How strawberries reproduce: with a mustache, dividing a bush, growing from seeds
It is unlikely that you can find a garden plot that does not have at least a small patch of strawberries. But even the bushes of elite varieties are gradually aging, the yield decreases, the taste of the berries deteriorates. To prevent this from happening, every 2-3 years the planting needs to be renewed. Strawberries reproduce quite easily both in a vegetative and generative way.
Propagation of strawberries with a mustache
The easiest and fastest way to get a new strawberry bush, which requires a minimum investment of time and effort from the gardener, is propagation by side shoots, or mustaches. This method is provided by nature itself. Rosettes and roots gradually develop on the forming whiskers. When they are firmly fixed in the ground, the shoot dries up, and the new plant is separated from the mother.
Rooting a mustache is the easiest way to get new strawberry bushes of a certain variety.
The strawberry bushes obtained in this way fully retain the varietal characteristics of the parent. The mustache takes root quickly enough, forms independently, without any effort on the part of the gardener. The only drawback of this method is that it takes a lot of effort for the plant to form several new rosettes. Accordingly, it is impossible to get a bountiful harvest from him this season. Therefore, experienced gardeners recommend determining in advance several of the best bushes, focusing on the number, size, taste of berries, as well as the number of horns, and use them for propagation.
New rosettes on the strawberry mustache begin to form in June
As a rule, most strawberry varieties do not have problems with the formation of a mustache. On the contrary, there are even too many of them. Therefore, it is better to cut off the extra ones, leaving no more than 5-7 pieces on each bush, so that new sockets with a powerful root system develop. Whisker formation begins when the air temperature reaches 15 ºС, and daylight hours lasts at least 12 hours.
The farther from the mother bush, the smaller the daughter sockets
The mustache, which was formed in July, takes root best and fastest. Each can develop not one, but 3-4 new sockets. But the most powerful of them are those that are located closest to the mother bush. Therefore, 3-5 cm after the first or second (if you need to get a lot of seedlings), the rosettes with sharp scissors or a knife are cut off at an angle of 40–45 ºС. All peduncles forming on the mother bushes are immediately removed so that the plant does not waste energy on them.
Take your time to separate new sockets from the mother plant, let the developed root system form
Cutting your mustache ahead of time is not worth it. Each previous outlet provides power to the next, and together they receive water, the necessary micro and macro elements from the mother bush.
Then they act according to the following algorithm:
- When roots begin to form on the selected mustache, they are attached to the ground with a piece of wire or a hairpin. This place is covered with moist fertile soil or humus. You can also dig a peat or plastic cup into the ground, deepening it about a third. They are filled with special seedling soil. In this case, the stress inevitable during transplanting is minimized, because a new bush is subsequently removed from the soil along with a lump of earth, even the smallest roots are not damaged.
Strawberry rosettes begin to root with little or no help from the grower, but he can help them form a powerful and developed root system.
- The future outlet is watered every 2-3 days. The soil must be constantly kept in a slightly moist state, especially if it is hot outside. After each rain, the soil around it is gently loosened.
- After about 8-10 weeks, the new outlets are ready for replanting. The optimal time for the procedure is from the end of August to the second decade of September. The exact time depends on the climate in the region. They should have a well-developed heart, at least 4-5 true leaves and roots 7 cm or more in length. A dry sunny day is chosen for the procedure, it is best to carry it out in the early morning or evening, after sunset.
Ready-to-transplant strawberry rosettes should have a well-developed root system and strong, healthy leaves
- The sockets are separated from the mother plant and transferred to a new place along with a clod of earth. The mustache is cut about 10 cm from the main bush. Sometimes it is recommended to cut it in advance, about two weeks before the procedure, in order to reduce the dependence of the new plant on the mother. So it will quickly adapt to get everything it needs from the soil using its own root system.
In order for strawberry sockets to successfully take root in a new place, a garden bed for them must be prepared in advance. It is worth considering what crops grew in the chosen place before. Strawberries are not recommended to be planted after any Solanes and Pumpkins, raspberries, lilies and roses. But carrots, beets, radishes, any herbs and garlic are good predecessors. Onions and legumes are also acceptable, but only if you are absolutely sure that there are no nematodes in the soil.
The place for strawberries is selected sunny, while it is advisable to provide protection against gusts of cold wind
For strawberries, a well-warmed area by the sun, even or with a slight slope, is suitable. The soil is needed light, but nutritious (sandy loam, loam). The garden bed has been carefully dug up since autumn, at the same time it is necessary to remove all plant debris and weeds, and also apply fertilizers. 8-10 kg of humus and 35-40 g of superphosphate are enough for 1 running meter. And you can also use special complex fertilizers for berry crops (Agricola, Kemira-Lux, Zdraven, Rubin), provided that there is no chlorine in the composition. A few days before planting, the bed is sprinkled with a thin layer of fine sand and the soil is loosened, embedding it in depth. This will help protect the strawberries from many pests.
Ruby is one of the specialized fertilizers for garden strawberries, it can be used to prepare strawberry beds
If the strawberry bed is mulched or covered with a layer of covering material, the mustache has no opportunity to take root. In this case, they are cut off, soaked for about a day in water at room temperature with the addition of any natural or artificial biostimulant (Kornevin, Zircon, Epin, potassium humate, succinic acid, aloe juice).
If strawberries are grown under covering material, they will not be able to root themselves at new outlets.
Then they are planted on a pre-prepared bed in a fairly light loose soil. The best option is a mixture of peat chips, ordinary garden soil and coarse river sand in a 2: 1: 1 ratio. The mustache is planted in grooves 2–2.5 cm deep, tightly, placing 100–120 pieces per 1 m².
For protection from direct sunlight over the plantings for the first 2-3 weeks, a canopy is constructed from any white covering material. As the soil dries up, the substrate is moderately moistened. By the end of the growing season, most of the whiskers will have developed a developed root system, and they can be transplanted to a permanent place.
In principle, if there is enough space in the garden, you can immediately root the mustache here, avoiding the inevitable stress for the plants associated with the transplant. In this case, a developed root system is formed in the new strawberry bushes, they become more resistant to drought. This is especially true for southern regions with a subtropical climate. You just need to direct the forming whiskers to the desired place and fix them in this position, creating a new row. The only caveat - in this case, you will have to root the sockets of the second order, since the very first ones are too close to the mother plant. So that they do not interfere, taking away food, their roots and / or leaves are cut off.
If there is enough space in the garden, you can not transplant new sockets at all, immediately forming another row
With a shortage of space in the garden or on the site, which is especially important for owners of standard six acres, you can get a large number of strong new bushes by planting several strawberry bushes in the trunk circle of any fruit tree or between berry bushes. During the summer, the mustache is allowed to grow in any direction. The weakest are gradually discarded, leaving no more than 6-8 pieces on each bush. The garden is regularly weeded, the soil is watered and carefully loosened. By the fall, powerful rosettes with developed roots are formed, which subsequently bear fruit abundantly.
Typical mistakes gardeners
It would seem that there is nothing difficult in propagating strawberries with a mustache. Nevertheless, the procedure often does not give the expected results due to certain errors. The most typical ones are:
- The whiskers connecting the mother plant and the new rosette are cut too early. As a result, a young bush does not have time to form a fairly developed root system, it takes longer to take root in a new place (or does not take root at all), and the next year it yields a smaller harvest than expected. Even the very first whiskers form the rudiments of roots in June, if you are very lucky with the weather - at the end of May. They can be separated from the mother plant not earlier than after two months (preferably after two and a half).
- The number of whiskers on the bush is not controlled in any way. As a result, a lot of new outlets, but small and underdeveloped, are formed on each mother bush. First, it greatly weakens the main plant, which is unable to provide them with sufficient nutrition. Secondly, they do not differ in viability and take much longer to take root in a new place after transplantation.
- The mustache is transplanted from place to place several times. The roots of young rosettes are still fragile; with each transplant, they are inevitably damaged. Accordingly, the bush weakens, takes longer to take root, and winters worse.
- The procedure is carried out in the rain or extreme heat. Damp cool weather favors the development of many infections, fungal spores can easily penetrate through the cut. The heat greatly weakens the plants, which reduces their immunity.
- New bushes are transplanted into an unprepared garden bed. Even powerful sockets do not take root well if you choose the wrong place for planting, plant them in soil that is not suitable for strawberries, and do not add the necessary fertilizers to the soil.
It is best not to replant the strawberry whiskers several times, as the plant is under stress.
Video: what time is it better to propagate strawberries with a mustache
Dividing the bush
Rarely, but still there are strawberry varieties (mostly remontant), which form a mustache rather reluctantly. And breeders have also developed special hybrids that do not form them in principle (Profusion, Raymond, Snow White, Ali Baba, Veska, and so on). For such strawberries, there is another vegetative propagation method that fully preserves the varietal characteristics - the division of the bush.
Some strawberry varieties bred by breeding are devoid of mustaches, so the easiest way to reproduce is no longer
This method has other advantages as well. For example, when multiplying strawberries with a mustache, you cannot simultaneously get from one bush both a bountiful harvest and high-quality seedlings. And in the case of dividing the bush, this is quite possible. New plants take root well in a new place. Practice shows that no more than 10% of outlets die.
For division, only healthy and productive strawberry bushes are chosen, marking them in advance
This method is only suitable for absolutely healthy plants with a developed root system. Selected bushes should be carefully examined for the presence of symptoms characteristic of diseases and traces of pest damage. The planting material will inherit all existing problems.
It is impossible to share strawberry bushes infected with any infection, as this problem will spread to new plants
The optimal age for division is 2–4 years. On too young bushes, there are too few horns, and the old ones no longer have a high yield. From one bush, depending on its size, you can get from 5 to 15 new copies. A prerequisite is the presence of a heart on each of them and at least several roots.
From one adult strawberry bush, you can get a lot of new specimens.
The best time for the procedure is the first half of August, although you can divide the bushes throughout the growing season. In a new place, the rosettes take root quickly enough, as a rule, this happens already in mid-September. The harvest, however, is not too plentiful, they give the next year. And a year later they reach the peak of fruiting. Experienced gardeners, nevertheless, advise you to wait and cut off all flower stalks that form during the first season in order to allow the bush to build up a developed root system and a powerful green mass.
There is nothing complicated in the procedure itself:
- The selected strawberry bush is carefully dug out of the soil. It is necessary to try, if possible, to preserve an earthen lump so as not to damage the roots.
A strawberry bush is dug for dividing, being careful not to damage the roots
- Dry and yellow leaves are cut off, the plant is placed in a bowl of water at room temperature. For disinfection, you can add a few crystals of potassium permanganate (to a pale pink color).
- When the soil settles from the roots to the bottom of the container, you can begin to divide the bush. If possible, they try to untwist the roots with their hands, resorting to the help of a knife or scissors only as a last resort. You cannot pull too hard so as not to damage the heart. The tool used must be sharpened and disinfected.
The roots of the strawberry bush are much easier to separate if they are soaked in water beforehand.
- The roots are dried and examined for about an hour. Those that show the slightest traces of rot, mold, as well as dark and dried cut off. The wounds are sprinkled with powdered chalk, activated carbon, wood ash or cinnamon.
- New sockets are transplanted to the selected location. To stimulate root development, each available leaf is cut by about half.
When planting young strawberry rosettes, you need to be careful not to deepen the heart
If, as a result of dividing the bush, too small, clearly unviable outlets are obtained, they can be grown. Such bushes are planted in small pots or cups filled with a mixture of peat chips and universal seedling soil. Be sure to take care not to deepen the heart. The plantings are watered abundantly, the pots are transferred to the greenhouse and kept there for 4-6 weeks.
Even the smallest strawberry rosettes should not be thrown away, if you grow them in a greenhouse or in a greenhouse, you get a completely viable planting material
Care of young plantings of strawberries
After transplanting to a permanent location, proper care is especially important. For the first two weeks, young strawberry bushes should be protected from direct sunlight. Plentiful watering is also required. Mulching will help keep moisture in the soil. It will also save the gardener time weeding the beds. About a month after planting, strawberries can be fed with potassium sulfate or any complex fertilizer for berry crops and carefully spud the bushes. The latter contributes to more active root formation.
New horns are planted in the same way as ordinary seedlings, observing the recommended distance between them.
When planting between the bushes and between the rows, 35-40 cm are left. Humus is added to each hole, filling it about half, a handful of sifted wood ash and a teaspoon of simple superphosphate.The socket must be located on the soil surface. You cannot cover it with earth, otherwise the bush will die.
Video: the procedure for breeding strawberries by dividing the bush
Growing strawberries from seeds
Growing strawberries from seeds is a laborious and time-consuming process. In addition, it does not guarantee the preservation of varietal traits, therefore, it is hardly suitable for the reproduction of rare and valuable varieties of it. Amateur gardeners rarely use it. Basically, seeds are propagated by professional breeders who want to develop a new variety, but no one forbids trying. The method also has a significant advantage - bushes grown from seeds do not inherit diseases that infected the old plant. But it is not suitable for hybrids.
In specialized stores, a fairly wide range of strawberry seeds of various varieties is presented.
Strawberry seeds can be purchased without any problems at any specialty store, but many gardeners prefer to harvest them on their own. They retain their germination capacity for about a year. But even when fresh seeds are planted, no more than 50-60% of the seedlings will sprout.
It is better to collect strawberry seeds yourself - in this case, you can be sure that they will sprout well
From the strawberry bush, you need to pick several large ripe berries and carefully cut off the top layer of pulp about 2 mm thick with a scalpel or razor blade. The resulting strips are dried in a warm place, avoiding direct sunlight, spreading them out on paper towels or cotton napkins. After a few days, rub the dry pulp with your fingers, separating the seeds. Store them in paper bags, linen bags or hermetically sealed glass jars, plastic containers in a cool dry place.
Ripe large strawberries are best suited for harvesting seeds.
Video: harvesting strawberry seeds
In order for the seedlings to appear faster (after 10-15 days instead of the usual 30-45 for strawberries), stratification is recommended. The seeds are mixed with wet sand or peat and placed in a refrigerator for 2–2.5 months, in a special compartment for storing vegetables and fruits, where a constant temperature of 2–4 ºС is maintained. As it dries, the substrate is moderately moisturized. For small-fruited strawberries, the period of stratification is reduced to 1.5–2 months.
Seed stratification allows you to simulate natural winter, during which time they go through several stages of development
If there is not enough space in the refrigerator, the container with seeds can be taken out onto a glazed loggia or balcony, throwing snow on top. Or dig directly into the garden bed on the site, having previously marked the place and tightening the container with a film.
The emergence of seedlings from strawberry seeds, if you neglect the pre-planting preparation, you will have to wait a long time
Strawberry seeds are planted in the first half of February. You can use all-purpose purchased seedling soil, but experienced gardeners prefer to mix the growing medium on their own:
- peat chips, vermicompost and coarse river sand (3: 1: 1);
- leafy soil, sand and humus or rotted compost (2: 1: 1);
- humus and any baking powder: sand, perlite, vermiculite (5: 3).
To prevent the development of fungal diseases, sifted wood ash or crushed chalk is added to the finished soil - about a glass for every 5 liters of the mixture. Then it must be disinfected by spilling it with boiling water or a saturated pink solution of potassium permanganate, igniting it in the oven or freezing it in the freezer. 7-10 days before planting the seeds, the soil is soaked in a solution of Fitosporin, Trichodermin, Baikal-EM1, Aktofit. Then it will need to be dried well.
Potassium permanganate is one of the most common disinfectants and helps kill most disease-causing fungi.
The disembarkation procedure itself looks like this:
- The seeds are soaked for 4-6 hours in a solution of any biostimulant in a small container or wrapped in gauze or cloth. Those that float to the surface can be thrown away immediately. They are guaranteed not to give seedlings. Some gardeners recommend hardening to increase germination. For three days, the seeds wrapped in damp gauze are kept in the refrigerator at night, and in the daytime in the warmest and sunniest place in the apartment.
Soaking seeds increases their germination
- Wide flat containers are filled with prepared soil mixture for about 2/3. It needs to be well moistened and smoothed, slightly compacted. At the bottom, a drainage layer of sand or fine expanded clay 1.5–2 cm thick is required. If there is snow, an even layer 1–2 cm thick is poured onto the surface of the soil.
- The seeds are planted in grooves no more than 0.5 cm deep. 3-4 cm are left between the rows. They are not sprinkled on top.
Strawberry seeds do not need to be covered with soil
- The container is covered with plastic wrap or glass, and kept in a dark, warm place until shoots appear. The plantings are aired daily for 5-10 minutes, the substrate is moistened with a spray bottle as it dries.
Plastic wrap or glass helps create a greenhouse effect, but condensation often accumulates there, so the shelter needs to be removed daily and the container should be ventilated
- As soon as the first seedlings hatch, the shelter is removed, the container is transferred to the brightest place in the apartment, for example, on the sill of a window facing south, southeast. But most likely, you will need additional illumination using conventional fluorescent or special phytolamps. The required length of daylight hours for strawberries is 14-16 hours. The temperature after the emergence of mass shoots is lowered from 23-25 ºС to 16-18 ºС so that the seedlings do not stretch too much.
For proper development, strawberry seedlings need a lot of light, otherwise the seedlings will become excessively elongated, the stems will become thinner
- After the formation of two true leaves, the temperature of the content is lowered to 12–15 ºС. The soil is constantly moistened as soon as the top layer dries. In no case should the seedlings be flooded, so as not to provoke the development of a black leg, which can destroy crops already at this stage. But it is also undesirable to get water on the leaves, so it is better to water the strawberries from a pipette, under the root. Enough once a week. If mold appears on the surface of the soil, the soil is sprayed with a solution of any fungicide of biological origin (Planriz, Maxim, Baikal-EM1).
Planriz, like any fungicide of biological origin, is safe for seedlings, but at the same time destroys pathogenic fungi
- After 2-3 weeks, a mixture of fine sand with peat or humus can be poured under the base of the stem. But only carefully so as not to hit the heart. This promotes more active root formation.
- When 3-4 true leaves appear, a pick is made. To make the seedlings easier to remove from the ground, they must first be watered abundantly about half an hour before the procedure. They are taken out of the container along with a clod of earth, trying to damage the roots as little as possible. They need to be held by the cotyledon leaves, in no case by the stem. After transplanting into individual containers, the plants are moderately watered.
In the process of picking, the seedlings are seated in small plastic cups or peat pots
- Strawberries are fed 10-12 days after transplanting. In the future, this procedure is repeated every 2-3 weeks. Preference is given to phosphorus-potassium fertilizers with a low nitrogen content (Solution, Kemira-Lux).
Kemira-Lux is one of the most common fertilizers suitable for seedlings.
Video: planting strawberry seeds for seedlings
For planting in open ground, strawberry seedlings, on which 5-6 true leaves have already formed, are ready in late May or early June. The soil should warm up to 12 ºС. 10-15 days before the planned procedure, the seedlings begin to harden, taking them out into the street. The time spent outdoors is gradually extended from 1–2 to 2–14 hours.
Hardening of seedlings helps plants adapt faster to new habitats after planting
The procedure for planting seedlings in the ground and preparing the beds is no different from that described above. Further care is the same as for an adult strawberry. The first, not too plentiful harvest, from seedlings can be expected the next season after planting in a permanent place.
Suitable for planting in the ground are strawberry seedlings at the age of 2-2.5 months
Video: correct planting of strawberry seedlings in the ground
Regular and timely renewal of strawberry beds is a guarantee of a bountiful annual harvest. There is nothing complicated in the procedure itself; even a novice gardener can carry it out. The specific method is chosen based on personal preference, as well as the type of strawberry and the type of bush. If done correctly, new plants quickly take root and begin to bear fruit.
27 years old, higher education in law, broad outlook and interest in a variety of topics.
Rate the article:
(4 votes, average: 5 out of 5)
Share with your friends!
Propagation of strawberries with a mustache
This is a culture that treats you the same way you treat it. And not everyone knows how to propagate strawberries with a mustache, although this is a common method. All varietal characteristics will remain and there are fewer problems with care. And only the one who observes its conditions is always happy with the harvest, and when it comes time to update the garden (usually every three years) or expand it and there is a desire to preserve the variety or add a new one, the easiest way to do this is through her mustache, although the varieties do not breed only in this way.
Strawberries are a favorite berry of almost every gardener. And almost everyone on the site has it. Only the red berry requires considerable attention to itself: fields, fertilize, break through, weed out, remove the mustache, harvest the crop, treat it from pests and diseases, prepare for wintering, etc. In general, a capricious lady, especially during the period of increased growth, the formation of berries and mustaches.
You need to visit her almost every day. Of course, this is only if the expectation of the return of the crop from it is appropriate. If you want big harvests - walk around it, take care if you don't want to take care - get an overgrown garden bed, meager harvests and small berries.
When to plant a mustache
A July mustache is best for breeding garden strawberries, but most experts recommend waiting until August. By this time, the shoots are already sufficiently strong and fully formed. The rosettes located on them will have time to grow powerful roots before winter, lay flower buds and subsequently successfully endure frosts. One plant can have up to 15 whiskers, and even more in favorable weather. However, you need to leave no more than 5 shoots with 3 large rosettes on each.
This method is used if the strawberries do not have enough whiskers or they are of insufficient quality for reproduction. It is also used for varieties that are not adapted to shoot propagation.
Only three-year-old bushes are suitable for division. Older plants are unsuitable for sprouting, while younger plants have very few shoots. The bush must be healthy and free from pests.
The mother plant of the garden strawberry is divided into separate outlets and each is planted separately. This is usually done in early August, so that by the end of September, new bushes have time to form. This method is used only when absolutely necessary.
The division of the bush consists of the following stages:
- The prepared shrub should be carefully removed from the soil, avoiding damage to the roots.
- After digging up, the plant is immersed in water at room temperature, to which potassium permanganate is added as a disinfectant.
- After the plant is soaked and the roots are cleared of the earth, you can divide the bush. In order not to damage the root system, this is done by hand without the use of sharp instruments.
- Then the roots are allowed to dry, sprinkling them with activated charcoal or ash to prevent diseases.
The resulting seedlings are planted in a permanent place.
Strawberry Mustache Breeding Secrets
In conclusion, when you have already learned how to separate the strawberry whiskers and plant them correctly on the site, prepare the soil for them and even grow the whiskers in plastic containers, I want to give a couple of valuable tips from myself.
So, if you don’t want to wander around the site every year in search of uterine strawberry bushes, then simply select a few plants with the most delicious berries, henceforth removing the peduncles from them, so that all the forces of these plants are directed to the growth of the mustache, and thus multiply the specimens you like. Or create one row of a mother liquor, but this is if you need a lot of seedlings, and this is already a profitable business, especially if you have good varieties.
Do not forget that the best time to transplant a strawberry mustache into a garden is the very last days of hot July and until mid-September, but remember: the more you tighten the deadlines, the more obligatory it is to use pots for growing mustaches in the way that we have described ...
Do not make almost the most common mistake of most summer residents and owners of personal plots: for some unknown reason, they stop watering the strawberry plot immediately after harvesting the entire crop or after planting a mustache on it. Few of them realize that this is the best time for the formation of flower stalks and the laying of a future harvest - moisture is needed, and the mustache will simply dry up and die without water.
And now I will list a list of strawberry varieties that do not give a mustache or give very little of them - these are varieties:
- "Baby elephant" (gives a mustache, but not enough and they are short),
- "Ruyana" (does not give a mustache at all),
- "Torpedo" (you won't get a lot of mustaches, although they will be),
- "Rusich" (also gives a little mustache),
- "Lyubasha" (does not form a mustache),
- "Baron Solemacher" (does not form a mustache),
- "Zolotinka" (does not form a mustache),
- "Fragrant basket" (does not form a mustache),
- "Snow White" (does not form a mustache).
They do not form a mustache, mainly, it is the remontant varieties of garden strawberries, but whether you need it, and whether you need such varieties, I do not know yet. Therefore, write your opinion about this in the comments, everyone will be interested!