How and what to fertilize beets and onions
Read the previous part: How and what to fertilize carrots
The use of fertilizers in the cultivation of beets and onions
Beet, as a root crop, differs little from carrots in biochemical reaction to fertilizers applied. The best quality beet crop is usually obtained with the application of phosphorus and potash fertilizers against the background of moderate doses of nitrogen.
Against the background of the introduction of manure 5 kg / m², lime 500-1000 g / m², urea 10-15, sodium nitrate 10-15, superphosphate 20-25, potassium magnesium 15-20, boric acid 1.0, cobalt sulfate 0.5, ammonium molybdate 0.1 g / m² beets give a high yield of tasty root crops with a cost price 2-3 times lower than that of those purchased from the store.
Onions are one of the main vegetable crops. It contains proteins necessary for the human body (2%), sugars (6-12%), mineral salts (0.6-1.14%), vitamins (A, B, C, etc.), essential oils, phytoncides and etc. The composition of onion mineral salts includes potassium (150 mg per 100 g of raw weight), phosphorus (123 mg), calcium (29 mg), iron (0.4 mg), as well as zinc, aluminum, copper and other elements.
The taste and smell of onions depends on the essential oil, the content of which reaches 0.1%. Due to its specific aroma, onions stimulate appetite and improve digestion, contributing to the good absorption of food. Aromatic substances of onions, which are part of the essential oil, cause bactericidal and phytoncidal action.
The value of onions increases due to the fact that they contain a lot of vitamin C. So, in the onion bulb it contains about 20 mg%, and in green leaves - 35 mg%. Onion vitamins can be used for food throughout the year, since the bulb is stored for quite a long time. It can also be used to grow vitamin-rich greens.
Onions make increased demands on the presence of mobile forms of nutrients in the soil. However, its root system is very sensitive to increased salt concentration. These features should be taken into account when applying increased doses of mineral fertilizers.
The use of fertilizers has a positive effect on the yield and onion quality. A full dose of mineral fertilizers slightly increased the total sugar content in onions (from 9.5 to 10.5%). Row fertilization increased the sugar content of the bulbs to 11.2%. The content of vitamin C and dry matter changed as follows: dry matter in the bulbs of the control variant was 11.5%, vitamin C - 9.1 mg%, and in the variant with the introduction of the full norm of fertilizers, respectively, 12.5% and 10 mg%.
The best effect of fertilizers on the yield and onion quality was achieved with the combined use of organic and mineral fertilizers. Of all the studied methods of fertilization, the best was the use of manure and nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers for digging in the spring.
With an insufficient content of microelements in the soil, their use provides a significant increase in onion yield and an improvement in product quality. The highest quality products were obtained with the combined use of all trace elements.
Optimal doses of manure 6-8 kg / m², urea 20-30 g / m², double superphosphate - 20-30 and potassium chloride - 20-25 g / m² together with boric acid, copper sulfate, cobalt sulfate 0.5 each and molybdate ammonium 0.2 g / m² can significantly increase the yield and quality of onions. The cost of purchasing fertilizers is easily recouped by an increase in yield and an increase in product quality.
One general remark, so as not to forget - the optimal doses and forms of fertilizers given in the article are given for medium-fertile soils and for application for digging in the spring. When sowing, always add 5-7 g / m² superphosphate. It is desirable to use them in the specified composition, however, the doses can be reduced for highly fertile soils or increased for poor soddy-podzolic soils by one third.
Discussion of the problem shows that the correct application of fertilizers, taking into account local soil and climatic conditions, the requirements of cultivated crops, is always economically profitable and serves as a guarantee for obtaining high yields and good quality agricultural products. We wish you every success!
On the influence of fertilizers on the quality of vegetable crops
- How and what to fertilize cabbage
- How and what to fertilize tomatoes
- How and what to fertilize cucumbers
- How and what to fertilize carrots
- How and what to fertilize beets and onions
associate professor, chief specialist
North-West Scientific and Methodological Center of the Russian Agricultural Academy,
Olga Vasyaeva, amateur gardener
How to feed beets in August
Beetroot can accumulate nitrates in root crops when feeding plants with nitrogenous mixtures. It should also be borne in mind that all feeding must be stopped on time, 25-30 days before the planned harvest. Therefore, it is at the end of summer that the nutrition of beet plants must be approached extremely carefully.
With good growth of leaves and closing of rows with plantings, beets are fed once with phosphorus-potassium nutrition for filling root crops. This can be Omu fertilizer for root crops, Autumn, or separately taken in a tablespoon of potassium sulfate (or potassium chloride) and superphosphate. The use of such a mixture is classic: we crush the superphosphate and insist separately to obtain an extract, then add potassium, add up to the 10 liter mark. Stir and water along the rows of beets along the pre-moistened grooves. If salts get on the leaves after feeding from the watering can, wash off the solution with clean water.
If the plants are lagging behind in growth, then mullein infusion is added to the feeding mixture. Fertilizing with Nitroammofosk, Azofosk is allowed.
It is very effective in August to feed plantings with beets with ash. A glass of ash is scattered over a 1.5m bed, loosened so that the ash goes into the soil and watered with water.
For the sugar content of root crops, salt feeding is carried out, a full tablespoon of table salt is diluted in 10 liters of water (sea salt is also possible). Watering is carried out along the grooves, stepping back 4-6 cm from the root crops.
It is useful to carry out all feeding after rain.
Fertilizing vegetables: when and how to fertilize vegetables?
Every gardener dreams of a large harvest of vegetables: to have large carrots, crispy cucumbers, sweet beets, juicy tomatoes, broccoli with large inflorescences. Fruitful success can be achieved through the appropriate feeding of vegetables. When do vegetables need feeding and how to fertilize them? Here, each plant has its own schedule.
Tomatoes need nitrogen-type fertilization, especially when the fruits begin to form. You can also feed tomatoes with humus and vermicompost. But phosphorus fertilizers are undesirable: when it is cold outside, tomatoes do not absorb such feeding well.
The first time you need to fertilize tomatoes when planting seedlings: humus or vermicompost is mixed into the ground, decorated with holes. The second fertilization - 2 weeks after the first: it should be a solution of mullein or bird droppings. The third feeding of the vegetable - also with mullein or droppings - is carried out 2 weeks after the second. Then continue to fertilize with mullein every 2 weeks.
And if you only dream of purchasing a summer cottage or a house, then you can grow tomatoes on the windowsill.
These vegetables are very whimsical: they need to be fertilized with each watering. The first feeding of cucumbers is during sowing seeds in the ground. At this time, 10 g of nitrophoska or 500 g of humus must be added to the ground for each meter of the furrow.
The second fertilization is after the appearance of two leaves of the plant. Mullein or bird droppings must be mixed with soil. The third fertilizer is also done with mullein or bird droppings. Such feeding is needed when the plant blooms. Then the cucumbers are fertilized with droppings or mullein every 5 days.
You need to be very careful with beets: if you fertilize this plant with nitrogen fertilizers, the vegetable will accumulate a large amount of nitrates. The first time the beets are fertilized before sowing: nitrophoska is added to the soil (20-30 g per 1 sq. M).
You can fertilize the beets a second time when two pairs of leaves appear above the ground. Here you will need foliar feeding with humates with microelements. The third feeding of the vegetable is 20 days after the second, also foliar.
In no case should you fertilize carrots with fresh manure: this will lead to deformation of the plant roots. In addition, because of the manure, carrots can be damaged by a carrot fly.
The first feeding of carrots is needed after the first leaf grows. While loosening the earth, you need to mix nitrophosphate to it - 1 tbsp. l. for 1 m row of carrots. The second feeding is exactly the same as the first one in a month. The third feeding is again with the help of nitrophoska, a month after the second. Fertilize carrots every month until autumn.
The best fertilizer for regular cabbage is organic. Therefore, the first time the cabbage is fertilized during planting (mixed into the holes of humus). The second feeding is possible in about 2 weeks after the first. Either mullein or chicken droppings are introduced into the aisles, and fertilizer is embedded in the ground.
Further, such fertilizers are repeated every 2-3 weeks. The last time the cabbage is fertilized at the end of August with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. 10 g of potassium sulfate superphosphate will be needed for 1 sq. m of cabbage.
Cauliflower and broccoli
In order to get a crop with large cauliflower or broccoli flowers, you need to fertilize these plants with nitrogen, boron and molybdenum. The first feeding of these vegetables is when planting seedlings in the ground: humus must be added to each hole (50 g in each).
10 days after the first fertilization, the second will be needed. For it, you need to take a solution of mullein and chicken droppings and embed it in the ground. After 10-15 days, repeat (third cabbage fertilization). Before the inflorescences are formed, you also need to have time to carry out foliar feeding with micronutrient fertilizers.
Zucchini, zucchini, squash
In general, these plants are known for their unpretentiousness. But during sowing, it is better to add 2-3 g of nitrophosphate to each well. You can replace nitrophoska with humus (50 g in each well), but this fertilizer must be very thoroughly mixed in the soil.
The second fertilization is after 3-4 leaves grow. You can fertilize at this time with mullein or droppings. The third feeding (also with mullein or droppings) will be needed when the plant blooms. Then zucchini, squash and zucchini can be fed with droppings or mullein every 10-15 days until the end of the growing season.
It will not be possible to grow eggplants in poor soil: this plant loves soil rich in minerals, black soil. The first feeding is necessary for eggplant during planting in the ground: it should be nitrophoska (2-3 g in each hole), mixed with earth.
Two weeks after the first fertilization - the second. It is better to use fermented mullein or bird droppings here. The third fertilization is during the formation of eggplant buds (fermented droppings or mullein). The fourth feeding is with fermented droppings or mullein, after harvesting the fruits. And so - until the end of the fruiting of the plant.
It is better to fertilize pepper little by little, but often. Feeding peppers with large doses of fertilizer can ruin the entire crop. In the case of pepper, as with most vegetables, you need to choose a nitrophosphate for the first feeding. During planting, add 2-3 g of nitrophoska to each well and mix with soil.
The plant needs a second feeding 2 weeks after the first one. This can be rotten mullein or droppings. The same fertilizers should be used for the third feeding during bud formation. The pepper is then fertilized with mullein or fermented droppings after each harvest.
We also recommend reading the article on how to grow peppers on a windowsill.
The peculiarity of this vegetable is that it very poorly tolerates fresh organic matter, so you only need to fertilize the onion with fermented droppings or mullein. The first time to feed onions is after the appearance of two green leaves. Add 10-15 g of ammonium nitrate to the row spacing per 1 sq. m beds.
The second onion fertilization is when 4 onion leaves grow. Fertilize with fermented droppings. You shouldn't fertilize the onions anymore.
The first time you need to fertilize garlic is in the fall during planting. To do this, use 2 tbsp. nitrophoes per 1 sq. m beds. If you are planting garlic in the spring, then use ammonium nitrate (1 tablespoon per 1 sq. M). After 2-3 weeks, feeding must be repeated - fertilize the ground with fermented mullein or droppings. The last dressing for garlic planted in spring will be needed in mid-May.
Also, be sure to read our article on watering your garden properly.
How to plant beets
Hello dear guests of the site!
Today we'll talk a little about how to plant beets, look after her and when to clean.
Beets are a more moisture-loving plant than, for example, carrots and are more demanding on heat and light. Tilling the soil is similar to tilling the soil for carrots, which is described in the previous article on how to plant carrots.
To speed up the emergence of seedlings, the seeds must first be soaked for a day, since when sown in moist soil with germinated seeds, seedlings appear already on the 5th - 6th day.
Recommended nutrient steeping solutions:
1. In 1 liter of water, dilute 1 tablespoon of ash.
2. In 1 liter of warm water (30 degrees), dilute 2 grams of the "Bud" preparation.
3. In 1 liter of water, dilute 1 teaspoon of the drug "Drop".
4. In 1 liter of water, dilute 1 teaspoon of Agricola-Vegeta
Now let's move on to the beds and prepare the grooves at a distance of 45 - 50 centimeters from each other. The grooves are made with the back of the hoe or shovel. The ground should be loose and fluffy.
After that, you need to slightly moisten the grooves and sow, sprinkling the seeds with loose earth. Embedding depth - 2-3 centimeters.
Beets must be sown when the ground has already warmed up to 8 - 10 degrees. For early consumption, it is sown from April 25 to May 5. For winter storage - from May 10 to 15.
When 3-4 true leaves appear on the beets, it is necessary to carry out the first thinning, leaving 3-5 centimeters between the plants. For the second thinning, I leave 10 - 12 centimeters between the roots.
During the growing season of beets, it is necessary to carry out 5-6 irrigations of 5-8 liters per square meter with the obligatory subsequent loosening of the rows and mulching.
The first feeding should be done in the aisles after the first thinning, at the rate of 5 grams of ammonium nitrate, 10 grams of superphosphate, 10 grams of potassium chloride per square meter.
I give the second dressing after closing the leaves of the tops of one row of beets with another. I increase the fertilizer dosage 1.5 times compared to the first feeding.
I harvest beets before the onset of frost. Around the end of August - beginning of September.
Beets can be stored well and are not particularly demanding on storage conditions. It can be stored in bins, boxes, trenches, etc. The best temperature for storing beets is +1 degrees Celsius at a relative humidity of 90 - 95%.
But this video describes a method of planting beets using the seedling method
The article describes how to plant beets in relation to the regions of central Russia and the Middle Volga region. In other zones, planting times, fertilization rates, and harvest times may vary significantly.