. If you plant seeds in April, then you can harvest the crop in late August - early September.
The bushes of the plant are semi-erect, of medium height. Flowers, like tubers, will also delight you with fireworks of colors. Root crops are oval, elongated, with a smooth skin and small eyes can reach a weight of 130 grams. The yield is about 5 kg per square meter. The seeds are resistant to potato cancer and some fungal diseases.
It should be noted that the size of tubers and their number in a bush depends not only on the genetic data of the variety incorporated in it during selection, but also, to a large extent, on the growing conditions of the crop. Only with the observance of the technology of planting seeds and competent care for the seedlings can you count on the fact that the plant will develop correctly and will thank you with a plentiful and healthy harvest!
Salute potato seeds can be grown in almost any region of our country. Just when sowing, you need to take into account the climatic conditions of each zone. In the southern regions, sowing can begin at the end of February, and in the northern regions - not earlier than April. The cultivation technology remains unchanged.
Video: diet colored potatoes
A quick guide to growing potatoes from seed
We have long learned to grow our seedlings of tomatoes, cucumbers, bell peppers and many other vegetables on a regular windowsill. But seed potato seedlings are still a novelty for most amateur gardeners.
Features of reproduction of potatoes
The most common, well-known method of growing potatoes is vegetative, that is, planting tubers. But with this method, the quality and quantity of the crop decreases every year, and diseases, on the contrary, affect our potatoes more and more. This is because it does not take into account which generation of tubers are used for planting.
Potato reproduction scheme is as follows:
- 1st year - seeds are sown, from which mini-tubers about 10 grams in weight are obtained;
- 2nd year - mini-tubers are planted, from which already good, large, healthy roots grow (this is the first reproduction of potatoes);
- 3rd year - from the best tubers of the previous harvest, an excellent harvest also grows, which can be called elite (this is the second reproduction of potatoes);
- 4th year - the same as the third, the harvest is of excellent quality (third reproduction);
- 5th year - the quality of the resulting crop is slightly reduced;
- 6th year - the harvest is satisfactory, but in comparison with the second, third years, the deterioration of quality characteristics is noticeable;
- 7th year - 50% of varietal traits are lost, taste and yield are significantly reduced.
In subsequent years, the degeneration of this variety occurs, the tubers become smaller, and the susceptibility to various diseases increases. Naturally, the yield of such potatoes cannot be called satisfactory.
It turns out that if you want to grow a decent harvest of tasty healthy potatoes, you need to plant tubers of the third or fourth year of reproduction. And how to find out when buying planting material on the market? There is a way out: plant seeds and manage potato reproduction on your own.
Potato seeds are similar to tomato and pepper seeds. all these plants belong to the nightshade family
Let's take a closer look at all the pros and cons of this method.
Advantages and disadvantages of the seed propagation method
Benefits of seed propagation:
- Before entering the trading network, the seeds undergo careful selection and special processing, as a result of which they become as if sterile, disinfected from viruses and bacteria. Moreover, this initial planting material is immune to disease.
- Seed germination lasts for 5-6 years.
- The seeds adapt well to environmental conditions and climatic characteristics of different regions.
- Storage of seed material does not require a spacious storage in which it is necessary to maintain a certain temperature and humidity.
- Finally, they will cost you much less than elite tubers.
There is only one drawback of the seed method: growing seedlings will require a lot of effort and patience from you, because its root system is weak, the demand for lighting is increased, and the roots of the seedlings are very fragile.
Technology of growing potatoes from seeds
This technology is not too complicated, but it has its own subtleties and nuances.
Planting timing and soil preparation
In different regions, the time of sowing seeds for seedlings varies from the end of February (for the southern regions) to the beginning of April (for the middle zone and areas with a colder climate).
First of all, you need to prepare the soil substrate. It should be fairly loose, with good breathability. Therefore, we take four parts of peat and one part of sand for one part of the garden land. It is better to bake the sand in an oven or over a fire to avoid possible contamination of the seeds with any virus. It is good to add small amounts of sawdust and humus. This is one of the substrate options. You can also purchase ready-made potting potting mix specially made for seedlings from the store.
Some experienced gardeners recommend using sphagnum marsh moss if possible. The porous structure of sphagnum will provide soil breathability like no other organic matter.
Components for loose soil mixture - sphagnum and peat
Prepare the seeds before planting in the usual way. That is, we put them in a gauze bag, soak them in clean water at room temperature for two days, changing the water daily. If the seeds are placed in a refrigerator with a temperature of 1-3 ° C overnight, this hardening will help the plants to endure a decrease in ambient temperature in the future without harm to development.
Immediately before sowing seeds in a soil substrate, soak them for two hours in a solution of Baikal EM-1, Zircon, Ferovit or any other preparation with a similar effect. This measure will speed up the process of pecking seeds.
Planting seeds and care
- We fill boxes or peat pots with soil substrate, or just cups about 10 cm deep. Any container must have drainage holes in order to avoid stagnation of water in the roots and the formation of root rot.
- We moisten the soil and sow seeds to a depth of 0.5 cm with a distance of 3-5 cm between them.
Sow seeds at a distance of 3-5 cm from each other
- Cover our seeds with a substrate, sprinkle lightly with sand and tamp a little for better contact with the soil.
- We moisten with a spray bottle, cover with foil or glass and place in a warm place where the temperature is 18–22 ° C and there are no drafts.
The container with the sown seeds must be covered with a foil to maintain the desired microclimate
If these conditions are met, the seedlings will delight us with friendly seedlings on the 8-10th day. Next, you need to ensure that the soil is always moderately moist (water temperature for irrigation 20-25 ° C), and also provide the seedlings with the longest possible daylight hours. In cloudy weather, you will have to artificially illuminate the room.
Potato seedlings emerge 8-10 days after planting
1-2 times a week we spray potato seedlings with a solution of Baikal EM-1, EPIN, Kemira-lux, Agricola (at choice). We use the same preparations for root feeding once a week.
If the seeds were sown immediately in spacious pots, then we will not touch the seedlings until they are planted in open ground. And if we put them in boxes, where there is not enough space and nutrients for them to develop, then after 2-3 weeks we make a pick, that is, we transplant them into separate pots with the same soil composition, deepening each root by cotyledon leaves.
After 2-3 weeks, you need to pick the seedlings
The picking process, of course, is quite time consuming and will take a lot of time. But when transplanting seedlings, the central root is inevitably shortened, which makes it possible for the lateral processes to develop better and eventually turn into a strong root system.
After picking, we continue to care for the seedlings in the same mode, that is, we water them with warm water, loosen the soil and remove weeds. It is good to feed the plants with urea or any complex fertilizer a couple of times during the distillation period. And when the above-zero temperature is established outside the window, we will take our seedlings out into the open air for hardening. First, we will hold it in cool air for two hours, then every day we will gradually increase the hardening time, continuing this process until the seedlings are planted in open ground.
New life outdoors
When the threat of night frost on the soil has passed, and the daytime temperature rises to 10 ° C, you can safely transplant potato seedlings into open ground.
- We carefully dig up the beds in advance, cleanse the roots of weeds, loosen them with a rake, and also add humus, river sand, peat (remembering that the root system of potatoes requires the most loose soil).
- We dig holes with a depth of at least 10 centimeters according to the scheme 70 x 35.
- We immerse the plants in them, leaving only 2–4 upper leaves on the surface, water abundantly, mulch.Young seedlings, until they are sufficiently rooted, need to be watered more often, and also protected from direct sunlight and possible frost.
Further care is no different from caring for potatoes, which are grown by tubers. Timely watering, hilling as the stems grow, processing from the Colorado potato beetle, weeding, feeding with complex fertilizers or a mixture of humus, ash and sand with the addition of a pinch of superphosphate.
In August-September, you can start digging the finished crop. The nodules will grow small, but healthy. And next year, planting them according to the usual technology for any potato, we will get an excellent harvest of colorful, beautiful and tasty potatoes.
Reviews of colored potatoes
I would like to wish all lovers of gardening work not to spare the time and effort for growing not only tasty, but also unusually beautiful potatoes from the seeds of the Salute mixture. All labor costs will pay off with a decent harvest and incomparable joy of creativity. After all, any plant breeder is a creator, akin to an artist or a musician. And each plant nurtured by your own hands is a masterpiece, a small miracle in the small world of your own garden or vegetable garden.
Raspberry Patricia: description of the variety, pruning after flowering and features of growing on a trellis
Raspberries are a symbol of sweet life. And the Patricia raspberry variety is a direct proof of this. Large and sweet berries will not leave anyone indifferent. In addition, the variety has won fans due to its high winter hardiness and resistance to many diseases. And it is much easier to care for Patricia than for remontant varieties, although this raspberry has been bearing fruit for more than 2 months.
To get a high-quality and large harvest, it is necessary to properly prepare the planting material.
Note! Many gardeners choose large tubers for planting, weighing from 100 grams. This allows you to get a large yield, but at the same time the consumption of tubers significantly increases, which requires additional costs for the purchase of seed material or for its storage. Therefore, it is much more efficient to plant tubers weighing from 50 to 100 grams.
If, when planting, large clubhouses are cut, then it is necessary to ensure that there are at least three eyes on each part placed in the hole.
Therefore, it is much more efficient to plant tubers weighing from 50 to 100 grams. If, when planting, large clubhouses are cut, then it is necessary to ensure that there are at least three eyes on each part placed in the hole.
It is also recommended to sprout this potato variety. To do this, it is taken out of storage in 35-40 days and placed in a warm room with a constant temperature of 12 to 17 degrees Celsius.
Important! When preparing planting material using germination, attention should be paid to the lighting in the room. If there is not enough light, the shoots can be long and white, which will not give a significant yield. Excessive light can lead to drying of the sprouts, which will also negatively affect the harvest.
Excessive light can lead to drying of the sprouts, which will also negatively affect the harvest.
Excessive light can dry out the sprouts, which will also negatively affect the yield.
Unforgettable about moderate watering
In the process of germination, it is recommended to periodically (at least once a week) turn the seeds over, so they are placed at this time in bulk on racks. In addition, this storage method for the period of preparation for planting allows the seeds to be treated with growth stimulants and mineral fertilizers. Resistance to pests and diseases will be added by treatment during germination of high-quality potatoes with a weak solution of copper sulfate.
Additional Information. Some gardeners use wet germination. To do this, the tubers are placed in special boxes and sprinkled with wet sawdust or peat. This method of preparing potatoes for planting reduces germination time, and the tubers themselves retain most of the nutrients inside, which ensures a higher yield.
For planting potatoes, the miner should choose an area well-lit by the sun. Like other varieties of this culture, the Miner does not like excess moisture, therefore, if the groundwater is close, it is better to plant the plant on higher elevations. Site preparation begins in the fall. It is dug up, all weeds are removed. If the soil on the site is characterized by high acidity, then lime or dolomite flour should be added to it. In the spring, it is necessary to re-dig the area and apply fertilizers: humus or peat (if necessary).
The optimal time to plant high-quality potatoes Gornyak is considered the end of April - the beginning of May, since it belongs to the category of mid-season varieties. To be sure that the planting time has come, it is recommended to measure the soil temperature at the depth of the shovel bayonet (12-15 centimeters). As soon as it is 7-8 degrees Celsius, then the seeds can be laid in the ground.
Potato care is quite simple. First, it is necessary to periodically loosen the soil with a rake and remove weeds. This makes it easier for the first shoots to appear. As soon as the sprouts of the culture reach a height of 15-20 centimeters, they should be hilled in order to ensure the development of the root system and the formation of a large yield. Usually, the natural level of precipitation is sufficient for potatoes, but in case of drought, it is recommended to provide the plant with additional moisture in the amount of no more than 3 liters for each bush. Top dressing is carried out three times:
- The first is during the period of growing tops
- The second - as the buds form
- The third - during flowering and ovary formation.
Potato variety "Skarb" "All about potatoes
Variety of potatoes "Skarb" - mid-season table salad, type variety. Bred at the Belarusian Research Institute of Potato and Horticulture. The word "belongings" means belongings, Belarusian, but in the property language he has another treasure - meaning, wealth. Such a name was not given to the potato by accident - in the nest when digging, like gold nuggets, there are even oval tubers with yellow pulp and skin. Additional conditions: warming up and seed up to 5 mm germination of the material within 15 days before the shrub.
A bush of medium height, of the intermediate type. The leaf is medium-sized, open, green-dark. The leaf is medium in size. No or very little waviness on the edge. Corolla of medium size, white.
Tubers peel, oval yellow, smooth, small eyes, 150 weight – 200 g, up to 20 pieces per plant. The content is separate 13-17%.
In starch years, annular lesion is observed Resistant. rot to defeat wrinkled and striped mosaics, black leg, rhizoctonia, wet rot, viruses. The variety is distinguished by a long dormant period - therefore 120 - and is well stored for days. But sometimes “waking up” is not before. in a hurry planting tubers need to germinate well and warm up, otherwise they will be protracted and uneven. seedlings one feature - the tubers in no case should be cut: the growth of eyes immediately Except. stops, the tubers at the "Scarb" are formed on the surface close to and, so that they do not turn green, planting high it is necessary and several times per season to spud. peel Since "Scarba" ripens in the soil only after removal after the aboveground part, it is recommended to mow the tops two to three weeks before harvesting.
varieties yield. Excellent taste. damage Resistance to disease. Excellent storage performance.
To get a consistently high yield of strawberries, you need to know cultivation techniques.
Predecessors and neighbors in the garden
Strawberry NSD severely depletes the soil. When growing the Aromas variety in one place, it is impossible to achieve good yields, a crop rotation is necessary. The best predecessors for culture are:
- siderates (rapeseed, oats, phacelia, vetch, winter rye, buckwheat, lupine)
- greens (salad, celery, parsley)
- vegetable crops - carrots, beets, onions, garlic, radishes, radishes.
Bad predecessors for strawberries are berry crops prone to the same diseases: currants, raspberries and gooseberries. Plants that need a lot of nutrients are also not suitable. So, will be unusable:
- Jerusalem artichoke.
Well-chosen neighbors in the garden will help to avoid strawberry diseases, increase and save the harvest. Marigolds will scare off the nematode, parsley and other aromatic herbs - snails and slugs, legumes will enrich and loosen the soil, and onions and garlic will disinfect.
One of the main conditions for ensuring high and stable strawberry yields is timely soil preparation. Acidic soils with a pH below 5.5 need to be limed a year or two before planting the berry. 1-2 weeks before planting seedlings, the earth is dug to a depth of 20-25 cm, lumps are broken, the surface is leveled. Then organic and mineral fertilizers must be added. For 1 m 2 make:
- up to 10 kg of compost
- 0.5 l of wood ash
- 50–70 g superphosphate
- 20-30 g of potassium sulfate.
Planting and breeding
Growing strawberries Aromas has one significant drawback: the bushes age quickly. It is pointless to replant adult plants of the remontant variety, since they are short-lived even with very good care, so you need to renew the berry every 2-3 years.
Video: seedlings from seeds
Strawberry breeding methods:
- dividing the bush
- layering (mustache).
The easiest option is reproduction by layering. With sufficient watering, the whiskers grow throughout the summer, especially at the end of August when the temperature drops. You can plant seedlings throughout the season, starting in July. The beds must be mulched with straw, sawdust, agrofibre. Hay, moss, leaves and freshly cut grass must not be used.
After planting strawberry seedlings, for the first two weeks, daily watering is required (at least 0.5 liters per plant). Then it is necessary to water less often, it is enough every other day.
The compact size of the Aromas bush allows you to plant more plants
Planting on spunbond greatly facilitates the process of growing strawberries. Using this method, you can get the first harvest a week earlier and prevent the development of weeds.
Video: how to put agrofiber
Fertilizer is the most important condition for health, long life of bushes and high yields.
- The first nitrogen-type feeding is necessary in the spring, when young leaves appear. An excellent result is obtained by fertilization with mullein or chicken droppings: a bucket of concentrated mullein solution is diluted with water 4–6 times, chicken droppings - 8–10 times. Ten liters is enough for 10-15 strawberry bushes. From mineral fertilizers, you can take 20 g of ammonium nitrate or 10-15 g of ammonium nitrate and dilute in 10 liters of water.
- The next time it is necessary to feed the strawberries during flowering, during this period the berry is especially in need of nutrition.
Again, you can fertilize plants with organic matter: use Biohumus or ready-made complex fertilizers with microelements for strawberries and strawberries.
- In the future, it is necessary to regularly fertilize the plants, preferably every two weeks: 10-15 complex dressings per season with preparations containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and trace elements. It is good to combine root dressing with foliar. Spraying the leaves can be done in the evening or in cloudy weather with any complex fertilizer. The concentration of the solution should be 2-3 times less than when watering at the root.
- The last feeding with potassium-phosphorus and organic fertilizers is carried out in September, after harvesting berries, removing old leaves and treatment with drugs to protect against viral and fungal diseases.
The roots of strawberries are shallow, so the plants need to be watered regularly, especially abundantly in the first days after planting. Proper hydration greatly affects the flavor of the berries, the quality and quantity of the harvest.
Watering is also required during the ripening period of the crop: in dry, hot weather, the plants must be "watered" daily. Water consumption rate - 20-30 liters per 1 m 2. It is important not to "pour", otherwise the fruits will be sour, they can rot. With a lack of moisture, the taste of the berries deteriorates, the size decreases, the strawberry dries up.
Preparing for winter
In September, flowers and berries should be removed, old diseased leaves should be cut off, rows should be thinned and fertilized. Phosphorus and potassium help plants recover from fruiting and better prepare for the frosty winter. Potassium-phosphorus fertilizers remain in the soil for a long time - by spring, when the vegetative development of strawberries begins, good nutrition will be very useful. It is undesirable to apply nitrogen fertilizers in autumn, since the plants must stop growing before the onset of frost.
The beds must be mulched. It is useful to use compost and well-rotted manure as mulch. With the onset of frost in the northern regions, it is advisable to cover strawberries with spunbond or other covering material.
Diseases and pests
The Grushenka variety is striking in its ability to resist common gooseberry diseases, among which powdery mildew is most common. But failure to follow simple rules of care undermines the natural immunity of the plant. Then problems in the form of diseases and pests certainly cannot be avoided. Bushes growing in conditions of high humidity and heavily thickened are especially affected. In order to start treating gooseberries in a timely manner, you need to recognize the disease in time.
Table: diseases characteristic of the Grushenka variety
In case of significant damage, another one can be carried out 10 days after the third treatment.
Fitosporin is also used, using the drug strictly according to the instructions.