Raspberry Balsam: how to get a big harvest with classic care
It's nice to replenish your raspberry tree with new varieties and hybrids. Personally check them for yield in the conditions of your region, leave the best ones, get rid of the ever sick and frail. But in the gardener's collection there should always be basic varieties that will not let you down. In any weather conditions and with minimal care, they will be presented with tasty and healthy berries every year. It is these varieties that the time-tested Balm belongs to. For several decades now, it has been competing with dignified varieties and hybrids of European selection.
History of Raspberry Balm
The author of Raspberry Balsam is Ivan Vasilievich Kazakov. This is a well-known scientist, fruit grower, candidate of agricultural sciences, academician of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Since 1963, the teaching and scientific activities of the outstanding breeder have been associated with the Kokinsky stronghold of the All-Russian Institute of Horticulture and Fruit Growing in the Bryansk region. It was there that Kazakov and his team created new varieties of raspberries, which, by the way, became the basis for the assortment for the European part of the Russian Federation. Among them are the first in the country, suitable for machine picking of berries. The balm is included in this group.
Video: I. V. Kazakov confesses his love to a capricious lady - raspberries
By its origin, Balsam is a hybrid, since it was obtained as a result of the pollination of two different varieties: Bulgarian Ruby and Newburgh. The new raspberry entered the state variety testing in 1982 and only 11 years later it got into the State Register of Breeding Achievements. The region of admission, that is, the territory in which Balsam is able to show itself from its best side, has become almost all of Russia, except for the Urals, the Far East and the North.
Balsam is a classic raspberry with consistently high yields
In amateur gardens, Balm has been grown for over 30 years. Due to its high commercial qualities, the berry is well sold on the market. This raspberry is versatile in its purpose. Has the same raspberry flavor with a delicate forest aroma.
Description of the hybrid Balm
By the look of the bush, Balsam is an ordinary raspberry, throwing out high shoots (180 cm). Sprawling bush. The growth rate of the growth is average - 20 shoots per running meter. The leaves are large, wrinkled, bright green, matte, lighter on the back, pubescent, there are barely noticeable soft spines on the central vein. Biennial shoots are brown, medium spine, annuals are green, with a waxy coating.
Raspberry bushes Balm spreading, high shoots, leaning towards the ground
Raspberry Balsam is mid-season, harvesting occurs at the end of June - July, depending on the region. The berries are large, ripen together, that is, they will have to be processed a lot and quickly. The fruit is shaped like a wide cone with a rounded top. Each weight is up to 3 g. The yield is higher than the average for this crop: 2.2 kg per bush, with industrial cultivation - 6-8 t / ha. The drupes are firmly connected, the berries are dense, they do not crumble when picked, they are easily separated from the fruit.
Ripe Balsam berries turn ruby color
Balm has a classic taste: sweet with sourness, there is a raspberry aroma. To some, this raspberry seems ordinary, to others - sweet, while others, on the contrary, feel a piercing sourness. Much depends on the composition of the soil, climate and the quality of care. But there are properties in this hybrid that are very attractive to everyone:
- resistant to fungal and viral diseases;
- weakly affected by spider mites;
- frost-resistant, shoots do not vomit;
- reliable and stable, you are guaranteed to be with raspberries every year.
Video: Review of Raspberry Balm
If you want to pick large and sweet berries, then allocate a sunny place under the raspberry tree. And this is not always found under the fence, where summer residents usually like to plant raspberries. If the soil is heavy, clayey, then first dig up the entire plot set aside for the berry, adding loosening materials: peat, compost, hay dust, last year's leaves, small twigs, etc. Sandy soil can be corrected with the same materials.
It is better not to use sand as a baking powder, since although it is crushed, stones that do not ennoble the soil in any way make it loose to the detriment of moisture capacity. Sandy soils do not retain moisture and nutrients at the roots of plants, they pass them through themselves into the lower layers, which leads to chlorosis of the leaves, poor development and fruiting in general.
On loamy and sandy loam soils, it is enough to apply fertilizers. Depending on the season of preparation of the site before digging, sprinkle on 1 m²:
- in the fall - 1.5 buckets of humus, 30 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium sulfate;
- in the spring - 1.5 buckets of humus, 0.5 liters of wood ash.
When placing Balm on a prepared bed, take into account its ability to grow tall and spreading bushes. The distance in the row between the seedlings is at least 0.7–1.0 m. Leave the row spacing so that it is convenient for you to walk on them and pick berries, but not less than 2 m. Powerful bushes should be well lit and ventilated.
Wide row spacings provide good illumination of the bushes and comfort when caring for raspberries and harvesting
The order of planting seedlings is as follows:
- on a dug and fertilized area according to the scheme (at least 0.7x2 m), make holes corresponding to the size of the roots of the seedlings;
- fill them with water heated in the sun and wait for it to be absorbed;
- place the seedlings in the holes, spread the roots and cover with earth;
- mulch planting.
Plant raspberries to the same depth as before, without burying the root collar.
Video: planting raspberries
Growing Raspberry Balm
There are no peculiarities and difficulties in growing this raspberry. Watering in the southern regions is needed once a week, and it is better to lay a drip. The soil should be moist to a depth of at least 30 cm. During the ripening period of berries, watering is stopped. In regions with regular and heavy rains, you can forget about this event altogether.
In regions with rainy summers, you can not water Balm at all, and in the South, drip irrigation will free you from this work.
To build up new shoots and plant a crop, Balm needs additional feeding. According to lazy technology, it is enough in the fall or spring to mulch the soil around the bushes with humus or sow the aisles with green manure, periodically mow them and leave them in place to rot. If you want to get a richer harvest of large berries, then carry out three dressings:
- In the spring, as soon as the ground thaws, pour the infusion of mullein or bird droppings. If there is no time and opportunity to cook them, and you are not an opponent of mineral fertilizers, then evenly scatter 30 g of urea for each square meter of raspberries and loosen the soil. You can do this over melting snow or before rain, then the fertilizer will dissolve and go to the roots in a natural way.
- During the period of budding and flowering, raspberries need potassium, phosphorus and trace elements, which, by the way, affect the taste of berries. You can add ashes as when planting (0.5 l per 1 m²), loosen and water. Modern complex mixtures for fruit and berry crops are also well suited: Agricola, Pure Leaf, Fertika, etc. Each fertilizer is accompanied by instructions, can be used for root and foliar feeding.
- In the fall, before sheltering for the winter, sprinkle superphosphate (1 tbsp. L / m²) over the raspberries, loosen and mulch with humus or compost.
Video: feeding raspberries in spring and processing with creolin
It is better to form a raspberry from plants of the Balsam variety using a tape method, with a bush it will be problematic to distribute and tie up to 20 shoots growing from one root. For strip growing, cut out any shoots that grow to the side (aisles), and leave those that appear between the bushes. There should be about 8 shoots on one running meter, that is, approximately every 10 cm. Already in the second or third year you will get a crimson wall. A trellis is required. It is enough to drive in at the beginning and at the end of the row wooden posts or metal pipes and stretch 2 rows of wire between them: the first at a height of 60 cm from the ground, the second - 120 cm.
Raspberry, formed in a ribbon way, is easier to tie to a trellis
On raspberries, Balsam can be double pruned according to Sobolev, then the yield will double. The berries will tie not only at the tops, but also along the entire length of the shoot. For this:
- At the end of May, no later than the beginning of June, pinch the tops of the young, still green, shoots. Their height after pinching should be at least 70–100 cm. After that, lateral branches will begin to grow.
- In the spring of next year, pinch the tops of these side branches. As a result, the shoots will look like lush trees. On each side branch, buds will appear, and then berries.
If you want to use this pruning method, then increase the distance between shoots with a tape growing method to 20 cm.
Also, the care of the Balm includes the removal of old lignified branches. Do not postpone this event until the fall when the leaves are crumbling. Indeed, together with them, pathogenic fungi and pests will pass into the soil. Cutting out and removing from the site the stems that bear fruit, but are still vegetating, immediately after harvest, you do not leave the parasites a chance to move to young shoots. In addition, the bush will have more strength to lay and ripen the fruit buds of the next year.
It is advisable to shelter Balsam for the winter, although in some regions, for example, in the Moscow region, this raspberry winters well, not bent to the ground. In areas with frosts under 30 ⁰C and below, the shoots must be tilted so that they are under the snow in winter, and fixed, for example, by tying them together with twine. You don't have to bend the stems all the way down to the ground, you can break them. In the spring, immediately after the snow melts, straighten the raspberries and tie them to the trellis.
The balsam does not need a covering material, it is enough to bend the shoots below the level of snow and tie together
Harvesting and Appointment of Balsam Berries
Fruiting in Balm is abundant and short-lived. You will have to collect and process the berries in a day. The surplus can be shared with loved ones or sold on the market. The berries are dense, keep their shape well, laid in a small layer in boxes, will survive transportation and short storage with dignity. For personal consumption they can be: frozen; dry to use in winter for making medicinal tea; or make the famous raspberry jam. But, of course, before that it is recommended to get enough of fresh berries, which contain a lot of microelements and vitamins important for the human body.
Raspberry fruits contain up to 11% sugars (glucose, fructose, pentose), traces of essential oil, pectin and protein substances, mucus; vitamins C, A, B; 1-2% organic acids (malic, citric, tartaric, salicylic, etc.), alcohols (tartaric, isoamyl), ketones (acetoin, diacetyl, β-ionone), anthocyanin, catechins (d-catechin, l-epigallocatechin); up to 0.3% tannins.
Video: the simplest recipe for raspberry jam without water
Raspberry Balsam gives stable yields without requiring special care. The most simple and well-known agricultural techniques can be applied to it. It responds by increasing the yield for fertilizing and double pruning. The berries have a simple, unobtrusive taste of forest raspberries, are good fresh and are gorgeous when prepared.
I live in Siberia. I have my own house and my own plot) In the articles I share my experience, I learn something myself with you)
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