Home violet (saintpaulia) care
Saintpaulia is the flower that can be found everywhere: on the window at the grandmother's, on the table in the office, at the seasoned florist and at the novice amateur. A small fluffy rosette, easily recognizable at first sight, with beautiful flowers on small legs, very unpretentious and widespread. All this is Saintpaulia or home violet. Familiar to everyone from childhood, with soft double leaves and small purple-blue flowers blooming at any time of the year, unpretentious, always finding a place on the windowsill among other flowers.
In fact, there are an incredible variety of varieties of Violet Usambara, unique plants in price reach the amount of several tens of dollars. Clubs and associations of lovers and breeders of this plant have been created all over the world, the differences in varieties range from the size of the rosette to the shape of the flower petals.
By outlet diameter
- Microminiatures: up to 6 cm, plant "on the palm"
- Miniature: up to 15 cm
- Semi-miniature: up to 20 cm, there is no strict separation with standard ones
- Standard: up to 40 cm
- Large standard (large): over 40 cm no limit
By type of leaves
- Shape: round, elongated, curved, bustle and pointed
- Leaf edge: wavy, smooth, serrated, fringed
- Color: solid green, bicolor, bordering variegated, mosaic variegated and chimeras
- Placement: on an elongated petiole, on a shortened, flattened crown or lush
- By the size, structure and colors of the inflorescences of Saintpaulia, this is the most detailed part of the plant classification.
- By flower shape: "bell", "star", "wasp" and classic
- By the number of petals: simple (5 petals), comb (7), semi-double (in 2 rows), terry (several rows)
- By the shape of the petals: pointed, rounded, fringed, lace, smooth, even, wavy
- By color of flowers: here the imagination of breeders knows no bounds. Colors from black-violet to white, monochromatic, bi-color and multi-color. Now you can find a variety with green-yellow petals, very rare
Fancy varieties have drops, strokes, stripes and splashes of a different color on the basic tone, which, in combination of different colors, gives the flowers an extraordinary and exotic look.
Bordered varieties flaunt with flowers, as if they were dipped in paint of an excellent tone, two-border specimens are especially appreciated. However, it is not necessary for a novice florist to immediately acquire expensive varietal layering, first it is necessary to "practice" in growing more simple and unpretentious in everyday life Usambar violets.
Home violet (saintpaulia) care
Lighting. Direct rays of the sun will burn the delicate leaves in a matter of days, the light should be diffused, it can be shaded, but the length of daylight hours should be as long as possible. In winter, during flowering, Saintpaulia will require additional lighting, otherwise the color will not pass in full force, it will end faster and much weaker. However, you can give the plant a special rest in cold weather by shading it.
Temperature. Not more than +25 degrees Celsius, lower temperatures, up to +6, home violet tolerates quite easily.
Watering and moisturizing. Water for irrigation should always be warm, while dripping on the leaves should be avoided. It is recommended to pour the liquid into the pan - the safest solution against acidification and flooding of the soil. Air humidification is required when radiator batteries are close; leaves can be wiped with a damp cloth or soft brush to remove accumulated dust.
Planting and transplanting. The plant is planted in sod land mixed with coarse sand and wood ash. At the same time, the pot should not be very large - the root system of Saintpaulia is poorly developed, it is located close to the surface, without deepening. The bare trunk of the plant must be covered, this is very important.
It is advisable to transplant the plant only if it is necessary to change the pot or the contaminated soil, the least traumatic way is to fill it with water for 10 minutes and transfer the bush onto the arm downwards with the crown, passing it between the fingers. We remove the old vessel - and the entire root system with a lump of earth in front of the eyes, damage is excluded, you can carefully examine the transplant object. Remove dead and withering leaves, separate the daughter rosettes, check the roots for rot and insects and plant the sprout back in a prepared pot. Dredge is poured up to the lower leaf stalks, raising the leaves above the level of the dishes and watered. After a couple of days, a layer is poured onto the sagging places.
Reproduction. The most affordable techniques are leaves and daughter sockets, ready for self-planting. The sockets are shaded for the first time and covered with a transparent bag. Usually, very soon, a young plant assimilates in a separate pot and continues its independent life. They begin to bloom after six months with the right care.
Leaves for rooting are cut off only from the bottom, leaving an elongated petiole, it is he who will be immersed in water or a mixture of wet peat and sand, it is from it that the roots begin to break through and the future bush is formed. When decaying, the affected part is cut off at an angle and planted again. The glass turned upside down on a sheet has proven itself perfectly, performing the function of a micro-greenhouse and a guard against mechanical damage.
Pests and diseases. Gray rot is especially dangerous: it affects the rosette, roots and lower leaves with constant flooding and acidification of the soil, it is very similar to mold. Torn dry spots on the leaves occur after sunburn, dry soil and excess fertilizer.
Insects often include whiteflies, cyclamen mites and mealybugs. If you notice their appearance in time and treat them with insecticides, then problems should not arise.
A few quick tips for growing and caring for Saintpaulia
1.start with inexpensive and unpretentious copies
2.Place flowers away from direct sunlight, but not in the shade
3.Artificially lengthen the daylight hours for blooming Violets
4.Pour gently with warm water or from a pan
5.Periodically humidify dry air
6.Remove dried flowers and leaves in time
7.Isolate affected plants immediately until the problem is resolved
Saintpaulia, or uzambara violet, better known as indoor violet. In some countries, it is called the African violet, as this plant was first found on the slopes of the Uzambara mountains in East Africa. At the end of the 19th century, Baron Saint Paul discovered S. ionantha with purple-blue flowers, from which most of the modern Saintpaulias (varieties and hybrids) originated. Hence the name "saintpaulia". The closest relatives of Saintpaulia are Gloxinia, Episia, Streptocarpus, Columnea, and Aeschinanthus. All of them belong to the same Gesneriev family.
I know many amateur flower growers who, like me, suddenly "got sick" with Saintpaulias, seeing in them that charm that I had not noticed before. Novice Saintpaulia collectors face some serious challenges even with diligent care of indoor violets. They are depressed by weak flowering, sudden wilting of plants, sunburn on the leaves and decay of leaf cuttings during reproduction. The accumulated experience allows you to avoid all these troubles. Saintpaulias are among those plants that love to be fiddled with and hold pots with them in their hands. The health and appearance of indoor violets largely depends on this.
Violet care: features
Indoor violet prefers the east or north side of the house. If the windows are on the south side, it is recommended to shade the flower with tulle curtains or blinds. It is not recommended to put the flower pot further than 0.5 m from the window. The ideal option is violets on the windowsill.
The optimum night temperature for violets is + 18 ° С, daytime + 22-24 ° С. Florists recommend enjoying the blooming violet in winter. If the violet has bloomed during the summer heat, it is advisable to remove the peduncles so that the plant can go into a dormant state.
The lower leaves of the violet can be washed gently if they are dusty. However, during the procedure, you must follow a few simple rules.
- Using a gentle pressure of running water, gently rinse the lower leaves with water. Make sure that no water gets into the center of the flower and into the pot.
- Shake the plant a little. Then place the pot in a dark, draft-free place until the leaves are completely dry, for example, on a mezzanine. If this is not done, the leaves will be covered with spots. After a day, the flower can be returned to its permanent place of residence.
How to care for Saintpaulia
So, how to properly care for Saintpaulia so that they grow well and delight with their flowers. Flowers need to be inspected frequently. This will allow you to detect pests in time and separate the diseased plant from all and start fighting. Watering Saintpaulias should be done as needed, but not on schedule. After all, flower pots are made of various materials. Accordingly, they pass moisture in different ways. For some, moisture can persist for several days, and for some it dries up literally in a day.
To prevent the humidity of the air from dropping, it is necessary to spray water. It is not the plants themselves that should be sprayed, but the air around it. In order for the Saintpaulia plant to bloom several times a year, you should regularly remove all wilted flowers, as well as dry and old leaves. Violets should be transplanted once a year and only after abundant flowering. We hope you now know how to care for a violet, a violet indoor flower.
How to care for a violet
Violet belongs to the Gesneriaceae family; Southeast Africa is considered the homeland of the plant. The scientific name of the plant is Saintpaulia, received in honor of the discoverer - biologist Saint-Paul Hiller. For a long time, the violet was considered a capricious plant that requires special care at home. In fact, compliance with only some of the rules of care will allow home violets to develop and reproduce absolutely normally. How to care for Saintpaulia? What are the rules for planting, transplanting and breeding violets? Are there any problems in caring for the plant?
Violet care: rules and features
1. Correct watering.
Indoor violets like moderate watering from the pallet (the so-called method dives or pallet). To do this, prepare a pallet filled with a moist nutrient substrate: clean river pebbles, sand or expanded clay. Then a container with a flower is immersed in the pallet. There must be a hole in the bottom of the container. Depending on the humidity of the air, it is recommended to water the plant once or twice a week.
There is another way to water the uzambara violet - this is wick irrigation... This method is suitable for a large number of flowers in your home, when there is no time to monitor watering or when you are leaving somewhere. For such watering, you will need a small strip of fabric or a string, as a filter, one end of which must be laid on the bottom of the pot, and the other must be taken out through the drainage hole and lowered into a container with water. We put the flower on this container, but so that the bottom of the pot does not touch the water. Thus, the plant itself will be able to determine the amount of water it needs.
But this method has a number of disadvantages:
- wick irrigation is suitable for small flowers about 7-8 cm in diameter
- in winter, the water on the windows can get very cold, and our delicate violets do not like cold water
2. Features of feeding.
Feeding home violets should be done throughout the year. In this case, it is advisable to alternate fertilizing with mineral fertilizers with organic fertilizing. In winter, it is enough to feed the plant with organic fertilizers once. In spring and autumn, the violet should be fed at least three times a season, adding mineral fertilizers. In the summer, fertilizers are applied, taking into account the condition of the plant and the growing conditions. Ready-made organic substrates and fertilizers for violets can be purchased at specialized stores.
3. Optimal growing conditions.
For the normal development of violets, it is highly discouraged to expose them to direct sunlight, but the room should still be well lit and regularly ventilated. You can create optimal conditions for the development of plants using a special fluorescent lamp. In this case, the duration of artificial lighting should not exceed 15 hours. In summer, the acceptable temperature for the normal development of violets is + 20-24 ºС, and in winter up to +18 ºС.
During airing, it is recommended to take flowers to another room, as violets are afraid of drafts.
Planting and transplanting an uzambar violet
It is possible to ensure normal development of violets at home only by creating a habitat that is as similar to natural as possible. For planting, it is necessary to prepare a loose and nutritious soil for plants by mixing black soil, peat and river sand in a ratio of 5: 3: 1. In order to avoid stagnation of moisture on the bottom of the container, it is recommended to pour a little expanded clay or pebbles. Particles of charcoal or sphagnum moss can be added to the substrate. The root system of violets is superficial, therefore, when transplanting, it is important to use not tall and not cramped pots (so as not to interfere with the normal growth of Saintpaulia). The diameter of the violet pots varies from 6 to 9 cm.
Reproduction of violets
Reproduction of violets is usually carried out vegetatively. To do this, cut off cuttings from 2 to 4 cm in size in the second row. The main condition: the cuttings should not be too young, but not old either. Further reproduction occurs in one of three ways:
- dip the stalk into water, after adding a tablet of activated carbon there (this will prevent the development of dangerous microflora). After the appearance of the root system, the cutting is immediately transplanted into the prepared soil.
- the cutting is immediately planted in a moistened substrate, covered with a bag with holes for good ventilation. With the appearance of daughter shoots, they are transplanted into other containers.
- daughter inflorescences (rosettes) are planted in separate containers. This method of reproduction is carried out in the spring; when transplanting, it is necessary to cut off the upper overgrown parts of the mother plant.
Possible difficulties in caring for violets
Often, violet lovers face some problems when growing and caring for flowers. Here is a list of possible difficulties and ways to solve them.
· Lack of flowering. Provide the violets with adequate lighting, feeding, pick up the right container.
· Light spots on the leaves... Limit direct sunlight on the plant.
· Brown spots on the leaves... Use only warm water for irrigation.
· Pale green leaves. Remove the pots from the windowsill on frosty days.
· Sluggish leaves and decaying center of the inflorescence. Try not to overmoisten the soil, avoid sudden fluctuations in air temperature.
· Mold on flowers and leaves. Do not spray the plant. Treat the violet with a systemic fungicide to remove the affected parts.
· The appearance of pests. Disinfect the soil with a suitable product.
To grow a healthy and flowering plant, it is enough to follow the appropriate rules for caring for a violet, and then Saintpaulia will delight you with its beauty almost all year round.
Quick tips for caring for violets:
- water the violet correctly: with warm water from a tray filled with damp substrate
- drain the soil
- alternate organic feeding with minerals
- provide optimal environmental conditions for violets: regular ventilation, no drafts, sufficient lighting, comfortable temperature (from 18 to 24 ° C)
- limit direct sunlight on the plant
- do not use tight and tall pots for planting and replanting
- follow the rules of reproduction of homemade Saintpaulia: cut the cuttings in a timely manner, carefully prepare the soil for planting shoots
- try to detect the appearance of diseases and pests on the plant in time.
Basic rules on how to care for home violets
Finally, indoor violets appeared in your home: how to care for these delicate plants so as not to harm? First, it is advisable to quarantine the purchased flower for a couple of weeks in a room where there are no other plants. If you notice the slightest signs of violet disease, spray the plant with the Maxim system fungicide and after 20 minutes blot the leaves with a napkin.
When removing the lower leaves, soil is poured into the pot, and when the trunk of the Saintpaulia is too bare, a transplant is carried out
You should not immediately engage in transplanting - a violet indoor flower can grow quietly in a small container until the size of the rosette exceeds the diameter of the pot by more than three times.
Violet home care requires the following:
- regular watering when the soil surface dries up
- weekly fertilizing with mineral fertilizers
- no drafts
- additional illumination in case of lack of light
- removal of wilted flowers
- cleaning the leaves from dust with a brush or damp sponge.
Young plants need to be rotated 45 degrees every three days to form a symmetrical rosette. If you have an adult violet growing, home care will include the mandatory removal of old leaves. When the lower leaves are removed, the soil is poured into the pot, and when the trunk of the Saintpaulia is too bare, a transplant is carried out with the rosette deepening to the lower leaves. On average, transplanting is carried out once a year, since during this time the soil in the pot is depleted, and the plant in the pot becomes cramped.
The main thing to remember when buying indoor violet flowers is that they must be cared for regularly, otherwise the plants will simply refuse to bloom. Well, those flower growers who know well how to care for home violets, and do not forget about these delicate flowers, will definitely admire the bright and lush flowering of Saintpaulias on their windowsills.