Interesting

Lichens, scab and powdery mildew on apple trees - methods of struggle

 Lichens, scab and powdery mildew on apple trees - methods of struggle


If the treatment of the affected tree is not started in time, it will die pretty quickly, and the disease will spread to the rest of the apple trees. Therefore, it is very important to promptly remove moldy fruits, twisted branches, brown leaves so that bacteria and fungi do not cause significant damage to your garden.

Lichen

Growing a tough apple tree that yields delicious fruit every year is not easy. It is necessary to carefully care for young seedlings, cut off unnecessary branches and plant new ones to increase the tree's yield. But even proper care can not always save apple trees from diseases - various unforeseen factors affect their appearance and development. Nevertheless, it is in your power to take preventive measures and stock up on the necessary knowledge in advance on how to treat an apple tree for the most common diseases: fungi, lichens, rot.

Weakened trees with cracked bark, frozen wood, poorly ventilated due to a thickened crown, are often covered with lichen. In appearance lichen on apple tree can be scale in the form of plaque, lamellar, scaly, bushy, silvery, green-yellow, blue-green. It consists of algae and mushrooms that coexist peacefully with each other. Lichen thrives especially well with sufficient sunlight and humidity - the conditions on the tree trunks are just right.

In appearance, a lichen on an apple tree can be scaled in the form of a plaque.

Lichens multiply thanks to millions of fungal spores carried by the wind, as well as due to algae cells on mushroom filaments, which are transported to a new place with rain or wind.

If there is very little lichen on the apple tree, there is not much to worry about, there is even an opinion that lichen protects the tree from other fungi. But the overgrown lichen should still be removed - its accumulations on the bark interfere with the flow of air to the apple tree trunk, which can lead to drying out of the branches, in addition, scale insects and other pests can settle under the lichen.

Video about lichen on an apple tree

Ways to eliminate lichen from apple trees:

  • during dormancy (early spring or late autumn), you need to clean the trunk of lichen with a wooden stick in wet weather, or with a stiff brush;
  • another method is to lubricate the lichen with a mixture of clay and slaked lime and remove the entire mass after drying;
  • after cleaning, the trunk and branches are sprayed with a solution of oxalic acid or iron sulfate (3%).

Scab

Many gardeners have encountered olive-brown spots that suddenly appear on the fruits, leaves, flowers and young shoots of apple trees. Scab - an unpleasant and rather dangerous disease of apple trees caused by a fungus, which from year to year can winter in fallen infected leaves, throwing spores into the air of spores in spring damp weather. The mass spread of the disease is usually carried out in the first half of summer, after heavy rains.

At first, the fungus on the apple tree appears in the form of translucent, as if from oil, spots on the leaves. Gradually, the spots turn gray, a brown green bloom appears on them. The leaves dry up and begin to fall off. Dark gray and black spots appear on the apples, the fruits crack, stop pouring, and with early fungal infection, the apples are deformed, becoming one-sided. Young ovaries can completely crumble.

At first, the fungus on the apple tree appears in the form of translucent, as if from oil, spots on the leaves.

Apple orchards where the trees are too densely planted or where old, weakened trees grow are most susceptible to scab damage.

Precautions and treatments for fungus:

  • in order to protect apple trees from primary infection with spores, in the spring, even before the leaves appear, you need to spray the soil and the trees themselves with pesticides - copper sulfate, nitrafen (diluted with 300 g of 10 liters of water) or DNOC (1%);
  • at the end of April, treatment of apple trees with Bordeaux liquid (3-4%), cuproxate or copper oxychloride;
  • in the phase of bud formation and after they have faded, use Bordeaux liquid of a lower concentration (1%);
  • three weeks after flowering, the apple tree is sprayed with suspensions of phthalan, captan or zineba.

To prevent contamination of trees next year, you should remove the fallen leaves immediately after the fall of leaves and plow the soil under the apple trees.

Powdery mildew

On barely blossoming leaves and inflorescences, on young shoots after prolonged rains, a dense silvery bloom appeared? This is a sure sign of a common apple tree disease - powdery mildewcaused by a fungus that hibernates in the buds of affected shoots and develops successfully in early summer in dry, hot weather. Powdery mildew is dangerous in that it leads to drying out of inflorescences and leaves, to a stop in the growth of shoots, to shedding of ovaries.

Video about apple disease powdery mildew

Means of dealing with powdery mildew:

  • starting in early spring, and during the entire growing season, it is necessary to cut off the shoots affected by the fungus;
  • when the flowering period ends, the apple tree is sprayed with the Hom preparation;
  • having collected a harvest of fruits, they treat the tree with copper or iron vitriol, or Bordeaux liquid (1%);
  • the leaves fallen after processing are collected and burned.

Starting in early spring, and throughout the growing season, you need to cut off the shoots affected by the fungus

To protect the apple orchard from these misfortunes, you need to provide proper care from the very beginning by doing phytosanitary cleaning: pruning dry branches with treating wounds with a solution of ferrous sulfate, cleaning and burning fallen leaves. It is better to spray apple trees with complex preparations with a wide spectrum of action ("Vectra", "Skor", "Cumulus", Bordeaux liquid).

[Votes: 1 Average: 5]


Growing a tough apple tree that yields delicious fruit every year is not easy. It is necessary to carefully care for young seedlings, cut off unnecessary branches and plant new ones to increase the tree's yield. But even proper care can not always save apple trees from diseases - various unforeseen factors affect their appearance and development. Nevertheless, it is in your power to take preventive measures and stock up on the necessary knowledge in advance on how to treat an apple tree for the most common diseases: fungi, lichens, rot.

Weakened trees with cracked bark, frozen wood, poorly ventilated due to a thickened crown, are often covered with lichen. In appearance lichen on apple tree can be scale in the form of plaque, lamellar, scaly, bushy, silvery, green-yellow, blue-green. It consists of algae and mushrooms that coexist peacefully with each other. Lichen thrives especially well with sufficient sunlight and humidity - the conditions on the tree trunks are just right.

Lichens multiply thanks to millions of fungal spores carried by the wind, as well as due to algae cells on mushroom filaments, which are transported to a new place with rain or wind.

If there is very little lichen on the apple tree, there is nothing to worry about, there is even an opinion that lichen protects the tree from other fungi. But the overgrown lichen should still be removed - its accumulations on the bark interfere with the flow of air to the apple tree trunk, which can lead to drying out of the branches, in addition, scale insects and other pests can settle under the lichen.

Ways to eliminate lichen from apple trees:

  • during the dormant period (early spring or late autumn), you need to clean the trunk of lichen with a wooden stick in wet weather, or with a stiff brush
  • another way is to lubricate the lichen with a mixture of clay and slaked lime and remove the entire mass after drying
  • after cleaning, the trunk and branches are sprayed with a solution of oxalic acid or iron sulfate (3%).


Diseases

All diseases of apple trees are divided into 4 large categories - infectious, non-infectious, viral, bacterial.

Non-infectious

Major non-infectious lesions:

The cause of chlorosis is determined only at an early stage - then the leaves are affected along the length of the shoots, and this becomes impossible (one type of chlorosis is masked by another).

Infectious

The next group of apple diseases is infectious. Let's consider them by category.

  • Cytosporosis or stem rot - another fungal infection that affects individual parts of the tree bark. First, dark ulcers form, then they deepen and begin to occupy larger and larger areas, change color, increase in size, developing into large red-brown ulcers. Usually, sections of the bark die off along with the branches.
  • Scab - one of the most common diseases that first affects the leaves, then goes to the stalks and flowers. It manifests itself in the form of a brown bloom on the leaves, which begin to dry out and fall off. Filling is often stopped as cracks and stains slow down their growth and reduce the quality of the apples. Spring treatments with "Topaz" are recommended, the use of "Hom" after flowering.
  • Cancer - the names of antons fire and anger are also used. The tree is completely affected, but infection of the trunk is considered the most dangerous (the apple tree may die). The fungus enters the heart of a tree through wounds that form at the site of sunburn or as a result of freezing culture. Cancer can overwinter in the bark and rotten apples, the fruits become covered with depressed spots, after which they begin to rot and acquire a black tint.
  • Rust - it is caused by the Phragmidium fungus.

The fungus that causes rust is often found on junipers.

The next group of infectious lesions is bacterial. Major diseases:

  1. Bacterial burn - a disease of young trees. It often enters the garden with planting material purchased in unverified places, accepted as a gift, and so on. The shape of the leaves changes, the foliage dries up and blackens, young fruits rot and deteriorate. The only treatment is to completely destroy the focus of the disease.
  2. Bacteriosis - the leaves turn black starting from the edges, the shoots are gradually affected and completely die. It is impossible to start the disease, since the infection eventually enters the trunk and branches through the cutting, and can lead to the death of the entire garden. Shorten the affected shoots by 40 cm, preventive spraying gives good results.

And the last group of apple diseases is viral. It:

  1. Mosaic disease accompanied by the appearance of necrotic spots, which expand and cause the death of the leaf plate. The growth, development of the plant slows down, shoots can break out during grafting, pruning. The virus often carries aphids - from a diseased culture to a healthy one. Sick shoots are burned.
  2. Proliferation or paniculation - excessive overgrowth of branches, "witch's broom". This ailment affects not only apple trees, but also pears, quince. On actively growing shoots, dormant buds awaken, from which thin erect lateral shoots then appear. The harvest is reduced, the quality of the fruit decreases.
  3. Flattening branches - some viruses cause overgrowth of stem tissue, deformation of shoots. The severity of the changes can be different, they appear in the form of flattening of branches of apple trees. In the initial stages, symptoms may be almost completely absent.


How to get rid of mold on trees in the garden?

In addition to lichens, mold can appear on green spaces, which is dangerous not only for plants, but also for people (its spores, getting into the human respiratory system, can cause many diseases). Mold destroys the bark and promotes the development of cytosporosis or black cancer in the garden. It is difficult to destroy it, because it can exist in almost the most unfavorable conditions, it is capable of penetrating into any organisms and parasitizing them. Ideal conditions for mold development are a constant temperature of about 20-22 ºC and high humidity.

Signs that a tree is infected with mold:

  • bluing (or greenish coloring) of surfaces
  • soft cotton-like growths on wood
  • Grayish "fluff" on the leaves
  • dark sooty spots or rust on plants
  • plant tissues are covered with bloom or spots.

In nature, mold mainly affects weakened plants, therefore it is recommended to adhere to the technology of natural farming and strengthen the immunity of green spaces. To avoid the spread of mold, the garden must be kept clean at all times. All diseased trees must be treated.

Molds can multiply throughout the year, but especially a lot of them are formed in the fall, when sick large-sized ones begin to decompose. Severely affected plants are best cut down and burned.

Mold can be found in cellars where garden planting materials are stored. In order to destroy it, sulfur bombs are lit in an empty cellar in a metal or ceramic vessel (after having blocked access to ventilation). After that, the basement must be thoroughly ventilated and dried.


The apple tree dries up - what to do, it's a shame ... Analysis of the problem, search for solutions, resuscitation of a dried apple tree: recommendations of gardeners

Drying of leaves and branches of an apple tree is a very common problem among owners of a summer cottage.

And before looking for a solution to this problem, you should know all the nuances and features of your climatic zone.

Based on this, you should already select a plant variety.

Planting an apple tree will also differ in terms of the type of climate.

Although the apple tree is a rather unpretentious and resistant plant, in especially cold regions, it is recommended to plant semi-cultivated varieties.

For cold climates, the ideal option would be the “Ranetka” variety.

Planting time for apple trees is spring and autumn. Some gardeners plant an apple tree in the summer, but this is rather an exception to the rule. Summer planting has many disadvantages before autumn and even more so spring planting.

When to plant an apple tree?
Spring planting, apple trees tolerate, as a rule, better. Planting in spring gives you a better chance of a large garden. In addition, closer to winter, your trees will already be formed and strong, which will allow them to safely survive the winter cold. But the autumn planting is useful in that the tree, if it takes root, will be stronger and more stable.

There are several ways to plant apple trees. Let's consider the most popular one.

1. Planting pit, prepared at least a week in advance. Depth, the hole should be at least - 60 cm, diameter, about the same. The ground from the upper layer should be placed separately from the lower one and not mixed.

2. A peg is driven into the bottom of the pit to support the seedling. Consider its length, the peg should rise 35 cm above the ground.

3. Next, you need to fill the pit with compost, fertilizer or manure of your choice.

4. After a week, you can plant an apple tree. Remember to tie it to a peg.

The apple tree has dried up: why?

There can be many reasons for drying. But first, eliminate the simplest options. Make sure that the planting of the apple tree has been done - correctly. Also, the reason that the apple tree has dried up may be other large plants that grow too close to the root system of the apple tree. These plants can take up a large amount of moisture and spoil the roots of the apple tree, which leads to its drying out and diseases. Therefore, the solution to the problem may be getting rid of closely growing plants or replanting the apple tree to a new place.

Also, the cause of the shrunken tree may be high-standing groundwater. Oddly enough at first glance, but precisely because of the abundance of water in the soil, the apple tree begins to dry out. This happens because excess water begins to displace air from the soil, so necessary for the root system. Therefore, the apple tree begins to "suffocate" and may soon die. The solution is to transplant an apple tree, loosen the soil or replace the soil for the root system. In addition, for greater efficiency, special drainage ditches can be dug, which will divert excess groundwater from the roots.

But the most important thing is that the soil must “breathe”. Therefore, it is not allowed to find layers of sand, heavy clay, crushed stone and gravel in the planting zone. Young apple trees will probably be able to survive this, because their roots are high and have not yet sprouted deep enough, and there is always a lot of air in the upper layers of the soil. But for mature trees, this is extremely harmful, because their root system goes deep into the depths. And the older the tree, the more chances the apple tree will dry up.

Even on loose and level soil, there can be “surprises” in the form of clayey layers.

The planting site may be disadvantageous, due to the depressions in which rainwater will drain and moisture accumulate, thereby, again displacing oxygen from the soil. So, apple trees standing on the same soil may differ, due to the deep landscapes. Therefore, it is important, before planting, to study the place and make sure it is safe for the tree, this will save you time and effort.

A young apple tree has withered leaves: what to do - weather reasons

If everything is in order with the place and method of planting, then the reason why the leaves of the apple tree have dried up may be weather and climatic conditions. This is especially noticeable in the southern hot regions, where the temperature can easily reach +40 degrees. The scorching rays of the sun will dry out the leaves, evaporating moisture from them. The sun's rays practically do not affect the branches of an apple tree in this way.

Too dry air, even in not too hot weather, can also contribute to this phenomenon. Although apple trees are unpretentious and highly resistant to dryness, nevertheless, the minimum level of humidity must be maintained both in the air, so that the leaves of the apple tree do not dry out, and in the soil itself, for the root system. Exit: regular spraying and sprinkling.

The branches of the old apple tree have dried up: what to do?

Drying of branches is a more serious problem than just shriveled leaves. Here, most likely, the matter is in the disease. One of the most common options is cytosporosis. The bark of the tree, at the same time, dries up in certain areas, the branches of the apple tree dry, in some places dark tubercles and dry growths appear. Cytosporosis is quite difficult to detect on young plants, on the bark and branches that have not yet formed.

The problem can be solved only by removing the affected areas of the tree. So you can protect the tree from further infection. If the infection penetrates too far into the tree, then it can no longer be saved.

The apple tree dries up: pests and diseases

Most often, drying out of a tree causes disease-causing infections and various small pests. Let's take a look at the most common diseases and how to treat them.

1 black cancer
... A very serious illness that requires immediate attention. You can recognize it by such signs as: black spots on the foliage, the branches of the apple tree dry, black ulcers and rot on the bark appear. There is only one way out - so that the apple tree does not dry out completely, you need to cut off the infected branches and remove the ulcerative areas, this is the only way to save the tree.

2. Scab
... This infection damages the leaves, slows down the growth of fruits and spoils them. It is easy to recognize it - these are brown spots on the foliage, which subsequently dry out the leaf.

The solution is to treat foliage with Topaz or Hom.

3. Powdery mildew
... A fairly common disease that infects tree buds, bark, shoots and foliage. Powdery mildew signs: White, gray and brown bloom on the leaves and buds, sometimes dark spots appear, there are no fruits, the tree dries up. After establishing this diagnosis, treatment consists of treatment with special solutions. For these purposes, "Skor" or "Topaz" is perfect.

With pests, everything is also not easy.

1. Aphids and ants
... If ants have settled in your garden, then there will be aphids. Therefore, you need to destroy the first. For this, there are special poisons and ant traps. Aphids are destroyed with special solutions.

2. Caterpillars
... There are a huge number of types. It is easy to fight - the cobweb on the branches is destroyed, preferably by fire, and then, the apple tree is treated with a solution of karbofos.

3. Mite, leafworm, moth
... The cobweb on the leaves and branches can tell you about the presence of ticks, the other two "comrades" are more difficult to recognize if you do not see small caterpillars. To destroy these pests, spraying with a solution of nitrophene, chlorophos or karbofos is suitable. Larvae and eggs, if found, are destroyed by fire.

The apple tree has dried up: what to do - if the reasons are not established

If you cannot establish the reason why the leaves of the apple tree have dried up or the branches of the apple tree are drying up, then we advise you to contact experienced gardeners and ask questions on gardening forums by posting photos of your problem.

Do not sit back when the apple tree dries up, be sure to find the reason!


Prevention of moniliosis

Disease prevention begins when buying and planting a young seedling:

  • They buy a variety that is resistant to moniliosis, for example, Idared, Renet, Jonathan, Pepin Shafranny, Slavyanka, Florina, etc.
  • Fruit trees are planted after about 3 m, no closer.

Annual measures are taken in the spring.

  • The apple tree is carefully examined. Remove dried and damaged branches. They form the crown, clean the exfoliated areas of the bark, lichens, cover up the damage with garden varnish or white paint, whitewash the trunk and thick branches with whitewash (lime solution).
  • The plant debris left over from last year is removed, and the tree trunk is carefully dug up.
  • Phosphate-potassium fertilizers are used. In addition, young seedlings are treated with root formation stimulants (Kornerost, Heteroauxin).
  • Water regularly, maintaining constant soil moisture.
  • They are treated with chemicals from pests and other diseases that contribute to the spread of moniliosis (Embrelia, copper sulfate).


Prophylaxis

Protection of apple tree plantings from pests and diseases starts with preventive maintenance. They do not take much time, but they put the garden in order. Work is carried out gradually, throughout the growing season.

The following measures are used to prevent the disease:

  • planting reliable varieties
  • applying a sufficient amount of fertilizer
  • timely sanitary and anti-aging pruning
  • healing wounds of various nature
  • digging the soil under the apple tree
  • disinfection of soil with copper-containing preparations
  • weed control
  • burning fallen leaves
  • whitewash
  • installation of trapping belts
  • processing apple trees in the summer from diseases and pests.

The following preparations will help to activate the defenses of the plant:

  • Zircon
  • Albite
  • Bud
  • Epin-Extra.

They are used to treat trees in the summer:

  • spray on bare branches with a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid from overwintered fungi
  • sprayed on a green cone with 10% malofos against insect pests
  • at the end of flowering, they are treated with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid from scattering ripe fungal spores.


Watch the video: Apple Tree Diseases Family Plot