The flowering perennial plant marticaria (Matricaria), which is also called chamomile, is a member of the Asteraceae family. This genus unites about 20 species. The most popular among them is pharmacy chamomile, which is widely used for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Under natural conditions, this plant can be found in South Africa, Eurasia and America, while it was also introduced to Australia. Chamomiles are also called plants of other genera, similar to marticaria, belonging to the Astrov family, for example: umbilicus, gerbera, doronicum, feverfew, daisy and aster. The fact is that all these plants form inflorescences-baskets during flowering. For such a plant, the scientific name was derived from the Latin word, which means "uterus", this is due to the fact that chamomile has long been used to treat gynecological diseases. The Russian name was borrowed from the Polish language, while it is considered to be derived from the word romana translated as "Roman", this is due to the fact that in the 16th century marticaria was called the "Roman color".
Features of marticaria
Marticaria is a not very tall herbaceous perennial. The composition of the pinnately dissected leaf plates includes many small lobes. The scutes consist of hemispherical inflorescences-baskets, reaching 0.4–2 centimeters across. Such baskets are formed by bisexual tubular flowers of yellow color, which are collected in the middle in a disk, and also by pistillate false reed - they are painted white and frame the disk. The fruit is an achene. Such a culture has a not very strong, but specific smell, its pollination occurs at the expense of bees or wasps. Seed material remains viable for 3 years.
Matricaria unassuming but touching flower for the garden
Growing matricaria from seeds
Experts advise that decorative varieties of marticaria should be grown exclusively through seedlings. Sowing is carried out in March or April. To do this, the containers or boxes are filled with a loose, light, moist and nutritious soil mixture, on the surface of which seeds are distributed, while a distance of 20–30 mm must be kept between them. They are buried in the substrate only 10 mm. Moisten the crops with a spray bottle and cover them on top with glass (transparent film). Transfer containers to a bright and warm place. It is easy to take care of the crops, they need to be systematically ventilated, the accumulated condensate removed from the shelter and, if necessary, moisten the surface of the soil mixture.
Immediately after the first seedlings appear, the shelter is removed from the container, and it is moved to a cool place, because the plants will stretch out in the warmth. Seedlings also need to provide a large amount of bright light, but it must be diffused. The pick is carried out after the second true leaf plate begins to form in the plants. For picking, you can use individual cups or a larger box in which the bushes are planted in 40 mm increments.
Chamomile, Matricaria, Feverfew! Sowing without losses !!!
Planting the matrix in the ground
What time to plant
Before proceeding with transplanting marticaria seedlings into open soil, it should be hardened. This procedure is carried out half a month before planting plants in open ground, as a rule, this time falls on the first or second half of May. Seedlings can be transferred to the loggia and every day it should be ventilated, while the duration of such a procedure should be increased gradually. In the second half of May or early June, the bushes will be fully prepared for planting in open soil, which is carried out only after the threat of recurrent night frosts remains behind, and the ground warms up well and warm weather sets in.
To grow such a flower, you should choose a lighted open area with nutritious and well-drained soil. In general, the land on the site can be absolutely any, since marticaria grows everywhere, develops and reproduces by self-sowing very well. During planting, the plants are taken along with a lump of earth and placed in pre-prepared pits, the distance between which should be from 25 to 30 centimeters, thanks to which each bush will have a sufficient feeding area. As it grows, the bushes will start branching and, eventually, they will close. The planted plants must be well watered. After the liquid is absorbed into the soil, its surface will need to be covered with dry earth or compost. Transplanting seedlings tolerates very well.
Matricaria care in the garden
Even an inexperienced gardener can handle the cultivation of chamomile in his garden. The fact is that it is distinguished by its undemanding care and growing conditions. In order for the bushes to grow and develop within normal limits, they need to ensure timely watering, weeding, feeding and loosening the soil surface. In order for the bushes to retain their high decorative effect, it is necessary to cut off the flowers that have begun to fade in time. When the bushes have faded, take a sharp, sterilized tool and remove any broken or dried stems. And if you want to grow chamomile on your site as a perennial, then before the frosts come, you need to cut off the bushes completely, and then the site is covered with a layer of dry foliage, peat or sawdust, which is thrown on top of spruce branches.
How to properly water and feed
When watering such a culture, one must remember that it belongs to such plants that tolerate a short drought much easier than stagnant liquid in the root system. It is necessary to water the site systematically, especially during a long dry and hot period. For irrigation, warm water is used, and the procedure itself is carried out in the early morning or in the evening (not earlier than 16 hours).
The first time the bushes need to be fed after 15–20 days have passed from the moment they were planted in open soil. For this, you can use both organic matter and mineral complex fertilizers. Then the plants are fed regularly every 15–20 days. When the bushes have faded, fertilizers are stopped in the soil.
Matricaria pests and diseases
Such a plant is highly resistant to diseases and harmful insects. However, there may be problems with it. If it is grown in unfavorable conditions, then the likelihood of its defeat by diseases such as rust, gray rot, powdery mildew and fusarium increases. If a gray fluffy bloom is seen on the bushes, then they should be removed from the site as soon as possible and burned, since these plants are affected by gray rot, which is currently considered incurable. Healthy plants remaining on the site should be sprayed with a solution of a fungicidal preparation for prophylaxis. Other fungal diseases can be dealt with with a solution of Fundazol, Cuproxat, Oxychom, Topaz or other drugs of a similar effect. In order for chamomile to recover completely, it will need at least 2-3 treatments.
Aphids, wireworms, star-winged flies and thrips can also harm marticaria. For prevention purposes, make sure that there is no weed on the site, it is pulled out immediately after it appears. In the event that you nevertheless found pests on the plants, then spraying with such insectoacaricidal agents as: Karbofos, Actellik or Agraveritn will help to save them. These drugs are often used to combat arachnids and other harmful insects that have settled on both garden and indoor crops.
Also, the wireworm, which is the larva of the click beetle, can greatly harm the marticaria. It lives in the soil and can severely injure the root system of shrubs. Often, such pests can be found in an area that is located near a field with potatoes. To get rid of it, it is recommended to make special traps. To do this, in different places on the site, not very deep pits are made into which the bait is placed; as it is, you can use pieces of fresh beets, carrots or potatoes. From above, the trap should be covered with a piece of plywood, board or metal. After two or three days, check the trap; during this time, a fairly large amount of wireworm should slide down to the bait. Remove the pieces of vegetables and burn them along with the pests, and you can put fresh bait in their place if necessary.
Types and varieties of matrix with photos and names
As a rule, the most popular among gardeners are such representatives of the Astrov family as: popovnik, nivyanik, aster and gerbera. However, some types of marticaria are also quite often chosen to decorate gardens and flower beds.
Chamomile (Matricaria recutita)
Or chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), or peeled chamomile (Chamomilla recutila). This plant is a type species of the genus Marticaria. A not very tall bush has a weak specific aroma. Its root is tap and branched. An erect, highly branching single stem is hollow from the inside, it can reach a height of about 0.4 meters. Sedentary alternately located leaf plates have a double pinnately dissected shape, and they include pointed narrow-linear lobules. At the tops of the stems there are small single inflorescences-baskets, which include reed flowers of white color and tubular ones - yellow. Under natural conditions, such a flower prefers to grow on sandy soils. And in garden plots, it is planted along with wildflowers. Or for it, you can choose such a site, which will then be dug up.
Chamomile Chikhachev (Matricaria tchihatchewii)
This lush blooming look is highly decorative. In nature, it can be found in Asia Minor. The height of the branchy bushes can vary from 0.15 to 0.3 meters. On a leafless long peduncle, single inflorescences-baskets grow. Often this species is cultivated in rock gardens, or on stony soils, where other crops grow very poorly.
Fragrant chamomile (Matricaria discoidea)
The homeland of this species is the Far East and North America. However, today it can be found in almost all countries, while such a flower grows like a weed. The height of a bush with a specific odor can vary from 0.1 to 0.3 m. In the upper part, the shoots branch strongly. The sedentary alternate leaves are doubly pinnately divided into pointed lobes of a flat linear shape. On short pedicels, small inflorescence baskets grow, which include only tubular flowers of a yellow-greenish color, they grow on short peduncles. This type is widely used for medicinal purposes, as well as for cosmetic purposes, for example, for dyeing hair.
Chamomile (Matricaria parthenium)
Either excellent matricaria (Matricaria eximia), or chrysanthemum parthenium (Chrysanthemum parthenium). This species is found in the wild in Europe. It is very similar to a small chrysanthemum due to its characteristic aroma and lobed carved leaf plates. The plant forms compact bushes, which branch very strongly, their height can reach about 0.4 m. A large number of inflorescences-baskets are formed on them, reaching about 25 mm in diameter. Their middle is yellow, and the shape of ligulate white flowers is oblong-rounded. The baskets are part of the thick scutes. Flowering begins in mid-summer and ends in late autumn. This species has a large number of varieties and garden forms:
- White Star... Simple inflorescences-baskets are painted white.
- Aureum... Large-lobed leaf plates have a golden color. Baskets have a yellow center and white marginal flowers.
- Golden Ball... The globular inflorescences of golden color contain only tubular flowers.
- Snow Globe (Snow Ball)... Short ligulate flowers are wide and white.
- Lemon Santana... The color of the baskets is light yellow.
Matricaria: growing from seeds, planting and care in the open field
To decorate your garden with attractive flowers, it is not at all necessary to use outlandish and whimsical plants. After all, caring for them requires care and strength, and the result does not always meet expectations. Even simple flowers can be a very beautiful bright spot on a backyard. Matricaria flower belongs to such easy-to-grow crops, we will discuss growing it from seeds, clarify how planting is carried out for a given plant, and what care it needs in the open field.
Matricaria is a representative of the Aster family. This plant came to us from the countries of North Africa and Southern Europe. It belongs to perennial crops, but is usually grown as an annual. Matricaria is a short plant, the length of its stems most often does not exceed thirty centimeters. However, some varieties can grow up to half a meter in height.
Such a garden pet grows like a dense and spherical bush. Simple or double flowers can appear on it. In the first case, they have one row of round delicate petals, while terry inflorescences form an attractive ball, about three centimeters in diameter. The color of flowers can be very different, but most often they grow yellow, white and beige varieties. Matricaria delight flower owners from early summer to late autumn.
Growing matricaria from seeds?
Such a plant can be grown from seed by direct sowing into the ground or through seedlings. The planting material remains viable for three years.
Growing a flower for seedlings should be done in March-April, for this it is worth preparing the boxes, filling them with sufficiently fertile and light soil. The seeds of the matrix should not be buried very much - by about one centimeter. And the interval between individual plants should be two to three centimeters. With more heap sowing of flower seeds, readers of Popular About Health will have to dive the seedlings later. After sowing, you need to spray well the planting.
The box should be sent to a warm and fairly lit place where the plants will receive a sufficient amount of fresh air. It is necessary to carefully monitor soil moisture and irrigate it periodically to prevent drought. But at the same time, it is worth remembering that excessive moisture can greatly harm small plants.
After the first shoots appear, it is advisable to move the boxes to a slightly cooler room so that the seedlings do not stretch too much. But the lighting must remain good.
If you prefer to grow the plant directly in the open field, you can start sowing closer to the beginning to mid-May. At the same time, the first shoots can hatch literally after ten days, and after another three months flowers will appear on the matrix.
The planting of the matrix in open ground is carried out closer to mid-May. Young plants should be moved with an earthen lump and placed at a distance of twenty to thirty-five centimeters.
In order for the flower to please the eye in the open ground and does not need constant supervision, it is worth choosing a suitable place for it in the garden in advance. It is best to place such a flower in a sufficiently bright and open place.Indeed, with strong shading, the bushes, although they will bloom, will stretch out strongly, which will make them not compact, and not neat. The flowering intensity will decrease.
As for the requirements for the soil, then in this matter the matrix is not very capricious. She does not need to prepare a special soil mixture and can normally exist on the land that is on the site. Moreover, even on rather poor soils, such a plant easily reproduces by self-seeding, due to which the bushes become more powerful and stronger over time.
Most of the matrix grow normally on both arid and moist soils. But at the same time, full drainage is extremely important for them.
It is best to plant a flower in moist soil with excellent water and air permeability. With sufficient soil nutrition, the flower will develop more actively. And to reduce the excess acidity of the earth, it will not be superfluous to dig it up with a small amount of ash.
Features of care for the matrix
The matrix is not very capricious, but, nevertheless, it needs supervision and some care. Caring for a flower does not require frequent watering, but in extreme heat it will not be superfluous to irrigate it periodically. Excessive moisture can harm it.
Shortly before flowering, it is necessary to feed the matrix with mineral fertilizers. It is also important to gently loosen the soil near the bushes so that the roots have access to air. Top dressing will allow you to achieve a longer and more abundant flowering.
Faded and wilted flowers must be systematically removed. So the flower bed will remain really well-groomed and beautiful for a long time. Soon, new shoots will develop in place of the dried buds plucked, and flowers will also appear on them.
After waiting for the end of flowering, it is necessary to carefully examine the plants and remove injured, dried and withered shoots using sharp garden shears.
To prepare the matrix in an open space for winter, it is necessary to mulch the soil near the plants. You should also cover the planting with spruce branches or some other suitable material for shelter.
Matricaria (chrysanthemum) maiden... A medium-sized bush with branched stems, the petals of which are painted white-yellow. It begins to release buds in mid-summer, flowering ends in September-October. A perennial, but every year it needs a transplant, otherwise it loses its decorative effect. The plant can be found in flower beds, it is also used in the design of paths
Balsamic matrix... Tall branched perennial. The stems can be up to one meter. Often used to decorate flower beds. White petals darken by autumn and become almost brown. This unpretentious variety feels comfortable in any type of soil. The plant is light-loving, therefore, when choosing a flower bed, you should focus on the south side.
Chamomile officinalis... A short bush with a specific aroma. The leaf plates are pinnate. The stem is straight, reaching a height of about half a meter. At the tops of the stems are the corymbus inflorescences. Flowers can be white, less often yellow. In garden plots, this flower looks good with wildflowers.
Matricaria "Golden ball"... The variety can often be found in flower beds and flower beds. A compact undersized bush reaches a height of no more than 30 cm. The flowers are spherical double golden-yellow shades. Flowering pleases the whole summer period.
Chamomile Chikhachev... The decorative variety is distinguished by its lush flowering. A branchy, low bush can reach a height of no more than 30 cm. There are few leaves, long stems, on which separate inflorescences grow. Often this type is used in the design of alpine hills, or on rocky soil, where other plants grow very poorly.
Pink feverfew... A medium-sized culture with a height of just over half a meter. The stems are straight and even, on which are feathery leaves of light green color. The flowers in the form of baskets are pink, crimson or purple in color. Often grown for decoration and cutting.
Photo of bouquets
Bouquets using this flower are distinguished by their beauty and originality. The colorfulness and originality of the inflorescence forms allows you to decorate any flower arrangement. Combinations of statice with white flowers are especially good: lush roses or chrysanthemums.
In the collage below, white limonimums and ranunculus, Dusty Miller cineraria, which is not visible in the photo, and gilded berries are used for the bouquet at the bottom left. The bouquet at the top right is a composition in lilac, white and pale green tones with roses, freesias, agapanthus, lisianthus, limonium and eucalyptus. The other two compositions use the most popular win-win technique: lush white roses surrounded by a gentle haze of statice lilac flowers.
Winter bouquet with statice, lavender and eucalyptus.
Roses, snapdragon, mattiola, juicy green chrysanthemums and limonium.
Roses, tulips, anemones, freesia, chrysanthemums. This riot of juicy forms of limonium unites.
Roses, dried scabiosa seed pods (round), oregano and ornamental allium onion inflorescences are used for this composition of a bridal bouquet, created especially for the emerald green dress. Purple limonium complements the composition.