How to properly prune chokeberry, honeysuckle and sea buckthorn
A healthy bush - a rich harvest
There is not a single fruit or berry species that, to one degree or another, does not need pruning - the most important agricultural technique that ensures the successful development and fruiting of plants.
Gardeners who grow this wonderful plant rightly consider it an unpretentious, pleasing annual harvest. But the latter will be more significant, and the fruits will be larger with timely and correct pruning.
A characteristic feature of this culture is its great shoot-restoring and shoot-productive ability. Due to this, chokeberry plants are prone to excessive thickening and, as a result, to a deterioration in the growth of branches, the death of overgrown wood inside the bush, and a decrease in yields. Therefore, the essence of pruning is a thorough, annual normalization of the basal shoots.
If the bush is young, but there are many branches in it, then all emerging basal shoots should be removed (without leaving stumps). In the bush, it is advisable to have up to 40-45 branches of different ages with the width of the base of the bush up to 1 m.
The productive age of the branch is up to ten years. Removing unproductive branches, they are replaced by the same number of basal shoots.
Chokeberry responds well to partial and complete rejuvenation of all branches. In the latter case, pruning of bushes older than 12-13 years old is very effective at half their height (about 1 m from the soil surface). It makes sense to carry out such rejuvenating pruning every 3-5 years. In any case, one should not forget about the need to thin out the bushes, carry out sanitary pruning.
For which honeysuckle is unpretentious, but it cannot do without pruning. However, honeysuckle is ready to refuse post-plant pruning.
In the early years, it grows very slowly, but branches quite strongly. Therefore, 7-10 years after planting, these plants usually need only sanitary pruning and thinning.
In the future, honeysuckle will require the removal of old, unproductive branches. Cutting them out completely, like other berry bushes, will not work. Here we must take into account the fact that the renewal of the crown in her is only due to dormant buds. Therefore, after waiting for the appearance of a top (fat) shoot at the base of the old branch, you should remove the branch close to it, thereby making a strong rejuvenating pruning.
The degree of anti-aging pruning can vary. It is necessary to take into account the position of the aging branches themselves and shorten them in the zone of emerging strong shoots. The latter should not be shortened, so as not to deprive yourself of the best and most of the harvest.
Old, neglected bushes can be fundamentally pruned "on a stump" by shortening all branches at a height of 0.3-0.4 m from the soil surface. A year later, they will begin to bear fruit again, delighting with the increased mass of berries. In gratitude for this, the bushes should be thinned out, leaving no more than 15 of the most qualitatively restored branches.
Pruning honeysuckle, in order to please yourself, should be done with a well-sharpened tool, since its wood is famous for its hardness. It was not without reason that it was previously used to make rake teeth, weaving shuttles, billiard balls and other items.
The crown of plants is not specially formed. Only single-stemmed seedlings are pruned after planting, slightly shortening them in order to cause branching and form a multi-stem bush. This crown shape allows better utilization of the feeding area, a larger yield and facilitates harvesting.
Pruning sea buckthorn is reduced to the annual cutting of dried shoots and root shoots. The latter should be removed very carefully. With a decrease in the length of the growth of branches to 10-15 cm, rejuvenating pruning is performed for three-year-old wood.
If the plants are cultivated in a tree-like form, then the shoots on the trunk are removed in a timely manner, otherwise it will form strong branches that weaken the plant. To ensure that the tops do not appear on the trunk, should be done even during planting, making sure that the position of the seedling is strictly vertical.
Sea buckthorn reacts very painfully to pruning of the root system. Therefore, in seedlings, only damaged roots should be shortened and in no case should they cut out, as some gardeners who are not familiar with the biology of this amazing plant, do nodule formations on the roots. The latter fix atmospheric nitrogen, which contributes to good growth and development of plants on nitrogen-poor sandy soils. No other garden plant has this property.
candidate of agricultural sciences
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Plant response to pruning
Pruning causes some trauma to the tree, which it will subsequently heal. Cuts will grow faster when cutting a thin branch from a thick one. After that, the crust grows. In the case when a thick one appears from a thin branch, there is no growth.
This is observed in overgrown trees. Over time, the cut area will become a hollow. Therefore, you need to process the saw cut with a garden pitch. Gradually, the bush will grow a new trunk, for which the hollow will not harm.
What will cardinal pruning lead to:
- non-feeding root will provoke the development of young individuals
- part of the root system will die
- non-compliance with the technology will lead to disruption of the relationship between roots, trunk and crown.
So, according to the state of the foliage, you can determine that now, it is not worth cutting off the branches, but it is better to start strengthening the roots. Weeds are cleaned, digging up the ground at a shallow depth. Add compost. Sprinkle with fresh earth, closer to the base of the root. Only dried branches are cut to lighten the trunk.
The purpose of the formation of the crown
The highest yield is in a bush up to 7 years old. But, if you do not take care of chokeberry, then after 2-3 years it grows, reaching a diameter of 3 m or more, due to which fruiting decreases. The inner branches do not have enough light, the ovaries fly around, the fruits are not formed. But if the berries do appear, they are sour, small, medium-sized brushes.
If you do not cut the chokeberry, the green part develops actively, but it will not be possible to harvest a decent harvest. In addition, due to the lack of ultraviolet radiation, the activity of pathogenic fungi increases. After rain, the wood does not dry out for a long time, rotting areas are formed.
5 important things to do in a flower garden in March
1. Protect conifers from the sun... The March sun can cause great damage to the needles of evergreen shrubs. If your conifers are not protected, be sure to cover them with non-woven fabric to protect them from sunburn.
After the snow melts, remove the harness from shrubs and conifers.
2. Pay attention to the roses. Open the roses covered for the winter for airing. It is especially important to do this during thaws. If the snow has already melted and heavy snowfall is not expected, remove the top layer of covering material. Leave the lapnik until the night frost stops and the soil thaws.
3. Maintain your lawn... Depending on the condition of the soil on the lawn, start cleaning it. In this case, the main thing is not to rush, wait until the soil dries out, so as not to damage the green carpet and not turn the flat lawn into a bumpy surface with holes.
Clean the dry lawn with a fan rake, remove debris and remnants of dried grass. Apply nitrogen fertilizers such as ammonium nitrate or urea.
4. Sow annuals... The first spring month is the sowing time for seedlings of annual flowers. In the first half of the month, sow antirrinum (snapdragon), heliotrope, levkoy, callistefus (annual aster), petunia, salvia.
In the second half of March, ageratum, Gaillardia, Drummond phlox, celosia, zinnia, fragrant peas can be sown.
5. Dive annual flowers. The annuals sown in February with a long growing season are time to open. The earliest sowing is begonia, Shabo carnation, lobelia, and verbena. Plants dive at the moment when they have 1-2 true leaves. They are transplanted into separate containers, being careful not to damage the roots.
Immediately after transplanting, the seedlings are watered very carefully, because the plants have not yet taken root in the soil. After 10-14 days, the seedlings are fed with complex mineral fertilizers or special mixtures for flower seedlings.
Gardening, chores with seedlings of vegetables and flowers bring the long-awaited summer season closer. Plan your time so that everything is in time during the hot spring time.
How to plant sea buckthorn in different seasons
The genetic memory of the "sea thorn" (this is how sea buckthorn is called in warm countries for its love for the shores of water bodies) is quite strong, and the shrub often starts growing during the first thaw. Alas, we are far from the Mediterranean climate, and therefore the sea buckthorn that awakened too early can freeze and die.
When planting sea buckthorn in autumn, carefully cover the seedlings, mulch their roots and root collar. Plant a few plants just in case, because there is a high probability that not everyone will survive the winter.
Therefore, in our latitudes, it is more correct to plant sea buckthorn in the spring, when the frost has already passed. The branched root network of the sea buckthorn will not allow you to transplant the plant without loss, so you need to choose a permanent place for the seedling right away. The main requirements of the culture are illumination and neutral soil.
- seedlings are planted at a distance of 2.5-3 m from each other
- "male" plants are planted upwind
- if the neighbors have a "male" sea buckthorn, then you can do only with "female" plants, provided that the distance to the neighbor's pollinator is no more than 10 m
- the diameter and depth of the planting pit is about 50 cm
- humus, double superphosphate (according to the instructions) and a handful of ash are introduced into the pit
- the root collar of the seedling is placed at soil level
- after planting, the plant is abundantly watered and mulched with cut grass, dry soil or low-lying (black) peat.
Sea buckthorn from seeds
Hello dear friends!
I already told you earlier about the reproduction of sea buckthorn by woody and green cuttings, root shoots. Today my story will go about growing sea buckthorn from seeds. To prevent sea buckthorn seeds from losing their germination, they must be stored in a dry place. You can sow in late autumn, but it is better in early spring in fluffy, nutritious soil with the addition of sand and peat. The soil must not be allowed to be very dry.
It is advisable to stratify the seeds. To do this, you need to mix them with coarse sand (1: 3) and keep for 20-25 days in the refrigerator at a temperature of 0-3 degrees Celsius. During this time, they are mixed 4-5 times. As soon as the seeds begin to hatch, they need to be dried for 1-3 hours to a free-flowing state, then sown to a depth of 5 cm and mulched with clean sand or other mulch that does not create a crust on the soil surface. If the seeds do not sprout for two months, then consider that they are gone. Seedlings of plants sown in late spring predominantly die.
When the first true leaves appear, the seedlings can be cut open so that they can grow for 2-3 years. The fact is that approximately the same number of female and male plants emerge from the seeds. Throwing away smaller plants is not worth it, since only men can remain. It is impossible to distinguish between them at first. This can only be done when male and female kidneys are being laid. Female kidneys are small and consist of two scales, while male kidneys are 2-3 times larger and have 5-7 scales. 4 female trees and one male tree are planted in a permanent place. The distance between the trees is 4 meters. Sea buckthorn loves nutritious sandy soils in a sunny location.
Root growth appears around sea buckthorn trees, which is very depleting of the main tree, so it must be carefully removed. Above ground pruning leads to more intensive growth of the growth. To stop its growth, you need to carefully rake the soil to the base of the overgrowth and cut it into a ring near the main root. If even a small stump remains, the shoots will begin to grow even more intensively. Every year, before budding with an early vein, you need to cut off dry branches and form the crown of the tree.
Be sure to try to grow sea buckthorn from seeds, because it is so great when a large adult plant is obtained from a small seed, delighting you with its fruits and berries.
Aronia propagates by seeds and vegetatively. Growers usually use vegetative propagation to get a new plant as quickly as possible. The most popular method is cuttings.
Seeds are extracted from ripe fruits. They are ground in a sieve and then immersed in water so that the pulp remaining on the seeds is separated.
Seed propagation order:
- The seed is stratified. The seeds are washed and placed in a container with disinfected sand - pre-calcined in the oven.
- Place the container with seeds in the refrigerator in the lower vegetable drawer.
- The seeds are planted in the grooves at the end of April. The depth of the furrows is 6-8 cm. From above, the crops are covered with soil and sprinkled with mulch.
- When the seedlings have 2 true leaves, thinning is carried out. There should be 3 cm between neighboring plants.When 4-5 leaves appear, re-thinning is carried out, increasing the intervals to 6 cm.
- The next thinning is carried out next spring. This time, gaps of 10 cm are left between the grown young growth.
- In the fall of the 2nd year, young seedlings can be transplanted.
During the cultivation of seedlings, the beds are watered, weeded and fed. Top dressing is applied once - in the spring it is watered with diluted manure.
The plant is propagated by green and lignified cuttings. They are harvested at different times, the first in June, the second in September.
Reproduction of chokeberry by different types of cuttings:
|Requirements for cuttings||Length 10-15 cm from the tops of the shoots||Length - 15-20 cm (5-6 buds). Cut from the middle of 2-4 summer branches|
|Substrate||Mix garden soil with wood ash and compost||Coarse river sand. Layer thickness - 10-15 cm.Base - clean and loose soil|
|Environment conditions||The optimum temperature is + 20 ° C. Constant humidity|
|Planting and rooting||Landing angle 45 degrees. Spacing between cuttings 4 cm||Planted at an angle of 45 degrees. The interval between cuttings is 10-12 cm|
|Care||Moderate watering, loosening, weeding, hilling|
The survival rate of cuttings is high - 70-100%. They are fed with ammonium nitrate (30 g per 10 l of water) and slurry. Transplants of seedlings to a permanent place are carried out in a year, for the next autumn.
Chokeberry produces many root suckers that can grow into a new plant. Shovels are separated with a shovel from the mother bush along with the roots. The shoot is cut so that about 4 buds remain on it. Further, the plant is looked after in the same way as for ordinary seedlings.
Under the bush in the spring they dig up the soil 20 cm deep. The strongest shoots are selected. They are bent to the ground and secured with staples. The tops of the shoots are pinched. They are then looked after as if they were mature shrubs.
When the shoots from the cut reach 12 cm, they are covered with humus. Plants continue to grow, and the dusting is repeated 3-4 more times. Separation and transplantation of "daughters" is carried out next spring.
By dividing the bush
In chokeberry, the roots are concentrated at a depth of 60 cm, so it can be dug up and divided into parts. The resulting shares are planted, receiving several new bushes at once. When dividing, old shoots are removed from the obtained parts. Reproduction by division is at the same time a rejuvenating procedure.
Chokeberry is inoculated in the spring, until sap flow has begun. Rowan seedlings serve as rootstocks. Splitting is performed on the stock with a sharp tool, and the scion is cut with a wedge. Shoots are tightly combined and wrapped with foil to create a greenhouse effect. after a month, the "winding" is removed.
How to grow sea buckthorn
For planting sea buckthorn, it is preferable to choose areas with neutral soil. It can be planted both in spring and autumn. The planting hole should be 45 to 55 centimeters deep and 50 to 60 centimeters in diameter. In the center of the pit, you need to install a stake. Fertile soil removed from the pit must be mixed with 10 - 12 kilograms of humus, peat or compost, as well as with 2 tablespoons of potassium sulfate and 3 tablespoons of superphosphate. Now this mixture needs to be poured into a hole and pour 20 liters of dolomite flour solution (for 10 liters of water - 1 glass). Pour fertile soil on top.
The seedlings should stand upright, and the root collar should be 5 to 6 centimeters deep. After planting, the seedling must be watered and sprinkled on top with humus, peat or ordinary soil.
One male must be planted on 3 - 5 female plants. Keep a distance of at least 2 meters between the bushes.
When growing sea buckthorn, care consists in regularly cutting out root shoots and dried shoots, as well as loosening the soil and keeping it moist.
You can water the sea buckthorn throughout the summer with a shower method, especially she loves to take a shower in hot weather.
During the season, you need to carry out 4 foliar dressings:
- The first top dressing is done before flowering, in the leaf blooming phase, with a solution of Effekton, Rossa liquid fertilizer or ordinary urea (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water).
- The second feeding is done at the beginning of the flowering period. To do this, dilute 1 tablespoon of liquid "Potassium Humate" in 10 liters of water.
- The third and fourth foliar dressing is done after flowering with a break of 20 days. For these dressings, you can take 1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water of liquid "Sodium humate" or liquid fertilizer "Effecton"
To quickly form a crown in one-year-old seedlings that do not have branches, you need to shorten the top. In the future, every year, before budding in early spring, it is necessary to carry out preventive pruning: remove frozen, excess, diseased, dried shoots and root shoots. After 8 - 10 years, it is worth doing a rejuvenating pruning. At the same time, three-year-old wood must be removed from the bushes.
This is, perhaps, all that I wanted to tell you about the cultivation of sea buckthorn on the site. I am always glad to receive your comments and additions. Subscribe to the site update so as not to miss the publication of new posts. See you!