How to prune raspberries in the fall and what is fall pruning for?
It would be a mistake to believe that more raspberries ripen in dense thickets of raspberries than in neatly cut single bushes. It is enough to see an overgrown raspberry tree with your own eyes to understand that the berries ripen worse among the abundant greenery, besides, their taste and size leave much to be desired. Raspberries, although they can grow quickly like a weed, will not bear fruit well without proper care.
Tips from experienced gardeners - can and should you prune raspberries in the fall?
Everyone would like to see raspberry bushes strewn with large tasty berries on their site, but it will not be easy to achieve such a result without knowing how to prune raspberries in autumn... Pruning your shoots annually, coupled with proper bush maintenance, will ensure you have an excellent vitamin berry harvest.
In the photo, a raspberry bush
But pruning of shoots is carried out not only for the purpose of thinning thickened bushes. Raspberries have a two-year development cycle, and by the third year the fruits become noticeably smaller. Of course, it's a pity to cut out the shoots that have wintered well and pleased with an excellent harvest, but this is the most reasonable way out.
Video about pruning raspberries in the fall
If you intend to pick large juicy berries from the bush next year, then cast aside all doubts and make it a rule to specially set aside time for pruning at the end of the season.
Detailed instructions - how to prune raspberries in the fall?
How to determine which shoots should be cut? If raspberries are of ordinary varieties (not remontant), then in the fall all biennial stems that have borne fruit should be removed, leaving strong annual shoots for high-quality fruiting next year.
Pruning remontant raspberries has its own characteristics, depending on the purpose for which it is grown: to obtain a double harvest or a single one. In the first case, the same pruning is carried out as in ordinary varieties, and in the second, all shoots are completely cut out in order to collect berries from annual stems in the fall.
In the photo, trimming raspberries
Pruning raspberry bushes is done like this:
- first cut out at the root all the broken stems, dried, damaged by diseases and weak annual branches, more like grass;
- remove your two-year-old shoots in the same way;
- if the bushes are too overgrown, thin them out, leaving about 8-10 of the strongest healthy stems per 1 square meter;
- all cut branches must be burned immediately, as they may contain dangerous pests;
- after pruning, the raspberries should be dug in, destroying the weeds;
- the final stage will be fertilizing with fertilizers and processing the remaining stems with iron vitriol.
New branches of raspberries grow from the rhizome (underground part), so feel free to cut the shoots flush with the ground. You don't need to leave any stumps!
Photo of pruning raspberries
Important nuances or how to prune raspberries in the fall?
Should you prune raspberries in the fall, or should you do this work in the summer as soon as fruiting ends? Most often, the main pruning is carried out in the autumn, before the onset of frost. However, some gardeners start this procedure immediately after collecting the last berries (in August), so that the plant directs all its forces to young shoots that grow just at this time.
If not remontant varieties grow on your site, but ordinary ones, you should not wait for late autumn. This will not give any advantages, but pests and diseases will be given additional time for reproduction. As soon as all the raspberries have been collected, you can immediately start cutting out unnecessary branches.
Video about pruning raspberries
Try to leave as many healthy new shoots as you cut out old ones to avoid thickening of the raspberry tree. As you know, the wider the space between the bushes, the better they are ventilated and get more sunlight. Accordingly, the berries are tastier. Root shoots that appear between the bushes can be dug out in order to transplant to another place. If there is no need for reproduction of raspberries, it is better to pull out the growth as soon as you notice it.
If you still have questions, how to properly trim raspberries in the fall - the video will help you better imagine this procedure. Watch the video attached to the article and try to put the perfect order in the raspberries yourself - there is nothing complicated about that.
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There are more and more repairing varieties of raspberries every year. Breeding work is especially active in Europe, since the climate there is well suited for raspberries in the autumn ripening period.
However, in our country, remontant varieties are becoming more widespread. This is due to the convenience of their cultivation. Indeed, remontant raspberries have a number of advantages over conventional varieties. These are the following:
- Unlike ordinary varieties, berries on remontant raspberries ripen on the shoots of both the first and second year of life. The first harvest from it can be obtained already in the year of planting the seedling.
- It is easier to care for it, since it does not need to be covered for the winter. The varieties are more winter-hardy.
- Repaired raspberries are less affected by both diseases and pests. This is due to the fact that the development cycle of insect pests does not coincide in time with the fruiting dates of the bush.
- Its yield is much higher compared to ordinary varieties, and the berries are larger and juicier.
- The fruiting period is extended over time, so you can get fresh berries for longer.
Pruning remontant raspberries for the winter is a mandatory procedure, because it is thanks to it that many indicators of such varieties are achieved.
All about remontant raspberries and their differences from the usual - in the video at the link below.
Summer pruning timing
The main activities for removing branches in the summer are held in June and early July. But certain techniques require repetition. As a result, one or another pruning can be carried out throughout the summer season. On crops such as apricot, peach and cherry plum, in early spring, such manipulations can be carried out from the end of May. In general, the timing of summer pruning depends on the conditions of the particular year, the vigor of the shoots, the age of the trees and the growing conditions. In other words, you need to look "according to the circumstances."
1. If you need to completely saw off the affected branch, don't leave hemp, do the saw cut "on the ring".
2. Fat bitch start sawing from the bottom, and then finish it from above so that, while falling, he does not tear off the bark from the trunk.
3. It is not recommended to shorten branches in the fall., but, if you cannot do without this, cut them obliquely so that the acute angle of the cut is just above the bud, directed outward of the crown, because where the top of the bud is facing, a new shoot will grow in the spring.
It is not recommended to shorten the branches in the fall, but if you cannot do without this, cut them obliquely so that the acute angle of the cut is just above the bud, directed outward of the crown, because where the tip of the bud is facing, in that direction and a new shoot will grow in spring
4. Saw cut surface clean with a garden knife and be sure to coat garden pitch (if the diameter of the branch exceeds 1 cm) - an untreated cut can lead to drying out of the preserved part of the branch.
You can also choose a garden pitch using our market - an illustrated catalog in which it is convenient to compare prices for goods from different online stores.
Purpose of pruning raspberries in the fall
It would seem, why bother to come to a raspberry-tree with a pruner? In the forest, no one does this, and there is enough fragrant, healthy berries for both forest dwellers and people who come with buckets and baskets. However, it is worth remembering what area of forest thickets must be robbed and how much time to spend to collect a bucket of raspberries. Yes, it grows itself, but it grows small and there is not much of it per square meter. And at the summer cottage we want to get large berries and more, but we allocate the garden well if it is a quarter of a hundred square meters, and usually even less. Therefore, you have to take care of raspberries: water, fertilize, loosen, prepare for winter and cut out everything unnecessary in time.
The berries in the forest will grow delicious, but without care they will be small, there will be few of them
On an ordinary perennial raspberry, each shoot lives for two seasons: appearing in the spring, it grows intensively, remaining flexible and green until autumn, preparing for the fact that next year it should give a harvest of berries and then dry up and die. If you do not touch it, it can stand in a dried state for another year, or even more, cluttering the plantation. Eventually, it will fall and turn into a mulching material. It seems to be good, but the fact is that most often during this time various bad spider bugs manage to settle in the shoot - raspberry pests and our competitors for the harvest. And even different sores. So it turns out that the main reason for the need to trim raspberries is clear to us. Fruiting shoots must be removed on time.
The second reason lies in the ability of the raspberry bush to give numerous new shoots: more than the root system can feed. No, the extra ones, the shoots, of course, will not die by their own death, but they will give very little berries, and they will require a lot of nutrients. Thus, the second reason to take the pruner in hand is the excessive thickening of the raspberry bushes, the need for their elementary thinning. So that really strong shoots striving to give a high yield, there was enough food, water and sun for this, so that the bushes could be ventilated, so that any unnecessary viruses and bacteria do not accumulate in the raspberry bush. And how do we ourselves wade through the thorny thickets with a bucket, picking berries? Therefore, it turns out that by pruning, we take care of not only the health of raspberries, but also our own.
This raspberry patch will have something to work on
Many varieties of raspberries, when given plenty of food and drink, grow into very tall bushes. Why do we need to pick berries from the ladder? After all, a raspberry tree two meters tall and above is simply inconvenient. In addition, very long shoots do not have enough strength to produce crops on all their branches, along the entire stem height. Yes, and these branches will not be enough if the stem strives upward. So the third reason is clear: shortening too long shoots and forming a bush in order to form side branches and get berries from them. By correct pruning, we do not destroy the future harvest, but, on the contrary, make it richer.
Many people carry out autumn pruning only in October, in order to still have time to catch warm days. But it turns out that the main work in a regular (not remontant) raspberry plant can be done much earlier! Fruit-bearing shoots should be cut out immediately after the last berries are collected, obviously superfluous, weak shoots should be removed all summer, as they appear (after all, it quickly becomes clear whether he wants to grow big and strong or will only suffer!). The tops of powerful shoots can be pruned as soon as they become higher than the head, and this also does not happen in the fall. Therefore, "autumn pruning" is a rather arbitrary name, only the final touches of this action can be left for the fall. These strokes should be applied about three weeks before the arrival of the first frost.
Raspberry pests and control
Aphids on raspberries
Raspberry leaf aphids and raspberry shoot aphids are widespread pests of raspberries, blackberries and other garden berry crops. Shoot aphids settle in colonies at the ends of shoots and in raspberry inflorescences, and leaf aphids live in small groups on the underside of leaves and feed on their juice. The shoot aphid slows down the growth of raspberries, and the leaf aphid, in addition, is a carrier of viral diseases. The method of combating aphids consists in spraying the plants with karbofos or actellik during the period of raspberry budding.
Spider mite on raspberries
This insect affects not only raspberries, but also gooseberries, black and red currants, strawberries, blueberries, elderberries, roses and grapes. The mite, located on the underside of the leaves and feeding on their sap, braids the leaves with a thin cobweb. The damaged areas become discolored, with the course of the disease, the leaves become marbled, gradually dry and eventually fall off. The harbinger of the appearance of ticks on raspberries is a stable and prolonged heat without precipitation. An effective measure in the fight against ticks is spraying raspberry bushes (gooseberries, currants, etc.) with acaricides, which include drugs such as malofos, phosphamide, colloidal sulfur, cydial, metaphos. If the dominance of ticks is too strong, the treatment of plants with acaricides can be carried out repeatedly - up to four times a season with an interval of ten days. In order not to create a comfortable environment for ticks, in addition to watering in arid heat, they practice spraying the bushes with water in the evening.
Gall midges on raspberries
Two types of raspberries and gall midges are harmful - the raspberry gall midge, or the shoot gall midge and the raspberry stem gall midge, laying eggs in cracks and damage to the bark on the lower part of the shoots, forming galls - swellings. In the affected shoots, the bark dies and exfoliates, they dry out. Shoots with characteristic signs of damage (swelling in the root areas of the stems) must be cut out and destroyed along with the pests, the soil in which gall midges winter in spring and autumn must be dug to a depth of 15 cm, and the plants must be treated with karbofos or actellik.
The raspberry nutcracker behaves in a similar way, laying the larvae in the raspberry shoots, on which galls are formed from this. If this pest is detected, it is necessary to spray raspberries with the same karbofos or actellik, as well as ambush, before flowering.
This is a medium-sized insect up to 4 mm in length, covered with yellow or gray hairs. It hibernates in the upper soil layer, and by the end of May it migrates to raspberry buds and eats them away, also damaging the opened flowers and leaves. At the end of July, the larvae return to the soil again, pupate there in order to turn into beetles in the fall. It is necessary to get rid of raspberry beetles during the budding period, shaking them off the bush and destroying them. It is obligatory to dig up the soil under the bushes and in the aisles during the pupation period of the larvae. Good results in the destruction of this pest are obtained by spraying raspberries with confidor, decis or ten percent solution of karbofos.
This bug harms not only raspberries, but also strawberries, so the appearance of a weevil in a summer cottage is highly undesirable. Beetles overwinter under fallen leaves and clods of earth, and in spring they lay eggs in buds, where the larva feeds on a flower, eating it from the inside. One female weevil, laying one egg per bud, is capable of damaging up to 50 flowers in this way. In June-July, a new generation of leaf-eating weevils appears. To prevent the beetles from destroying the crop, spray the raspberry plant during budding and no later than five days before the flowers open, with malofos, actellic, metaphos or other preparations of a similar effect.
Raspberry kidney moth
It is a butterfly with dark brown wings with small golden spots, a moth caterpillar is red with a dark brown head. Most of all, this insect harms early raspberry varieties.Caterpillars hibernate in cracks in stems or under plant debris on the ground, and in early spring they move to shoots and gnaw out the buds, and then penetrate into the flesh of the shoot, pupate there at the end of May, and from the beginning of flowering of raspberries, butterflies fly out of pupae, laying eggs in raspberry flowers ... The caterpillars emerging from them eat the berries, destroying the raspberry crop. In order not to help the bud moth to reproduce, do not leave stumps from them when pruning old shoots. Spray the raspberry bush with confidor, spark, decis, or 3% karbofos emulsion in early spring, when the buds are just starting to swell.
Raspberry stem fly
- is also a dangerous pest, the larvae of which gnaw out spiral passages inside the stems from above to the roots, which is why the tops of the shoots wither, then turn black and rot. When flowering begins, the larvae go into the soil, where they hibernate and turn into butterflies that fly out in the spring and lay the larvae, eating the stem from the inside. Examine the bushes carefully and immediately cut off the affected shoot tops to a healthy stem. Spray raspberries with actellik or karbofos in early spring, when they are just starting to grow shoots. In the fall, remove fallen leaves from the site.
Raspberry glass behaves in about the same way, but it prefers to winter in the core of the stem or root of the raspberry, forming swellings on them. That is why it is very difficult to destroy it with an insecticide. Cut out old shoots that will no longer bear fruit, without leaving a hemp from them, make sure that there are no cracks and mechanical damage on the stems.
How to prune raspberries correctly, timing, rules and tips
Raspberry is a valuable berry crop of the Rose family and is widely cultivated in all climatic zones, except for the Far North, desert and semi-desert. By origin, it is a forest berry. The fruits contain sugars, vitamins C, A, group B, organic acids, pectin. The presence of salicylic acid causes an antipyretic effect, therefore, the use of berries during a cold significantly alleviates symptoms and shortens the duration of the disease. Raspberries are grown in almost every garden, but not all gardeners know when and how to prune raspberries in order to achieve high yields and large berries. Let's take a closer look at these issues.
What is raspberry pruning for?
It is impossible to do without pruning the bushes, since it is dictated by the biological characteristics of the culture. This agricultural practice allows you to get a high yield, berries from cut bushes are larger and sweeter. The bushes are well lit by the sun and ventilated, they are less affected by fungal and bacterial diseases. The entire plantation looks aesthetically pleasing, root suckers do not fill the entire space of the site.
By their nature, raspberries are a semi-shrub that reproduces in their natural environment by root suckers. The cultivars that are grown in the gardens have retained this feature of their ancestors. If you do not remove their root shoots and do not prune the bushes themselves, the yield is significantly reduced. The operation allows maintaining a balance within the plant between the distribution of nutrients for vegetative growth and yield formation.
Another important biological feature is fruiting on last year's shoots, which die off after the berries ripen. On last year's shoots, fruit branches are formed - laterals, which bear fruits collected in bunches. Pruning stimulates lateral formation, allowing more berries to ripen and grow larger.
In ordinary raspberry varieties, new shoots that grow in the current year will yield the next year, while in remontant varieties, berries will be there by the end of summer, and usually their ripening continues until the onset of frost. Here it is important to figure out when to cut remontant raspberries for the winter in order to ensure active growth and fruiting for the bushes next year. In both types of varieties, old, fruiting shoots must be removed, otherwise the entire plantation quickly grows old, takes on an unkempt appearance and loses its productivity.
When to prune raspberries correctly
Raspberries are generally an unpretentious plant. It is most correct to cut it in the summer after harvesting, at the same time pruning dead shoots, rationing the bush and removing overgrowth. In Siberia and the Urals, it is good to prune raspberries in July or early August.
One-time summer pruning provides good productivity of the bushes with easy maintenance. However, in order to achieve maximum yield and longevity of plants, a single pruning is not enough. A whole series of operations with the bush is also required. In fact, they are held throughout the season. So, year-round operations include:
- spring pruning of the tops of the shoots to different heights
- rationing of the number of shoots at the beginning of summer
- removal of dead shoots in July-August
- rationing of young shoots in August
- autumn rationing or complete cutting of the shoots of remontant varieties in October.
Below we take a closer look at each procedure.
The following tools come in handy for trimming raspberries:
- sharp-edged pruner
- long-handled garden shears
- garden file
- mittens or heavy gloves.
The pruner and garden shears must be well sharpened, with an adjusted return mechanism, that is, it must effortlessly return to the "open" position, otherwise the hand will be very tired when working. Chlorhexidine, potassium permanganate solution, any alcohol or acetic acid are used to remove dirt and disinfect the cutting surfaces of all tools. An instrument is immersed in a disinfectant liquid or processed from a spray bottle. During work, to prevent the transmission of fungal, viral or bacterial diseases from bush to bush, it is advisable to periodically wipe the blades with alcohol wipes or use a medical disinfectant spray.
If the plantation is planted near a hedge, then getting close to the extreme shoots of large bushes can be very difficult. Long-handled scissors, similar to those used for cutting bushes, will come to the rescue. If you work with a pruner, you can cut off by grabbing the shoots low with your other hand. It is also easy to trim the tops in spring with scissors in tall, upright varieties.
Trimming Procedure for Regular Raspberries
In the spring, they check the bushes, how they overwintered. Blackened and frozen branches are removed. The tops of healthy shoots are cut with scissors to different heights to allow the berries to develop in all tiers. The most developed and thick branches are cut by 12-15 cm, thinner ones by 15-30 cm, and the weakest ones by 30-40 cm. Thus, weak shoots can get stronger and will not give small and sluggish berries, but large and juicy ones. The upper buds on the shoots mostly bear rudimentary and underdeveloped berries. If you do not trim the tops, then the plant will consume too many nutrients for their development and other berries will become smaller.
In early June, you need to calculate how many young shoots have developed on each bush and bring their number to the norm of 7-12 pieces. You need to cut out underdeveloped branches that grow too close and shade each other. The remaining powerful shoots, as they reach a height of more than 1 m, are fixed on the trellis. After about a month, the harvest begins to ripen. On some varieties, at this time, stepchildren can form in the sinuses of the kidneys, they are carefully cut off with a pruner - they are stepchildren.
After harvesting, the sprouted shoots are cut out, sometimes without waiting for their complete withering away. During this period, the bushes give root growth especially strongly. If you are not going to plant this variety of raspberries, there is no need to preserve the shoots. If not cut out, they greatly weaken the mother plant, which may even soon die.
Choose a minimum cutting height for fruit-bearing branches. The best option is when "hemp" from the cuts are no higher than 1.5 cm above the ground. Shoots should be dug up and cut off at a depth of at least 5 cm.
In the fall, it's time to think about how the plants will winter. Most cultivated varieties have high winter hardiness and can overwinter open. In regions with harsh winters, it may be necessary to bend the shoots to the ground and mulch the soil in the plantation strip with old manure.
The procedure for pruning remontant raspberries and feeding
Repaired raspberries bear fruit twice a season. Almost all varieties get more berries in the second harvest within 3-4 weeks. In this variety of raspberries, it is important to ensure that new productive shoots begin to grow vigorously at the beginning of summer. To do this, they need to be well fertilized. In the first decade of June, additional feeding with infusion of bird droppings is needed: 2 kg of dry droppings are poured with 10 liters of water, infused for 5-7 days, then diluted in a ratio of 1:10. This solution is given watering 4-5 liters for each bush.
Good results are obtained by feeding and spraying raspberries in spring with ammonia. You need to start feeding when a stable average daily air temperature of 10 ° C is reached. For watering, prepare a solution of 2-3 tablespoons per bucket of water. It also helps plants resist disease and pests by spraying. Tar soap (2 tablespoons) is added to the treatment solution for better adhesion of active ingredients and disinfection.
If strong bushes are formed, then they can provide food for 10-12 branches. But when the shrub is weakened, more than 4-5 shoots should not be left. During flowering, the tops of the head can be trimmed slightly for better berry setting.
It is advisable to feed raspberries with potassium in early autumn. The berries will become sweeter and larger. You can use potassium chloride or give 1 glass of wood ash under each bush (you should not use ash from the stove if you used a newspaper to light firewood, since newspaper paints contain lead that can get into the berries). Harvesting should be done gradually. In years with an early onset of frost, the average and late harvest may not ripen. The berries can still be harvested, dried, and used to brew herbal tea in winter.
You need to cut remontant raspberries in the fall at the latest before the onset of frost. All weakened, damaged and shading shoots are excised. The rest are bent to the ground and secured with wire pins.
Double pruning raspberries
To harvest a high yield during the second harvest, double pruning is carried out on remontant raspberries. This means that in July and early August, the sprouted shoots are cut out, and in October, absolutely all shoots on the plantation are removed. Branch cuttings are harvested for cuttings for subsequent reproduction in the spring.
This technique allows you to completely get rid of wintering pests and there is no danger of branches freezing. The roots are covered with organic mulch. Fertilizer with a high nitrogen content is given in the spring. In this case, the plants will not give an early harvest, but the second will be very high. On raspberry field plantations, one late harvest covers both harvests in terms of quantity and quality of berries.
Conditions for high productivity of raspberries and other tips
Pruning is undoubtedly an important agricultural technique, but it is far from the only one on which the harvest depends. Raspberries love to grow in open, sunny places with fertile, water-permeable soil. The reaction of the soil solution should be neutral or slightly acidic. If there are trees or a vegetable garden nearby, the oppression of the bushes is possible due to the unfavorable neighborhood. So, bushes can die if cherries, grapes, sea buckthorn, hosts, garlic, radishes or beans grow nearby.
Plants need regular watering, feeding, soil mulching. Among pests, the mite has a depressing effect on raspberries. In early spring, during the period of complete budding, it is good to carry out treatment with Fitoverm. It is an effective biological preparation that will significantly improve the health of the entire plantation.
We advise each gardener to develop their own calendar for caring for their favorite berry, taking into account the recommendations presented and the opportunity to devote time to the garden. Try to trim the raspberries at the right time. Remember, pruning in the summer is very important. Repaired raspberries can be cut completely for the winter. In the spring, it is important to feed the shrub well. We wish you good luck and high yields!