Planting and caring for shallots outdoors
For many people, shallots are not much different from onions. But in fact, this is an independent species of the onion family, which is very popular in Western Europe. In Russia, you can find such names of this species as "skorozub" or "bush".
What are shallots?
Shallots are a biennial plant, the mention of which has been known since the 3rd century BC. The main vegetative organ of this plant is the bulb with many daughter buds (primordia). They germinate simultaneously, forming a kind of nest, consisting of several small heads. One plant may contain from several pieces to several dozen heads. For this feature, shallots are also called family shallots.
In order to obtain planting material, you do not have to grow seedlings from seeds. For this purpose, you can use any head. It is noteworthy that one bulb can become the basis for the appearance of several primordia, the total mass of which averages 200-300 grams, while a single specimen reaches the size of a walnut.
This culture has a delicate and pleasant taste. The same can be said for the fleshy feathers, which are just as popular in cooking as the bulbs themselves.
How is shallots different from onions?
Onions and shallots share many similarities, which is why they are mistakenly considered one species. These criteria include a fleshy head, weighing 15-40 grams, long green feathers, edible and a two-year growing season. But in fact, these plants have several differences that explain their attribution to different species:
- Shallots can tolerate lower temperatures and mature much faster than their counterpart;
- Shallot grows in nests, and turnip grows singly;
- The shallot pulp is more tender and pleasant, and the aroma is not so sharp;
- Onions are picky about keeping conditions during storage, while shallots are excellent keeping quality even at room temperature;
- The section consists of several zones with primordia, and the turnip consists of concentric rings.
At first glance, it seems that the two species are very similar, but due to their dexterity, they can be easily distinguished.
- Ayrat - This is a mid-season variety, the yield of which is 1.5 kilograms per 1 square meter of area. The fruit is round in shape with yellow husk and weighs 15-20 grams on average. Up to 5 bulbs can form in one nest. The taste of the resulting crop is delicate, but at the same time pungent;
- Garnet - a mid-season variety with a semi-sharp taste, it is grown to obtain both greens and bulbs. The shape of the fruit is round-flat, the average weight of one piece is 30 grams. The husk is colored in an unusual brown color with a grayish tint. From one square meter harvested from 1.5 to 2.4 kilograms of the crop;
- Sturdy - the variety got its name for its high resistance to gray rot and shooting. The fruits ripen in medium terms, the growing season lasts 55-70 days. The pink-scaled bulbs can weigh up to 50 grams, with 5-7 bulbs in one nest. Up to 2.1 kilograms of fruit are harvested from one square meter;
- Siberian amber - fruits ripen in 56-60 days, in one nest there are 6-7 bulbs with bronze husks. Their weight can be up to 30 grams. The taste of the fruit is semi-sharp. Up to 2 kilograms of onions can be harvested from one square meter.
Dates of planting in open ground
Planting dates directly depend on the purpose of growing the plant:
- If you plant onions for an early harvest of feathers, it is recommended to plant them in late autumn in open ground or in early spring in greenhouses;
- To obtain full-fledged heads, such work is performed in mid-April. The most accurate determination of the date of planting is possible using the soil temperature, it should be equal to 8-10 degrees.
When choosing a place for planting shallots, you should pay attention to all the individual characteristics of the plant:
- there should be a lot of sunlight on the site, the presence of a shade can contribute to the deterioration of fruiting;
- the soil should be light and loose... The use of loamy or sandy loam soil is encouraged;
- shallot takes root in the best way in those places where potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers or peas grew before it;
- the ground should be slightly acidic, otherwise the bulbs become smaller and the tops quickly turn yellow.
Before planting onions, you need to prepare the soil. To do this, they dig it up in the fall, while making the following fertilizers:
- a bucket of compost or rotted manure;
- 30 grams of superphosphate;
- 15-20 grams of potash fertilizers.
Planting material also needs to be prepared. A few days before planting, it is necessary to cut off the neck of the seed and soak it in a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
To obtain a larger harvest, small bulbs, up to 3 centimeters in diameter, are chosen as seedlings. Large heads contain more primordia and are well suited for harvesting seedlings for the next season.
Placing the sevok in the garden, you should adhere to a reliable scheme:
- the distance between the rows should be 30-40 centimeters;
- the distance between plants in one row should be equal to 20-30 centimeters;
- in the event that the onion is grown for sevka, the distance between the plants is reduced to 8-10 centimeters.
Immediately before planting, the furrows should be watered with plenty of water. The sevok is deepened by 2-3 centimeters.
In order to get a rich harvest of shallots, you need to properly care for the plant and follow all the rules:
- This crop does not need frequent watering. In temperate latitudes, the soil may not be moistened at all, and in the southern regions, irrigation can be carried out in months without precipitation;
- Onions need timely weeding and loosening of the soil;
- In early spring, plantings are fertilized with nitrogen fertilizers, for example, urea;
- At the beginning of the growing season, poor soils are fertilized with complex mineral dressings.
In order to get a harvest of larger bulbs, experienced gardeners recommend thinning the nests a month before harvesting, leaving 5-6 of the most developed primordia.
Harvesting and storage
Harvesting falls at the end of July. Many gardeners argue that such work should be carried out before August 2. The readiness of a plant can be determined by drooping tops, which show signs of yellowing.
You can store shallots in almost any conditions. It can be stored in a dry room at room temperature. It is better to choose boxes with holes or nets as containers.
Before removing the fruits for storage, they must be dried in the open air for 20-30 days, after which they are disassembled into bulbs and dried leaves are removed.
Diseases and pests
Shallots are susceptible to the appearance of fungal diseases, which include downy mildew and common powdery mildew, downy mildew, neck rot, etc. Affected plants will begin to wilt and are almost impossible to save. The only way out is to delete it completely. The healthy part of the plantings is treated with Quadris, Mikosan or Pentofag solutions.
For the prevention of fungal diseases, before planting, the sets are soaked for 30 minutes in the "Maxim" preparation.
Pests often settle on shallots. Most often you can find the following insects:
- Onion fly - the plant and the soil around it are treated with wood ash;
- Worms - the above-ground part of the plant is watered with a salt solution (1 glass of salt is diluted in 10 liters of water);
- Onion nematode - this pest is capable of distorting the bottom of the mother's bulb. Affected plants must be removed immediately;
- Aphid - these insects settle on onion feathers. You can deal with them with a decoction of pepper, potato peel or chamomile. Their chemical preparations are best helped by Verticillin.
Shallots are a gentler and sweeter analogue of onions. Even a novice gardener can grow such a crop. This is due to the fact that the plant is able to adapt to adverse weather conditions and does not require careful maintenance.
Description of shallots: varieties, cultivation and useful properties
The fast-ripening, juicy, sweet onion has many popular names - Ashkelon, Family, Shalotka, Semeyka, Sorokozubka, Gnezdovka, Kvochka, Kushchevka. It is widespread in the south and in central Russia; due to its frost resistance and rapid maturation, it is grown in the northern regions. The cultivation and storage of shallots does not require much effort, but it does have some peculiarities. If they are observed, a good harvest of greens and bulbs is obtained.
Description and characteristics
Shallots are a herbaceous perennial plant that forms a kind of "nest" from a large number of bulbs. For this, the culture received a second name - family bow. Shallots are early maturing plants; when planted in regions with a temperate climate, they ripen in 65-80 days.
The root system is weakly branched. The feather is light or dark green, sometimes with a waxy coating, hollow inside, tubular, does not coarse for a long time, has a delicate taste.
The bulbs are elongated, with thin scales. Average weight 20-50 g. Hybrids reach 90-100 g. The color of internal scales is white, purple, pink, green. The color of the outer scales is white or purple. Shallots are perfectly stored in an apartment or cellar until spring.
The inflorescences are collected in an umbrella located on the meter arrow. Seeds remain viable for 2-3 years, have an external resemblance to onion seeds.
Shallots reproduce vegetatively, but over time, the sevok loses its characteristics, the plant is often sick and reduces productivity. In such cases, it is recommended to replace the seed with fresh one or to grow the seed from the seed.
In the photo - shallots.
When to plant shallots outdoors in spring and fall
You can plant family onions in open ground both in autumn (before winter) and in spring. The main benefits of planting in autumn are that you can see earlier greens and harvest two weeks earlier. However, if the winter is too cold, the onion may freeze. Therefore, it is better to plant in autumn in southern regions with mild winters.
In autumn, planting a crop is optimal in the second half of October (in any case, this should be done 4 weeks before the first persistent frost).
The best month to plant shallots outdoors in spring is April. The optimum temperature for the development of the root system is within 2-25 degrees Celsius. Greens grow intensively at t 15-23 degrees. At the same time, onions are able to tolerate frosts down to -6. Conventionally, the following dates for planting family onions in the spring can be distinguished:
- in the Central lane (Moscow region) - in mid-April
- in Siberia, in the Urals, in the Leningrad region - at the end of April, at the beginning of May
- in the South - can be planted at the end of March, at the beginning of April.
Dates of planting family onions according to the lunar calendar 2021
You can choose the timing of planting shallots, focusing on the Lunar calendar 2021:
- Auspicious days:
- in March: 3, 6, 7, 8, 11, 13
- in April: 1, 19, 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 29, 30
- in May: 18, 19, 20, 21
- in June: 15, 16, 17.
- Unfavorable days:
- in March: 12, 28
- in April: 11, 26
- in May: 11, 26
- in June: 10, 24.
When to plant shallots in 2021 lunar calendar
And it's not for nothing that our ancestors invented the lunar calendar, which we use to this day. Using it, you can get an excellent harvest. Therefore, let's take a look at the phases of the moon and understand this simple procedure.
Mainly potatoes, carrots, turnips are planted on the waning moon, in general, those crops that grow in the ground, since all the juice tends to the roots. By the way, harvesting is also best on these days, so that they are better and longer stored.
Determining whether the moon is waxing or waning is not at all difficult. Imagine that you put a stick at the end of the moon (month) and you get the letter p, respectively, this is a growing month, and if you get the letter y, then it means a decreasing one.
Gardeners - gardeners from their own experience know that on the full moon and new moon, any planting work is not recommended, since the plants will develop very poorly, or even grow at all. These days the soil is resting. It is better not to do planting work, but to do something else.
Now consider the lunar calendar, when it is better to sow seeds for seedlings by months. It is best to start sowing this variety in mid-April to early May. Moreover, for Siberia and the Urals, you can do this already at the end of April.
Most favorable days:
March - 9-11, 13, 28. New moon - 13 and full moon - 28
April - 6, 7, 12, 27. New moon - 12 and full moon - 27
May - 3, 4, 11, 25-27, 30, 31. New moon - 11 and full moon - 26
Choose any day convenient for you and get down to business.
Onions fully ripen in July-August. The fact that it is time to start harvesting the family onion will be indicated by wilting of leaves, lodging. The neck of the stem becomes dry and the heads of the onions are covered with scales.
When to harvest family onions depends on the region. In Siberia, in temperate latitudes, warm sunny weather is needed to harvest. After all, the bulbs must be given time to dry. In the middle lane and in the south, bulbs begin to be dug up in July, where they ripen faster.
It is best when the dug heads dry out in the garden bed. But if the weather turns bad, then you will have to carry the crop under a canopy. The bulbs will dry there for ten days. In this case, the layers are constantly turned over.
Before laying the crop, rootlets and dry leaves are trimmed. Someone lays out the fruits of a vegetable in boxes, lowering them into a basement or cellar. You can braid the bulbs by hanging them in a cool, dry place.
Family onion retains its beneficial qualities well until the next harvest.