New varieties of this plant can decorate northern gardens
Few of the readers know about the new frost-resistant early-growing varieties of walnuts. We call these nuts walnuts, because a thousand years ago they were brought to Russia by Greek merchants. And in some places in the world they are called English, because English merchants brought the nuts there, or Persian, because they grew in ancient Persia.
But when exactly people learned about these tasty nuts is unknown: apparently, more than eight thousand years ago. The walnut kernel is remarkably similar to the human brain. It was believed that nuts have a positive effect on the development of the human mind and have a mind themselves. Walnuts are very healthy. Whoever eats walnuts is doing the right thing. For example, they are highly prized by yogis and include walnuts in their diet.
There are many useful substances in the kernel of the nut. In folk medicine, walnuts have long been used to relieve fatigue and restore strength. Avicenna also recommended crushed walnuts with honey for diseases accompanied by exhaustion. In ancient Greece, the walnut was called the acorns of the gods. It is also called food for the mind.
I would like to tell you about frost-resistant walnut varieties adapted for cultivation in Central Russia. In recent decades, thanks to selection and selection, it has been possible to bring out frost-resistant forms of walnuts for various zones of our country. These are, first of all, such varieties as Ideal and Osipov.
The Ideal variety surprisingly accurately lives up to its name. Firstly, it differs from other varieties in its ultra-fast fertility. Sometimes even annual seedlings produce 2-3 full-weight thin-peeled nuts. Secondly, this variety is winter-hardy. Thirdly, the nut has a thin shell, and the kernel has a pleasant, sweet taste. Plant height up to 8 meters. In the last decade, this variety has spread widely throughout Russia and beyond its borders, new interesting hybrids with local varieties have appeared, in which the main properties of Ideal - early maturity and short stature - have been preserved. In our agricultural nursery in the Nizhny Novgorod region, walnuts of the Ideal, Elita, Bat'ka Makhno varieties are successfully growing and bearing fruit.
Walnut is responsive to light and warmth. It does not bear fruit well in compacted and insufficiently ventilated plantings. And with strong shading, young plants may die altogether. The tree of this nut grows well in almost all soils, except for swampy, waterlogged and very heavy clayey soils. It is better to choose a flat plot.
Alternatively, the middle and upper parts of the small southern and western slopes are suitable. Planting in lowlands is doomed to failure in advance, because here, especially in spring, cold air and water constantly accumulate and stagnate.
Those wishing to cultivate walnuts in the northern regions are advised to plant seedlings in sunny, wind-protected places. The ideal place would be to land near the walls of buildings on the south and southwest sides, which will make it possible to increase the amount of active summer temperatures by several degrees.
If you can, be sure to plant a walnut tree in your garden. It will delight you for many years and will give you energy and health!
Anyone looking for interesting vegetable, fruit, flower and medicinal plants can contact the online store:
www.super-ogorod.7910.org to the nursery to Andrey Viktorovich Kozlov.
Andrey Kozlov, gardener,
Vyksa, Nizhny Novgorod region
• How to acclimatize a walnut
• Gray walnut and Siebold walnut
• Hazel and hazelnuts in your garden
• Cultivation of Manchurian nuts near St. Petersburg
• American black walnut
• Experience in growing walnut crops in the northern and eastern regions
Walnut (Juglans regia L.), which originates in Central Asia, is cultivated mainly in the northern hemisphere between 30 and 50 degrees latitude. All parts of the plant contain many biologically active substances: bark - triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, vitamin C, tannins, quinones (juglone, etc.) leaves - aldehydes, essential oil, alkaloids, vitamins C, PP, carotene, phenolcarboxylic acids, tannins substances, coumarins, flavonoids, anthocyanins, quinones and high aromatic hydrocarbons pericarp - organic acids, vitamin C, carotene, phenol carboxylic acids, tannins, coumarins and quinones.
Ripe walnut fruit - a very nutritious product containing up to 40-80% fats, 18-20% proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins of groups A, B1, B2, B6, C, E, P, PP, K, minerals (potassium, iron, iodine) ... Dairy ripe walnuts are distinguished by a rich set of amino acids, among them are irreplaceable ones that are not synthesized in the body, but come only with food proteins.
The main value of the leaves is the large amount of carotene. In addition, tannins and a natural preservative naphthaquinone-juglone were found, which also has a coloring property and a bactericidal effect. In addition, traces of essential oils have been found. The amount of vitamin C in walnut leaves increases with development, and the maximum content is observed in the middle part of the growing season and, in terms of its content, walnut leaves are not inferior to currants. The main value of the leaves lies in the significant amount of carotene. Additionally, the leaves contain vitamin B 1, juglone pigment, which exhibits a bactericidal effect, tannins and traces of essential oil.
Walnut kernel fat is represented by low molecular weight and high molecular weight acids. In terms of their nutritional value, they surpass wheat bread - 3 times, potatoes - 7 times, cow's milk - 10 times, apples - 15 times (100 g of nut kernels contain 612-850 calories, which is equal to the calorie content of butter).
The nutritional value of fruits and their benefits are largely determined by their stage of ripeness. So, in the milky-wax stage, they are rich in ascorbic acid, alkaloids, iodine, amino acids, and mature ones - in fats. In addition, the amount of ascorbic acid contained in the fruits of milk-ripened walnuts reaches 3000-5000 mg, which is 75-100 times more than lemons and oranges contain. Moreover, the amount of ascorbic acid depends on the growth zone.
In the milky-wax stage of maturity, the fruits contain total dry matter in the range of 10.6-13.4%, among them soluble substances are 6.5-7.0%. Most of the dry matter is sugar - 3.6%. Acids are represented by citric and malic acids and are at the level of 1.17-1.43%. The content of pectin substances reaches 1.0-1.2%. The mineral composition is represented by salts (in mg%): calcium - 180-220, magnesium - 60-100, iron - 1.60-3.30, iodine - 20-25, phosphorus 15-20.
The accumulation of vitamin C in fruits, pericarp and leaves of walnuts gradually increases and reaches a maximum, depending on weather conditions, by the end of May, beginning of June. During this period, the leaves contain 400 mg%, ascorbic acid, an unripe fruit - 1380 mg%, a mature pericarp - 985 mg%.
The content of vitamin P varies from 181 mg% to 250 mg%, and the greatest accumulation is typical for the varieties Urozhainy, Dessertny, Yisychny. The smallest amount of P-active substances was observed in Maslenichny and Pyatiletka walnut varieties (181.0-185.0 mg%).
As they ripen, the content of vitamins C and P decreases. Ripe walnut fruits are distinguished by a minimum amount of vitamin C - 4.2-6.9 mg%; Ractive substances - 32.7-60.8 mg%. However, at this stage of maturity, the fat content reaches 67.1-72.6%. The greatest accumulation of fat is observed in the varieties Selektsioner (72.6%), Krasnodarets (71.4%), Pervomaisky (70.9%). The Baikonur and Urozhainy varieties contain less fat. Fats are represented by unsaturated fatty acids - palmitic, stearic, oleic, linolenic, linoleic, which are important in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, diabetes, etc.
The unique chemical composition and properties of walnuts make it possible to consider it as a multifunctional component in the production of functional food products.
Back in the 16th century, the Herat physician Yusuf ibn Yusuf at-tabib al-Hirawi in his treatise Risala-i ma'kul wa mashrub (Treatise on food and drink), written in poetic form, writes that “the one who uses five days consecutive nut kernels, then such worms as tapeworms and roundworms (roundworms) disappear from it, pains in the lower back are relieved and pains in the abdomen and around the navel are eliminated. "
In the Middle Ages, French doctors prescribed a decoction of the green parts of the pericarp to expel roundworms and tapeworms, while other doctors gave the sick fresh oil and wine.
Peanut butter used for urolithiasis, with delayed menstruation, and also lubricated areas of the skin affected by lichen. In addition, for eye inflammation, a few drops of walnut oil were injected into the eye with a feather, especially to protect the eyes in cases of smallpox, measles, rubella and scarlet fever, and oil was also used to lubricate with burns and cracked nipples of the breasts.
Traditional medicine of Bulgaria recommends infusions and decoctions of leaves and green pericarp of walnut for gastritis, colitis, enterocolitis, furunculosis, goiter, scrofula, tuberculosis, syphilis, hemorrhoids, gout, jaundice, hemoptysis, gingivitis, for periodontal disease, periodontal disease, leucorrhoea, irregular menstruation and worms.
And nowadays, walnut preparations are widely used for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes. In scientific medicine, walnut leaves and pericarp are used as a tonic, wound healing, antiemetic, metabolism-improving agent.
Decoctions and infusions of leaves it is recommended to take for vitamin deficiencies, exhaustion of the body, gastritis, colitis and enterocolitis, accompanied by diarrhea, furunculosis, urolithiasis, diabetes mellitus, jaundice, diathesis, gout, as a hemostatic and anthelmintic agent.
In folk medicine, the components of a walnut are used to expel worms:
A decoction of a green pericarp of a walnut helps from round and tape parasites. The broth is prepared as follows: for 1 liter of boiling water, take 20 g of chopped pericarp. Raw materials are poured into boiling water and simmered over very low heat for about 30 minutes. Take on an empty stomach for 1-3 tsp. The broth is very bitter, and the worms do not like bitterness. During the entire course of treatment, you should not eat sweets, very fatty and carbohydrate foods - this is a favorite food for parasites.
Pericarp and walnut leaves in the form of infusion are recommended as an astringent and anthelmintic. Ripe walnut kernels are infused in wine and taken orally.
- Infusion number 1: 2 tbsp. tablespoons of leaves insist 2 hours in 0.5 liters of boiling water and drink 2 glasses of warm infusion 5 times a day before meals.
- Infusion number 2: 1 tbsp. a spoonful of crushed pericarp is kept for 2 hours in a glass of boiling water, filtered, honey is added to taste and 2 tbsp. spoons 5 times daily before meals.
- Infusion No. 3: 1. Art. a spoonful of chopped kernels insist 15 days in a glass of grape wine and take 3 tbsp. spoons 3 times daily before meals.
As a prophylactic agent for worms, an infusion is used: pour 1 tbsp into an enamel bowl. a spoonful of finely chopped walnut leaves, pour 250 ml of boiling water and leave for 10 minutes. You need to drink ¾ glass 3 times a day.
To expel worms, 30 minutes before meals, eat 6 ripe walnuts in the morning in the afternoon - 5, in the evening - 4. Chew the nuts thoroughly. The course of treatment is 3 days.
Grind 4 tbsp. tablespoons of unripe walnuts, pour a glass of salted boiling water over them. Insist half an hour, then drain the cake. Drink the resulting broth during the day, taking a saline laxative. This remedy is effective against both tapeworm and round worms.
- Boil the green peel of the fruit of the walnut with sugar or honey (1-2 tablespoons per glass). Drink 1 teaspoon for one cup of tea 3-4 times a day.
Frost-resistant walnut - garden and vegetable garden
Example and instructions for storing seedlings
1. We take peat / sawdust / sand, process with a solution of potassium permanganate, moisten abundantly, let the excess water drain. We put it in a box, box, bag.
2. We place the roots in the substrate so that they are surrounded by it as much as possible.
3. In most cellars in winter the temperature is +2, +4 degrees, which is the optimal temperature.
4. From time to time we check the moisture content of the substrate, at
add water if necessary. Excess water should drain off.
5. During winter storage, small roots grow and during planting you can better preserve them if you place the seedlings in individual packaging with the substrate. These may not necessarily be pots, ordinary bags will do, where you can make holes for drainage.
If you live in a city, then a glazed balcony would be a suitable place for storing seedlings - it is better that the balcony is on the north side, the winter sun can greatly raise the temperature inside. Open balcony - it is better to keep the seedlings closer to the wall of the house and additionally insulate this place with a box or other shelter.
For country houses without a basement or cellar, a prikop is suitable - prepare a place with the described substrate and place the seedlings there. Again, they can be individually wrapped and buried in a common pile of substrate. When the snow falls, arrange a snowdrift on this place.
Import is indispensable
The domestic walnut market is characterized by a high dependence on imports, agrees Stanislav Shlensky, senior consultant of the agro-industrial complex practice of the NEO Center consulting group. “Taking into account the introduction of the embargo, the weakening of the ruble and the decline in the purchasing power of the population, the demand for nuts has almost halved over the past three years,” he estimates. “In addition, the quality of imported products deteriorated after the restriction of supplies from the United States and Spain, which until 2014 accounted for about 60% of the volume of imports.” According to the Federal Customs Service, in monetary terms, imports of nuts (including coconuts) to Russia decreased from $ 340 million in 2014 to about $ 170 million in the past.
The development in Russia of the production of such popular species as hazelnuts, walnuts, chestnuts and pecans means that at least some consumers will be able to purchase nuts at a lower price, since there will be no extra charges for transportation, suggests Kirill Yakovenko. “In general, the development of the nut industry in our country on a scale necessary for complete self-sufficiency is hardly possible, since nuts grow exclusively in favorable climatic conditions - in Russia these are the southern regions where there are problems with finding suitable territories,” the analyst draws attention ... Also, among the difficulties that the Noosphere project will face, he names the weather: some types of nuts can react negatively to sharp frosts, therefore, it is necessary to predict the volume of the harvest carefully. But in general, the walnut sector is interesting and promising, and demand from confectioners and other consumers is guaranteed, adds Yakovenko.
The southern regions of Russia are well suited for the production of almonds and walnuts, so investments in the creation of a walnut nursery in the Kuban look expedient, Shlensky agrees with him. “In addition, the advantages of developing industrial production of nuts include a long (up to 50 years) period of operation of orchards, during which the quality of the crop does not deteriorate,” he says.However, the industry is characterized by long payback periods: for example, the first harvest of walnuts should be expected only in the fifth year after planting, the expert knows.
According to Rosstat, in 2016 the area of plantations of walnut crops in the country amounted to 9.7 thousand hectares, which is 0.9 thousand hectares more than in 2015. At the same time, only 3.4 thousand hectares of walnut orchards fell to the share of agricultural organizations, including 1.8 thousand hectares of small enterprises. The largest number of walnut trees is in the Krasnodar Territory - 3.9 thousand hectares, including 1.9 thousand hectares in agricultural organizations. In Crimea, which ranks second in terms of the area of walnut plantations, they occupy 0.9 thousand hectares, however, agricultural organizations grow nuts only on 0.1 thousand hectares. In Adygea, walnut plantations occupy 0.7 thousand hectares, and almost all plantings (0.6 thousand hectares) fall on the share of agricultural organizations. The gross harvest of nuts in Russia last year amounted to 18.6 thousand tons, which is 2.3 thousand tons more than was collected in 2015. However, private household plots received almost the entire harvest, agricultural organizations harvested only 190 tons.
What is suitable as a rootstock
The seedling of the rootstock must also be of a high-yielding and biocompatible variety with the scion. Take seedlings that are resistant to pests, frost, with restrained growth. Age - one to two years. When grafted onto walnuts, survival rate is higher in one-year-old seedlings. The gardeners call the best varieties "Five-Year Plan", "Dawn of the East", "Harvest"
Not only walnuts can act as a stock, but also its "relatives":
- manchu nut
- rock nut
- hinji nut
- black walnut
Such a tree has a relatively large size, its height can reach 25 meters, and the girth of its trunk can vary from 3 to 7 meters. The bark of the tree is gray in color, while the foliage and branches form a fairly large crown. The leaf plates of the plant are odd-pinnate, complex, consist of elongated leaflets, the length of which can be 4-7 centimeters. The buds open together with small flowers of a light green color in May. Flowers are pollinated by the wind. The same plant has both male and female flowers. The fruits of such a tree look like a single-seeded drupe with leathery rather thick pericarp and a spherical bone with incomplete partitions, the number of which varies from 3 to 5 pieces. The kernel of such a fruit can be eaten, and it is located inside the shell. Fruit weight varies from 5 to 17 grams.
This plant is not very hardy. So, it can die at a temperature of minus 25-28 degrees. Such a tree can live from 300 to 400 years. Walnut wood is directly related to valuable species, while it is often used by specialists to create expensive designer furniture. The foliage of this tree is used for the production of a dye for textiles. The main walnut-producing countries currently include the United States, Iran, China, Turkey and Ukraine.
Below you will find information on how to properly plant and care for a walnut, on the rules for shaping its crown and fertilizers. Information will also be provided on ways to combat various diseases and harmful insects, as well as on which varieties are best to choose for growing in a garden.
Walnut: description and popular varieties
Walnut is a massive tree with a developed root system. Trees usually grow with a dense, branched crown. The foliage is green, mostly oval in shape.
The fruits are dry drupes that have a strong shell. Usually, you have to make a lot of effort to peel ripe nuts, and use special nut crackers. On top of the drupe there are dense plyuski - this is a vegetable shell that feeds the fetus with the necessary substances. After the fruits ripen, the plyus dry up and exfoliate.
Depending on the varieties, the nuts are small, medium and large. But also the shape of the fruit can be very different: round, oval, flattened, elliptical. The shell is smooth, with fine pores. There are small depressions and bumps on the surface.
Trees love warm climates and moisture, but with proper care they can yield good yields in the middle lane. Walnut thrives best in the southern regions. In the middle lane, it is better to grow early-ripening varieties so that the fruits have time to fully ripen before the cold snap. The optimum temperature for nut growth is from 20 degrees (in spring and summer) and above.
It is not difficult to grow walnuts in the Moscow region, the main thing is to choose varieties that can resist the cold well. In the northern regions, not every nut variety will be able to take root, and even more so to bring a rich harvest.