Growing Altai onions, tiered onions and chives
Read part 1 "Growing onion batun"
Tiered bow has hollow, fistulous, like a batun, leaves that do not coarse for a long time. The taste and tenderness of the leaves are preserved until the first tier of bulbs appears. Its underground bulb is better expressed, and instead of an inflorescence on the arrow, several tiers are formed (near St.Petersburg - up to two) air bulbs (bulbs) weighing up to 8 g.
Sometimes buds form between the bulbs, but there are no seeds in a multi-tiered onion. If they are tied, their germination rate is practically zero. It reproduces only vegetatively: by dividing the bush and planting air bulbs.
The multi-tiered onion is very frost-hardy, does not freeze even with a small snow cover and a temperature of -30 ° C ... -35 ° C, young leaves easily tolerate frosts down to -5 ° C.
Likov's multi-tiered onion variety - bred at VNIISSOK. Local forms are also grown.
Like batun, tiered onions can be successfully grown in annual and perennial crops. In one place, it can grow for 5-7 years. The annual increase in the number of bulbs in the nest leads to a decrease in the feeding area of each plant and the nest as a whole. This must be borne in mind when selecting and preparing a site.
A multi-tiered onion starts growing very early in the spring - 7-10 days earlier than the baton, its regrowth begins even under the snow, therefore, to obtain early greenery, it is necessary to use well-heated areas that are freed from snow early. The soil must be sufficiently moist, but it is impossible for the water to stagnate there.
Areas infested with perennial weeds are unsuitable for its cultivation. The tiered bow is well adapted to all types of soil, except sour, heavy and swimming clayey and thrives on them. This onion is responsive to organic fertilization.
Its predecessors can be any vegetable crops, under which organic fertilizers were applied: cabbage, cucumbers, zucchini, potatoes, beet, swede and others. 10-15 kg of manure or 5-6 kg of humus, as well as 40-50 g of superphosphate and 20-30 g of potassium chloride per 1 m3 are applied under it.
Air bulbs are planted in late summer or early autumn, soon after they are harvested, since "bulbs" are very poorly preserved until spring. At these dates of planting, the bulbs take root well until winter and give 5-7 leaves. Such plants do not freeze even in very harsh winters. You can also use underground bulbs for planting, which are planted at the same time as air bulbs.
A multi-tiered onion is planted in a garden bed in four rows along, with a distance between them of 20-30 cm.In a row, the distance between air bulbs during annual cultivation is 10-15 cm, with perennial culture it is increased to 20 cm.When planting parts of a bush of old plants, the distance between them in rows 25-30 cm. It is better to plant onions immediately after rain or watering, so that it takes root faster. Then the plants go into winter with a well-developed root system and overwinter better.
Planting multi-tiered onions must be kept free of weeds, the soil must be loose. After cutting the leaves, the plants need to be fed with the same fertilizers that are used for the onions of the batuna, and also watered. In the fall, a month before the onset of cold weather, or immediately after the onset of the first severe frosts, it is better to cut the leaves and take them to a compost heap or to a landfill. If the leaves have not been removed since autumn, this must be done in early spring. They need to be raked and burned.
Harvest multi-tiered onions for bunch products, pulling out the whole plants with a bulb or cutting off the leaves. Cutting is recommended to be done no more than 2-3 times, since late cuts noticeably weaken the plants, lowering their winter hardiness.
In the third or fourth year, the multi-tiered onion grows strongly, and the plants begin to press against each other. Due to a lack of nutrients, the leaves become smaller, the bulbs also decrease in size, and the yield decreases. When harvesting, it is recommended to thin out the bushes, dividing them approximately in half. Every year, the number of arrows increases on perennial plantings of multi-tiered onions, as a result of which the total yield of leaves decreases.
With high agricultural technology, the yield of leaves of multi-tiered onions reaches 5 kg / m2.
The local population can fully meet their needs for bow at the expense of the Altai. Onions harvested in autumn are usually stored frozen in unheated rooms, and thawed before use. This does not reduce the taste and even the sowing qualities of the bulbs. When stored in a warm room, its bulbs dry out quickly.
This is a perennial herb, a bit like onions or batun onions. The root system is powerful, the roots are highly developed, densely branching. One of the main features that distinguish it from the batun is the presence of larger isolated bulbs in the Altai onion. They are most often solitary, oblong-oval, 1.5-3.5 to 5 cm in size. The outer scales are dry, thin, leathery, reddish-brown; internal juicy, dense, yellowish-green. The bulb is located from the soil surface at a depth of 10-15 cm. This allows the Altai onion to withstand the harsh weather conditions of high mountains.
The leaves are fistulous, in the amount of 3-5 per bulb, cylindrical, narrowed towards the apex, with pronounced edges, located in the same plane. The leaves are shorter than those of the batun, but somewhat wider, 2-2.5 times shorter than the seed arrow.
Inflorescence is a spherical, multi-flowered umbrella; contains 100-250 flowers. The diameter of the inflorescence is 2.5-4 cm. Shooting occurs 10 days later than in the batun. Seed ripening occurs simultaneously with it.
When grown in areas rich in humus, it forms up to 8-19 bulbs in the nest. Accordingly, the number of leaves increases to 16-40.
The agrotechnics of the Altai onion (sowing time, care, feeding) is the same as that of the batun. Wide-row crops provide plants with better nutrition and lighting conditions, which contributes to a greater accumulation of vitamins.
Fig. 2. ChivesChives
- a perennial plant (see Fig. 2). If weeds do not clog it, it can grow in one place for up to 10 years. Its leaves are tubular, very thin, often dark green, of a delicate taste. Does not form a formed bulb. Its bulb is oblong-ovate, covered with a dry shirt, branches strongly and forms a powerful dense bush in the 3-4th year, in which there can be up to 100 branches.
Already in the second year, some of the branches form arrows up to 35-45 cm high with small spherical inflorescences of pink or lilac color. In the spring, after the snow melts, the chives begin to grow back and are ready for harvesting in 20-25 days. It is used for food in early spring, since in the second half of summer, uncut leaves become very coarse.
The seeds of chives are much smaller than those of the batun. Seedlings are small and thin, easily clogged with weeds. Weeding it is more difficult than with other types of onions. It is best to propagate chives in amateur vegetable growing by dividing the bush.
Schnitt-onion is divided into two subspecies: Russian (Alpine) - strongly branches, leaves are small, subulate; and Siberian - weakly branches, leaves are twice as large (see Fig. 3). Varieties of this onion: Honey plant, Khibinsky, Chemal, Prague, Bohemia. Local populations are also raised.
Fig. 3. Plants of Russian chives (left) and Siberian subspecies
Chives are grown only in perennial crops. It should be placed in well-damp areas or watered frequently. Soil moisture is very important. A short 1-3 day drought leads to irreversible coarsening of leaves, fiber accumulates in them, and the sugar content decreases. Leaves lose their commercial qualities.
The planting scheme for chives is somewhat different from the scheme for planting batun onions: seedlings or plants are planted in beds in 3-4 rows, with a distance of 30-40 cm between them, since the bushes branch and grow strongly over the years. In the spring of next year, thinning of plants is carried out, removing part of the bush with the root on the greens until the arrows appear.
All measures for caring for chives, especially when grown from seeds in the first year, must be carried out in a timely manner, since small onion plants are strongly oppressed by weeds and soil crust. In subsequent years, chives bushes grow strongly and suppress weeds. Over the summer, 2-3 times after each cut, the plants are fed mainly with nitrogen fertilizers, and in the fall, a month before the steady cooling, phosphorus-potassium.
Its bulbs, growing, gradually become bare, so they must be sprinkled with earth, clean of weeds, in order to avoid weeding. On plants destined for greenery, flower stems must be removed as their appearance reduces the quality of the greenery and weakens the plants. Chorn leaves are cut 2-3 times over the summer with a length of at least 20-25 cm. With frequent cutting, flowering is delayed, and the leaves become softer. From 1 m? 1-1.5 kg of green leaves are obtained in one cut.
Schnitt can be grown in greenhouses in winter, as well as batun, to obtain greenery. It grows quickly and produces crops indoors. To do this, old bushes, without dividing into separate shoots, are planted, deepening them by 4-5 cm.
Due to the pleasant color of the inflorescences, chives are often grown in personal plots as an ornamental plant in flower beds and borders. Dried inflorescences can be used for winter bouquets.
V. Perezhogina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
I have a perennial spring onion growing. It is very convenient, in the spring there are always fresh greens. Propagated by seeds and dividing the bush. I don't break off the arrows with the seeds, but leave them for the seeds.
I grow chives too. But we do not eat it, we decided that it is decorative, it is really beautiful and blooms for a long time. After flowering, I completely cut the bush, and over the summer it manages to grow and bloom a second time.
I have also "from time immemorial" grow a batun, slug, shnitt (two types) and fragrant (which is dzhusay). They do not cause much trouble, well, except that a batun in a "bad summer" can pick up peronosporosis, for the rest I did not notice it. At the first sign, I cut off the greens, I do not process anything. New, as a rule, grows back clean. In principle, perennial bows are of interest to me at the beginning and at the end of the season, when there are no other bows (greens are meant). In summer, chives grows back, has time to bloom and has the function of an ornamental plant, and it grows in a flower garden. Other onions also bloom, but they sit under the apple tree, therefore they are not particularly visible. In the middle of summer, I cut off all the onions so that new greens can grow, which we consume in salads. I tried to plant a multi-tiered onion, he was the very first to give greens in the spring, but he was just as successfully the first to catch the peronosporosis and ... to reward them with onions. I said goodbye to this comrade.
Years ... I don’t remember how many years ago I planted the seeds of perennial sweet onions, fragrant, slime, and since early spring we have been chewing this green tea. My husband is a huge fan of such a potion. These bows are in bloom. Flowers should be cut off from the batun to prevent its depletion. I leave one flower for seeds. In the spring I sow in bald patches (it is possible in a nursery for growing up). Finely chop the excess onion, and in the freezer for the winter. By the way, I also do the same with other green tea.
I have several types of onions growing, for green feathers, and for sale a batun onion helps me out, only it occupies a small area and is not for large-scale sale. But effective.
Sow chives. All summer long you will be with a delicate thin feather. And it blooms very beautifully. I have not heard about perennial garlic on a feather, but I have a slime onion - it has a garlic flavor. In addition, this is the very first onion in the spring.
There are many perennial onions, the most famous and fruitful is the batun, only you need to choose a variety, the multi-tiered, fragrant onions are very unusual and interesting. But, perhaps, the most suitable one with delicate greens is shallots, which are now widespread in Europe.
Perennial onions are grown mainly for the sake of greenery, sometimes they are used to decorate flower beds. It is easy to care for such a bow, and, despite the variety of species and varieties, the basic approaches are the same.
Anzur and other bows
The season is opened in spring by spectacular representatives of the glorious genus Anzur (mountain onions): giant onion (Allium qiganteum) and Aflatun (Allium aflatunense). They are vigorous plants with strong peduncles.
Both have a short growing season. The leaves are wide, fleshy, juicy, with the aroma and flavor of garlic.
They appear early, without even waiting for the snow to melt - juicy greenery sticks out right from the melting snowdrift.
During this time, they are good to use in salads.
Anzur bloom in late May-June. Tall flower stalks-arrows (100-180 cm), crowned with inflorescences-balls (6-12 cm in diameter), attract attention from a distance.
These giant bows make impressive groups.
It is better to plant anzur so that their long "legs" with early yellowing leaves are covered. In my garden, perennial geraniums with carved foliage and medium-sized flowers to match the onion inflorescences-balls do an excellent job with this task.
Perennial onions for greens, which I recommend to grow to everyone
There is nothing simpler and more necessary than green onions. With it, both young potatoes cooked in their uniforms and salted herring acquire a complete taste. Pies with eggs and green onions are a classic of Russian cuisine. Spring salad without green onions is kind of like, and not a salad at all. The cuisine of all nations involves the use of fresh herbs of different types of onions - initially local, and then cultivated. Only Australia is deprived of this happiness: there are no local types of onions there. However, maybe there were, but the natives ate everything before the appearance of white people on the continent. That is, green onions, with all the routine in the kitchen, are an absolutely necessary thing. So the article will be about perennial onions - a supplier of greens - simple and incredibly diverse.
Perennial onions for greens, which I recommend to grow to everyone
Varietal variety of onions: what types are there?
Adopting the experience of their ancestors, preference is often given to the same varieties of onions when planting a vegetable garden. It's time to change stereotypes, improve and achieve new results, because the dish can sparkle with new flavor notes if you use Setton or Leek instead of the usual onion. Moreover, in central Russia, you can plant a large number of varieties, as practice has shown. At least lettuce, even green. And then we will find out where which species can grow.
Onions in the garden
To determine the choice of seeds for bulbous plants, you need to familiarize yourself with the features of different species, their preferences and planting nuances. It is also worth paying attention to the correspondence of the growing conditions of the culture and the climate of the region. This is what will be discussed in this article.
Altai onion: biological features
Altai onion (stone onion, mountain onion, sagono) is a perennial herb of the onion family, which bears great resemblance to the onion, but forms many bulbs in the nest. At dachas, he practically does not occur.
According to the description, the bulbs of this onion are more oblong and larger than that of the batun, with a diameter of 3 to 6 cm, with red-brown scales. Up to 30 bulbs are formed in the nest.
The leaves are tender, fistulous, wide, pointed, dark green in color, with a waxy bloom, located on the stem, covering its lower part. The number of leaves is small - up to 4 pieces. The length of the leaves is up to 70 cm. After cutting, they grow back quickly.
As you can see in the photo, the flower stem of this type of onion is fistulous, hollow, swollen in the middle, up to 80 cm high and more, in the lower part it is closed with leaves:
A flower stem appears in the second year after sowing.
Onions bloom in June - July. The flowers are small, yellowish-white, collected in an inflorescence - a spherical umbrella up to 6 cm in diameter. During the flowering period, the plant is quite decorative. The seeds ripen in July - August.
In spring, this onion grows very early - as soon as the snow melts, in April.
Central Asia is considered his homeland. This plant grows wild in the mountains of Southern Siberia, Irkutsk and Chita regions, Transbaikalia, the Tuva Republic and Buryatia, is rare, and is listed in the Red Book of Russia. In addition, this onion grows on rocky slopes in Mongolia, China and Kazakhstan.
In Russia, this plant is still cultivated quite rarely, mainly in Altai. This onion grows very early in the spring. It is grown in the same way as other perennial onions.
Here you can see a photo of the Altai type of onion, the description of which is given above:
Juicy and sweet bulbs are used for food, less often leaves with a semi-sharp taste. They are added raw to salads, soups, main courses. Green leaves can be dried and then added to soups. This perennial type of onion is a good honey plant.
Next, you will find out what other bow is and what it looks like.
Bulb onionsOnions can be colored in different ways
Bulb onion is a garden plant that has been grown since ancient times. Scientists believe that the homeland of onions is Asia. From Asia, onions spread to Egypt, Greece and Ancient Rome.
The ancient Greeks and Romans considered onions a powerful remedy against a number of diseases and were widely used in food, attributed to it the ability to excite inexhaustible vitality, energy, courage, and therefore included in large quantities in the daily diet of warriors.
Onions were popular in medieval Western Europe - they were even used as a talisman to protect those fighting on the battlefield from being hit by arrows, halberds and swords, and knights, clad in armor, wore an onion on their chests. The ancient Egyptians valued onions so highly that they depicted onions on monuments.
The healing properties of onions have become the talk of the town, which is reflected in popular sayings. The ancient inhabitants of the East, for example, said: "Bow, in your arms every disease passes." The Slavs had a saying: "Onion from seven ailments."
Onions were grown in Kiev and Moscow Russia. Together with bread and kvass, onions were the main food of the peasants and artisans. In the places of long-term cultivation, over time, old Russian varieties of onions appeared: Arzamassky, Rostov onion, Pogarsky, Myachkovsky, Bessonovsky, etc.
Interestingly, the new varieties of onions are not able to eradicate the old ones. All varieties of onions cultivated in our time are divided into spicy, semi-sharp, low-sharp and sweet.
Onion variety Strigunovsky local. Photo: Good harvest
In the North-West of the Non-Black Earth Region, varieties are more common: Rostov onion, Arzamas local, Strigunovsky local, Vishensky local, Pogarsky local improved (acute), Danilovsky 301 (peninsular), Kaba and Krasnodar 35 (weak).
Low-sharp varieties, when properly grown, give large bulbs - by the way, there are varieties of onions, for example, Algerian and Spanish, the bulbs of which sometimes reach enormous sizes - 2 kg.
Onions even have a medicinal smell (the effect of phytoncides)
People considered onions a medicine at all times, and it was noticed both among the people and by doctors that even the smell of onions protects a person from many diseases.
This phenomenon could not be explained for a long time, and it was only in the thirties of our century that the Soviet scientist Professor B.P. Tokin and his colleagues were able to establish its cause. They found in some plants special volatile substances - phytoncides, which, when released, have a suppressive or destructive effect on pathogenic microbes.
There are a lot of phytoncides in onions, and especially in garlic. Onion phytoncides destroy dysentery, diphtheria, tubercle bacilli, streptococci, etc. All parts of the plant have phytoncidal activity.
Onions contain carotene, B vitamins1, B2, B3, B6, PP, E and others, and most of all in onions is vitamin C - it is enough to eat green onions per day to cover the daily need for vitamin C.
In onions there are a lot of mineral salts, sugars, proteins, bactericidal essential oils, which give the onion a sharp taste and a peculiar, onion, smell, whet the appetite.
Its use in scientific medicine is based on the nutritional benefits and healing properties of onions. Pharmacists prepare a drug from onions Allylglycerused in gynecology, and Allilchep (alcohol extract).
Allilchep has a positive therapeutic effect in case of intestinal weakness (atony) and colitis (inflammation of the colon), accompanied by constipation, take 15-20 drops 3 times a day before meals. With atherosclerosis, with atherosclerosis and the sclerotic form of hypertension, take Allylchep drops once a day Allilchep reduces blood cholesterol and contributes to the normal functioning of the heart. It is important that Allilchep is used as directed and under the supervision of a physician.
Freshly made onion juice recommended for inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, sore throat, the rate of intake of 1 teaspoon 3 times a day.
Bronchitis with dry cough are treated with onions, chopped on a grater or minced (500 g), mixed with honey (50 g) and sugar (400 g). The mixture is poured with water (1 liter), boiled over low heat for 3 hours and cooled. Store the mixture in a tightly sealed container in the refrigerator, take 2 tbsp. l. 3 times a day.
With hypovitaminosis and vitamin C deficiency, scurvy disease, onions are used as a vitamin preparation. Green onions are especially useful, which contain 5 times more vitamin C than onions.
Baked onion soup doctors recommend to patients with diabetes - onion helps to reduce the amount of sugar in the blood.
Onion inhalation prescribed for the treatment of tonsillitis and abscesses (abscesses) in the lungs. In this case, the patient is covered with a double folded sheet over his head and a plate of fresh onion gruel is brought to him for 10 minutes for inhalation. The course of treatment for the lungs lasts for days in a row and, if necessary, is repeated after a month's break.
In ancient Russian medical books there are such descriptions of the healing effect of onions:
- "The bow pleases the womb softens, but induces thirst and destroys the stinking spirit from the mouth"
- “Fresh onions, when consumed internally, are excellent for stomach weakness and poor digestion, convulsions of hysterical women, mucous and convulsive shortness of breath, water and stone diseases, as well as in grief and worms. During the prevailing infectious diseases, it is very useful to add it to food and for breakfast make soups from onions with the addition of salt, pepper and a little vinegar. "
Many of these ways of using onions are still common today:
- Onions with cabbage and kvass are used for emaciation, headaches.
- Fresh onion gruel, wrapped in cloth, is applied to purulent wounds, which promotes cleansing, reduces pain and accelerates healing, gruel is a good remedy for treating fresh burns and frostbite, as it prevents the formation of blisters, reduces pain, and stops the inflammatory process.
- Baked onions are used for furunculosis and hemorrhoids.
- The volatile substances of onions are inhaled in case of influenza, warts are removed with fresh juice, freckles are reduced.
- Gruel or juice is used to strengthen and improve hair growth, eliminate dandruff, rubbing into the scalp once a week, to protect the skin from wrinkles.
Eating onions for foodOnions are delicious and healthy
Feathers are eaten naturally with salt, in salads and cold dishes. Sprinkle with finely chopped green onions and fortify the first and second Meat, fish dishes and snacks.
Spicy onions, which contain many volatile essential oils that irritate the mucous membranes of the eyes, are usually fried in oil and placed in soups, meat, fish dishes and sauces.
There is little or no essential oil in the peninsular, slightly spicy and sweet varieties of onions, and they are used raw (salads, vinaigrettes, cold dishes, sandwiches, etc.).
Growing onionsOnions can be grown by everyone
Bulb onion is a biennial plant, cold-resistant, light-loving. Onions are propagated by seeds and bulbs.
Onions grow easily in ° C, and higher temperatures oppress them. Onion seeds germinate at - ° C. Seed shoots develop slowly. The growth of the bulb lasts only after the feathers have dried, it begins to ripen.
During the first months after sowing, onions need watering, and then they require drying the soil for better ripening.
The best soils for onions are weed-free, fertile sandy loam and loamy best predecessors - potatoes, cucumbers, cabbage, manure or compost is previously introduced into the soil.
In the northern and middle parts of the Non-Black Earth Region, turnip onions are grown:
- in a two-year culture - sowing seeds to obtain onion sets (bulbs up to 3 cm in diameter) and planting sets
- in an annual culture - by sowing seeds or planting seedlings.
The first method is more reliable, it guarantees the ripening of the bulbs. For planting, sometimes samples are used - bulbs with a diameter of more than 3 cm (up to 3.5 cm), selected from a seed or turnip.
Planting onions... Before planting onion sets, humus or peat-manure compost is introduced into the soil, according to a fertilizer garden mixture and wood ash per 1 m 2, after which ridges are made.
For uniform and rapid germination of the bulbs, the dry part of the neck is cut off without touching the sprout, then the seedlings are soaked in water at room temperature for two days. Onion sets are planted in late April - early May in rows every 20 cm, in a row - through
Small and medium-sized bulbs are used for 1 m 2 planting of onions, and large ones - Large sets give the highest yield of onions, but their quality is worse - there are more small bulbs in the nest.
When small seedlings are planted, large bulbs grow in the nest. When planting, the seed is buried so that there is a 1 cm layer of soil above the bulb, the soil is squeezed well and watering is carried out.
After a week, onion shoots appear, they are weeded, straightened and loosened the soil. In the future, loosening is repeated every 10 days, as well as after watering and rains. They carry out the prevention of diseases and pests.
Top dressing of onions. In the first month, in the absence of precipitation, the onion is watered abundantly once. If the onion grows poorly, then days after planting it is fed with a solution of mullein (1: 8) or bird droppings (1:12), to which ammonium nitrate is added (per 10 liters), while 10 liters of solution are consumed per 2 m 2.
Fertilizers are applied at the root, trying not to contaminate the onion feather, then the plants are watered with clean water from a watering can with a strainer. The second top dressing (with 10 liters of water, 40 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium chloride per 2 mg) is carried out when the plants bloom and grow in height before the onions have been previously weeded and breaking the arrows below the swell.
Since July, watering and feeding are stopped, only the soil is often loosened, which contributes to the growth, formation and ripening of bulbs.
Harvesting onions. Onions are harvested with massive yellowing and feather lodging - in late August - early September. If by this time no colored scales have formed on the bulbs, then a week before harvesting with a sharp shovel, the roots are cut at a depth below the bottom of the bulbs. After days, the feather of the onion will turn yellow, and the bulb will acquire the color characteristic of the variety. In addition, this operation will greatly facilitate the selection of bulbs from the ground.
To accelerate the ripening of the bulbs, at the beginning of August, break the tops of the onions with your hands or a board and at the same time scoop the soil off the bulbs.
Onions are harvested before frost - frozen onions are poorly preserved.
Onion storage. The selected onion is scattered in a thin layer on plywood or a wooden board and dried outdoors for days, and under a canopy in rainy weather. Then the drying of the onion is continued for another days in a well-ventilated room, while the feather of the onion dries up, and it ripens itself.
The bulbs are sorted, after cutting off the dried feather (leave a "neck" long and breaking off the roots. Before laying the onions for storage, the onions are heated for 8 hours at ° C. The onions are stored in a dry room at a temperature of 0 to +1 ° C.