Growing cabbage seedlings in 2021: planting dates
Cabbage is a popular vegetable plant: it is grown not only by private owners, but also by large agricultural enterprises, and on an industrial scale.
To get a good harvest of cabbage, you must first grow seedlings, and then transplant them to the garden. And in order for the seedlings to turn out to be strong and healthy, you need to have special knowledge, which we will be happy to share with you.
From the article on our website you can find out:
- when is the best time to sow cabbage seeds for seedlings;
- how to prepare for sowing seeds;
- how to sow correctly;
- how to care for cabbage seedlings;
- when to transplant seedlings into the garden.
Cabbage is one of the most important garden crops, which is grown in seedlings in many regions. The crop yield, which, without exaggeration, will feed you all year, depends on how correctly the timing of planting cabbage for seedlings was chosen and what was the care of the seedlings before planting them in the garden. We will tell you when to sow cabbage for seedlings, how to grow cabbage seedlings at home and when to plant them in the garden.
When to plant cabbage for seedlings in 2021
If you do not know when to plant cabbage for seedlings, it is best to refer to the lunar planting calendar.
Growing cabbage seedlings at home
Soil for cabbage seedlings
For seedlings of all varieties of cabbage, a loose and light substrate is needed, so peat should be its main component. Here are sample recipes for cabbage seedlings:
- 75% peat, 20% turf and 5% sand;
- equal parts of peat, humus or compost and sod land should be mixed with a small amount of sand;
- Mix equal parts of sod land and humus with wood ash and add one tablespoon of complex mineral fertilizer per 1 kg of soil mixture.
Store soil can also be used to grow cabbage seedlings.
Whichever substrate you prefer, it must be disinfected before sowing - warmed up for 5 minutes in a microwave on full power, or calcined for 15 minutes in an oven at 200 ºC. After that, the soil should be cooled, placed in a container treated with a 1% solution of potassium permanganate and allowed to stand in a warm place for a couple of weeks while bacteria useful for seedlings multiply in the substrate.
In the photo: Cabbage seedlings
Preparing cabbage seeds for sowing
Cabbage seeds for seedlings of all varieties are prepared for sowing in the same way. First, the sowing material is sorted, selecting seeds not smaller than 1.5 mm, then they are wrapped in a triple layer of gauze and placed for 15 minutes in a thermos with water at a temperature of 45-50 ºC, and then immediately immersed in cold water for 2 minutes. After water procedures, the seeds are kept in wet gauze for a day at room temperature, putting them on a saucer, then stratified for a day in a refrigerator at a temperature of 1-2 ºC and, finally, dried to a loose state and sown.
If you purchased the seed in the store, carefully read the instructions on the package - it is likely that the seeds are already ready for sowing and do not need dressing and stratification. Seeds painted in different colors are sown dry without any preparation.
Cabbage seedlings can be grown with or without a pick. When growing with a pick, sowing can be done in one common container - a box or container, and later grown seedlings are seated in separate pots. But if you want to avoid a pick that injures the roots of seedlings, you need to sow the seeds immediately in separate containers - cups, pots, in cassettes with large cells or in peat tablets.
Planting cabbage seeds for seedlings with a pick
A layer of soil mixture 3-4 cm thick is placed in boxes 4-5 cm deep and poured with a solution of two Gamair tablets and two Alirin-B tablets in 10 liters of water. It is better to do this a couple of days before sowing. On the day of sowing, grooves with a depth of 1 cm are made in the soil at a distance of 3 cm from each other, into which the seeds are laid out at a distance of 1-1.5 cm, after which the grooves are sprinkled with soil. Then the surface is slightly compacted, the crops are placed on a windowsill and kept at a temperature of 18-20 ºC. Seedlings usually appear in 4-5 days.
How to grow cabbage seedlings in tablets
If you do not want to injure the roots of cabbage seedlings with a dive, grow them in peat tablets. The tablets consist of pressed peat with the addition of trace elements and nutrients necessary for plants, so you can not feed the seedlings until they are planted in the garden. The tablets are in a net soaked in a fungicide that will protect your seedlings from fungal diseases.
In the photo: Cabbage seedlings planted in the ground
Planting cabbage for seedlings is carried out in tablets with a diameter of at least 4 cm, which are pre-made into a deep container and poured with warm water until they are completely swollen. When the tablets grow 7-8 times, the excess water must be drained, the seeds, 2 pieces at a time, are laid out in the grooves on the surface of the tablets and covered with peat. After that, the container with tablets is placed in a bright place and kept at a temperature of 18-20 ºC until emergence. When the seeds germinate and the seedlings get stronger, cut a weak seedling in each tablet under the root, but in no case pull it out, so as not to damage the roots of a more developed seedling.
Sowing cabbage seeds for seedlings in cassettes
You can avoid picking by sowing seeds in cassettes for cabbage seedlings.
Choose a cassette with a depth of at least 7-8 cm with cells of the following sizes:
- for early varieties of cabbage - from 6x6 to 7x8 cm;
- for mid-season varieties - 5x6 cm;
- for the late ones - 5x5 cm.
You can fill the cells with one of our proposed substrates and sow two seeds in each, or you can sow cabbage seeds into tablets, and then arrange the tablets into the cells. By the way, if roots begin to sprout through the grid of tablets, you need to transplant the seedlings into the pot along with the tablet. If the tablet is in the cassette compartment, simply add substrate to the compartment to fill the space.
Seedlings of cabbage in a greenhouse
Good seedlings of cabbage are obtained when grown in a greenhouse, since the sun's rays penetrate well through its transparent coating without harming the seedlings. And the moisture from the soil in the greenhouse does not evaporate as quickly as in an apartment, where heating devices work at full capacity at this time of the year. Growing cabbage seedlings in a greenhouse also has the advantage of that there is an optimal microclimate for seedlings.
In the photo: Planted cabbage seedlings
The seeds for sowing in the greenhouse must be dry. Early varieties are sown from late March to mid-April, mid-season and late varieties - from early to late April.
Make several rows on the garden bed at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other and water them abundantly, then sprinkle the seeds into the grooves so that no more than 3 seeds fall into the grooves. Cover the seeds to a depth of at least 1 cm and no more than 2 cm.
When the emerging seedlings acquire the first true leaves, it is advisable to treat them with an insecticide against cruciferous flea beetles, and at the stage of development of 4 leaves, in order for the seedlings to form an even stem, sprinkle a layer of soil 3-4 cm thick on the garden bed. or by cutting less developed seedlings at the root, after which it is imperative to water the garden.
Buy cabbage seedlings - is it worth it?
Growing cabbage seedlings is not a Newton binomial, as they say, but if for some reason you could not or did not want to do this, you will have to buy seedlings.
How not to be mistaken in the choice of seedlings? Heed our advice and don't be fooled.
Seedlings are chosen according to the following external characteristics:
- the stems of the seedlings should not be light green, as when overfeeding with nitrogen, but green with a lilac tint;
- the root system of the seedlings must be well developed;
- do not buy seedlings collected and tied in bunches.
Keep in mind that if the seedlings have round leaves, the heads of cabbage will subsequently also be round or slightly flattened. Seedling with oval oblong leaves forms oblong heads of cabbage. You also need to know that if the leg (the distance from the root collar to the lower leaves) is short in seedlings, this is a seedling of early cabbage, and a thick and long stem and large leaves are found in seedlings of late varieties.
In the photo: Cabbage seedlings
After purchasing the seedlings, wrap them in a damp cloth or strong paper, being careful not to squeeze the roots. And keep in mind that if the quality of the seedlings can be determined by eye, then you can only find out what kind of variety you purchased from the seller's words, so buy seedlings not on the market, but at fairs, and only from well-established producers.
Caring for cabbage seedlings at home
Conditions for growing cabbage seedlings
As soon as seedlings appear in the common box, the crops are moved to the most illuminated place, and the temperature of the content is lowered to 10-12 ºC, otherwise the seedlings will begin to stretch. After a week, the temperature is raised to 15-17 ºC, and after another 3-4 days, the seedlings are dived into separate cups or pots. As soon as the seedlings take root after the pick, the following temperature regime is set for them: during the day - 13-14 ºC, and at night - 10-12 ºC. At first, cabbage seedlings grow very slowly, but gradually their growth is gaining momentum, and three weeks after the pick, they will already have three leaves.
Keep in mind that cauliflower seedlings require 6-8 ºC higher temperatures than white cabbage and other varieties.
Seedlings grown in tablets or in cassettes are not dived, otherwise the conditions for growing cabbage seedlings are the same as for seedlings grown in a common box. Do not forget to thin out the seedlings, leaving one more developed seedling in each container.
Highlighting cabbage seedlings
For normal development, cabbage seedlings need good lighting, and at the end of winter and early spring it dawns late and darkens early. How to grow cabbage seedlings in a short daylight hours and not allow it to stretch? It is necessary to install an LED or fluorescent lamp or phytolamp above the seedlings at a height of 20-25 cm, which should work at least 12, and better - 15 hours a day.
Do not use incandescent bulbs for artificial lighting - they do not emit the light that plants need, and besides, they heat the air.
Photo: Growing cabbage in a box
Watering cabbage seedlings
Seedlings of cabbage at home need watering as the topsoil dries out. Both insufficient soil moisture and excessive soil moisture are dangerous for seedlings, and in order not to have to water the seedlings too often, do not neglect the loosening of the soil. To moisten the soil, use settled water at room temperature. Be sure to ventilate the area after each watering.
Fertilizing cabbage seedlings
The first time the cabbage is fed a week after picking with a solution of 2 g of ammonium nitrate, 1 g of potassium fertilizer and 4 g of superphosphate in 1 liter of water. Two weeks after the first feeding, you can add a second one, doubling the amount of fertilizer for the same amount of water. The third top dressing is applied a day or two before planting on the garden, therefore it is called hardening: 4 g of superphosphate, 2 g of ammonium nitrate and 6-7 g of potassium fertilizer are dissolved in one liter of water. An increased dose of potassium contributes to the rapid survival of seedlings in the open field.
Pickling cabbage seedlings (transplant)
As we already wrote, only the cabbage that was sown in the common box is dived. One and a half weeks after the emergence of seedlings, the seedlings are seated in separate pots, watered with a solution of one tablet of Alirin-B and one tablet of Gamair in 10 liters of water and for 2-3 days, until the seedlings take root, the temperature in the room is maintained within 17-18 ºC ... The seedlings are deepened by cotyledon leaves, and the surface of the substrate after planting, in order to prevent the black leg, is covered with a layer of washed river sand 2 mm thick. As soon as the seedlings adapt in a new container, the daytime temperature is lowered to 13-14 ºC, and the nighttime temperature to 10-12 ºC.
Diseases of cabbage seedlings and their treatment
Cabbage seedlings turn yellow
There can be several reasons for this phenomenon. For example, leaves may turn yellow from a lack of certain elements in the soil: if the seedlings lack phosphorus, the leaves turn yellow on the underside of the plate and may acquire a red-purple hue, the tips of the leaves turn yellow from the lack of potassium, and if the plant lacks iron, the leaves turn yellow all over the base.
Yellowness appears and from excess nutrition - seedlings suffer from poisoning with too large doses of fertilizers. To remedy the situation, you need to spill the soil with a lot of water, setting the container so that the water flows out of it freely. As a last resort, you can transplant the seedlings into new soil.
In the photo: sprouted cabbage seedlings
Sometimes yellowness on the leaves appears due to the fact that you added sea sand to the soil mixture, containing salt, which poisons the root system of the seedlings. It is necessary to transplant the seedlings into a new soil, after rinsing their roots with water.
Another reason for yellowing of the leaves can be an infection that got into the ground along with seeds that were not disinfected before sowing.
Cabbage seedlings are rotting
Most often, rotting of seedlings occurs due to the defeat of the black leg - a fungal disease that develops against the background of increased acidity and high soil moisture and too high nitrogen content in it. The causative agent of the disease may be in soil that has not been disinfected before sowing. In a diseased seedling, the lower part of the stem first darkens and decays - it becomes watery and turns brown. Then a constriction forms at this place, the seedling dies and lies down. It is necessary to remove all diseased specimens, and spill the soil with a pink solution of potassium permanganate at the rate of 3-4 g per 10 liters of water, after which do not water the seedlings for a week.
Cabbage seedlings are pulled
The main reasons for this phenomenon are a lack of light and an incorrect temperature regime. Moreover, the seedlings can stretch out even in good lighting, if the planting density is such that the plants have to literally wade to the light. And this is another argument in favor of sowing seeds in separate containers.
And, of course, the most important factor in the normal development of seedlings is compliance with the recommended temperature regime.
Diseases of cabbage seedlings
In addition to the black leg, cabbage seedlings are affected by fomoz, a fungal disease that is carried by seeds. The development of the disease can be prevented by pre-sowing seed treatment in hot water or in a strong solution of potassium permanganate. Phomosis is manifested by the formation of black blotches on the stems and leaves of growing seedlings, and since it is impossible to save the affected plants, have to reseed cabbage.
In the photo: Fake leaves of cabbage seedlings
It affects the seedlings of keela cabbage - a disease of cruciferous and flower crops. The environment where the causative agent of the disease lives is heavy acidified soil, therefore it is so important to subject the soil to disinfection and liming before sowing. Keela affects the root system of plants, as a result of which the seedlings cannot feed on their own and die. Sick seedlings must be destroyed, and the holes that remain after them should be treated with ash or charcoal.
Cabbage seedling pests
Sometimes when growing seedlings in a greenhouse, it is struck by a cruciferous flea - the worst enemy of all cabbage crops. To avoid the unpleasant consequences of a pest raid, carry out preventive treatment of seedlings with a solution of Inta-vir prepared in accordance with the instructions.
Planting cabbage seedlings
When to plant cabbage seedlings in the ground
A couple of weeks before planting cabbage seedlings in the garden, you need to start hardening procedures: the seedlings are taken out into the open air under the sun's rays - on a balcony, veranda or garden. At first, they are kept there for no more than an hour, but daily the duration of the hardening procedure is increased, and by the time they are planted in the ground, the seedlings should be carried out in the air around the clock.
Watering the seedlings is reduced a week before transplanting to the garden, but the seedlings should not be allowed to wither. A day or two before planting, a hardening top dressing with a high potassium content is carried out. The seedlings planted in the garden should be stocky, strong, with 6-8 leaves and a well-developed root system. Early cabbage is planted from late April to early May, mid-season varieties are planted in late May or early June, and from mid to late May it is time for late varieties.
How to plant cabbage seedlings in the garden
The area set aside for cabbage should be well lit. The soil must be prepared in advance: cleaned of weeds and plant residues, dig up with the introduction of 6-8 kg of rotted manure or compost and 100-200 g of wood ash for each m².
In the photo: Growing cabbage seedlings in an egg box
White and red cabbage is planted according to the following scheme:
- early varieties and hybrids - 30-35x40-45 cm;
- mid-season cabbage - 50-60x60 cm;
- late varieties - 60-70x70 cm.
For the ripening of the main heads, broccoli are planted according to the scheme 20-30x50-60, and for the development of lateral shoots according to the scheme 40-45x60 cm.
Seedlings of Brussels sprouts are placed in a row at a distance of 60-70 cm with a row spacing of 70 cm;
Kohlrabi seedlings are placed in the garden in this way:
- early ripening varieties according to the scheme 25-30x35-40 cm;
- mid-season according to the scheme 50x40-50 cm;
- late - 50x60 cm.
Savoy cabbage is also planted depending on the ripening time:
- for early maturing varieties, the scheme is 70x30 cm;
- for mid-season and late - 70x50 cm.
Cauliflower is planted in a checkerboard pattern 30-40 cm apart or according to the scheme 20-30x50-60 cm.
Choose a cloudy day, dig holes on the garden bed at the right distance, pour at least a liter of water into each one, put the seedlings taken out of the container along with an earthen ball into the holes, bury them in the first real pair of leaves and water. The first few days, it is necessary to protect the seedlings from direct sunlight and spray the seedlings with water every day after 17 hours.
- The larvae of click beetles, or wireworms, enter the greenhouse beds along with the garden soil. Pests gnaw at the roots of both seedlings and adult plants. You need to get rid of them before it is time to transplant seedlings in the greenhouse. To do this, you need to shed the soil with a mixed solution of Boverin and Metarizin - biological preparations containing fungi that infect wireworms. The treatment must be carried out on a cloudy day, because the preparations cannot tolerate ultraviolet rays. Before planting, you can pickle the soil in the beds with Force or Antichrushch preparations, and soak the seedlings in a solution of Prestige or Aktara.
From a short-term sudden drop in temperature, cabbage seedlings are covered in several layers with cardboard, newspapers or film. However, this is done so that the covering material does not come into contact with the seedlings: there must be an air cushion between the insulation and the seedlings. To achieve this, metal arcs or a wooden frame are installed above the seedlings, and covering material is laid on top.
If the temperature does not drop below -3 ⁰C and there is no wind, you can spray the cabbage with warm water from a fine spray. In sunny weather, you can water the soil under the cabbage: the sun will heat the moist soil, and at night the earth will give warmth to the seedlings.
In spring, young cabbage is well protected by a heat curtain of smoke, but this method is harmful to the environment and only works in calm weather.
- How to grow cabbage from a stump?
There is such a method, but it is quite laborious. It is necessary to dig up a head of late or mid-season cabbage along with the root, remove all leaves from it, except for two or three adjacent to the stump, and store it in the cellar. To eliminate the likelihood of decay, the stump is sprinkled with chalk.
In spring, the stump is cut out so as not to damage the growth point and petioles of adjacent leaves, plant it at an angle of 45 ⁰ and cover it with foil or sprinkle it with straw to protect it from frost. The stump is transplanted to a permanent bed in mid-May, when its roots grow.
When the flower arrows reach a height of half a meter, you need to tie them to a peg. Seed pods begin to be cut as they turn yellow. The seeds are removed, dried and stored until spring sowing for seedlings.
- What cold-resistant cabbage varieties are there?
Of the varieties of red cabbage, Pomegranate, Kalibos and Redbor are frost-resistant. Of the varieties of white cabbage, such qualities are inherent in late-ripening Zimovka, Geneva, Aros, Kolobok, Jubilee, Crumont, Monarch and Türkis, as well as Dutch hybrids Lennox, Bartolo and Marathon.
If we are talking about growing cabbage in regions with a cold climate, then in Siberia, for example, early white cabbage varieties Vesnyanka, Nadezhda, Polyarnaya and Vyuga grow well. Such hybrids as Dumas and Zarya have proven themselves quite well. From mid-season varieties, Sibiryachka, Podarok, a hybrid variety Belarus, and from later varieties - Dobrovolskaya, Amager and Gribovskaya showed themselves better than others.
- Cabbage seedlings wither - what to do?
By wilting leaves, cabbage seedlings react to the inconsistency of conditions with the requirements of the culture. For example, leaves can wither from both too high and low indoor temperatures, and at different stages of development, seedlings need different temperatures.
Seedlings will behave in the same way in insufficient light: developing plants need 12-15 hour daylight hours.
As for moisture, after sowing cabbage in a well-moistened soil, the first watering is carried out only after the emergence of shoots. In the future, regular soil moisture is required, and it should be sufficient, but not excessive.
Refresh the conditions for growing cabbage seedlings and analyze what you are doing wrong. Eliminate the cause, and the leaves of the seedlings will gradually restore turgor.
- Cabbage seedlings do not grow well - why?
You may have sown low-quality seeds. The sowing material must be calibrated, that is, to separate light seeds that will not germinate from full-weight ones. Seeds suitable for sowing must be disinfected and preferably germinated.
If the seedlings appear slowly and unevenly, then most likely you did not sow correctly: you have unevenly distributed or planted the seeds too deeply. Perhaps the reason is inappropriate or poorly processed substrate.
Seed germination is also influenced by the temperature and moisture level of the soil. When sown in a too wet and cold substrate, the seeds suffer from a lack of oxygen and can simply rot. Sowing seeds in too warm soil can also negatively affect germination. And do not forget that there must be drainage holes in the seedling container for the free outflow of excess water.
- Why do you need to spud cabbage?
Hilling cabbage strengthens its stem and stimulates lateral root development. If the cabbage is not huddled, a tall stem develops, and in the absence of a branched root system, the plant loses its stability.
They begin to spud cabbage three weeks after planting seedlings in open ground or in a greenhouse, when the plants take root and grow. In the future, this is done as the stem grows, usually once every two weeks. Usually this procedure is combined with loosening the soil or applying top dressing.
- Is it possible to sow cabbage directly in the garden?
To sow cabbage in open ground, you first need to warm up the soil: set the arc in early April on the garden bed and stretch the film over them. Then sowing can be carried out in mid-April. It is impractical to use agrotechnical fabric for shelter, since the soil under it warms up more slowly.
If you are not in a hurry, you can sow cabbage in May, when the soil warms up naturally. And such early ripening varieties as kohlrabi and Chinese cabbage are sown until the beginning of July on the vacated areas after harvesting early vegetables.
Before sowing, you need to calibrate and disinfect the seeds, after which you should hold them in a damp cloth until they swell, but no longer than a day: cabbage seeds peck quickly, and this should not be allowed.
- How to distinguish white cabbage seedlings from Savoyard or cauliflower seedlings?
Usually, seedlings are distinguished by their leaves. In seedlings of white cabbage, leaves are openwork, and in seedlings of early varieties they are larger and lighter than in seedlings of later varieties. The leaves of cauliflower seedlings are smaller and rounder than those of white cabbage. Savoy cabbage leaves are pimply or are collected in an accordion.
It is possible to distinguish seedlings of different types of cabbage only by visual comparison. Therefore, it is best to purchase seedlings from trusted sellers. You can find people in the market who have been selling their own seedlings for years. Usually, their seedlings are marked, and a seed bag is attached to each box. These sellers are interested in regular customers and will not mislead you.
- What kind of cabbage do rabbits eat best?
Not all varieties of cabbage are equally beneficial for lagomorphs. For example, they shouldn't eat red cabbage because it causes them to have bloating, stomach cramps, and other digestive problems. With caution, they should also feed Chinese cabbage: in large quantities, it acts on rabbits as a laxative.
Lagomorphs eat white cabbage and kohlrabi with pleasure, and kohlrabi can be given with leaves. But rabbits cannot eat cabbage stump from white cabbage, only leaves. But sauerkraut in small quantities is useful for them.
You can feed the rabbits with kale or kale. However, any of the varieties of this vegetable should be introduced into the diet gradually.
- Peking cabbage went into the arrow - why?
There are many reasons for shooting Peking cabbage:
damage to roots during transplantation or during loosening of the soil;
climatic conditions unsuitable for the variety;
too long daylight hours;
lack of moisture in the soil;
sudden changes in temperature;
growing on the site after cruciferous crops;
lack of nutrients in the soil;
low cold resistance of the cultivated variety;
To avoid shooting, you need to follow these rules:
fertilize the soil a month before sowing;
sow seeds in early spring or late summer directly in open ground or in peat cups;
to grow varieties resistant to shooting - Dutch hybrids Manoko, Taranko or Bilko;
plant cabbage in partial shade or arrange sun protection for it in the afternoon.
- Why do the leaves of seedlings curl?
This symptom appears for various reasons. For example, due to a lack of phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, boron, copper or zinc, as well as an excess of nitrogen in the substrate, which blocks the intake of phosphorus. Moreover, only old leaves can react to the lack or excess of some elements, and only young leaves can respond to the lack of others.
Air temperatures above 30 ⁰C can cause leaves to curl, but as soon as the heat subsides, the leaves will straighten. Seedling leaves also react to insufficient moisture in conditions of low air humidity and high temperatures.
Causes such a reaction and attack of pests - aphids or whiteflies.
Find out the cause of the phenomenon, eliminate it, and the leaves of the seedlings will restore their previous appearance.
- How to protect seedlings from cruciferous fleas?
It is necessary to fight this pest of cruciferous crops from the moment of its appearance, but since cabbage quickly absorbs poisons and toxins, it is extremely undesirable to treat it from fleas with chemical agents, especially early ripening varieties. It is better to deal with flea beetles with folk remedies that have an insecticidal effect. A good result is given by weekly spraying the plantings with a decoction of tomato tops, vinegar, ash or tobacco solution. You can simply sprinkle the wet leaves of the seedlings with wood ash mixed with tobacco dust.
Mid-season and late varieties, if necessary, are sprayed with solutions of the preparations Karate, Decis, Aktara, Bankol or Aktellik.
You can protect planted seedlings from pests if you keep them from the moment of planting under a non-woven material: fleas damage only tender young seedlings, and when they get stronger and their leaves become dense, fleas can no longer harm them.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the Cabbage family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
Sections: Cruciferous (Cabbage, Cabbage) Garden plants Growing seedlings Cabbage
When to sow cauliflower for seedlings in 2021 and transplant into the ground
Many people love cauliflower, it is very healthy and tasty. Consuming it, it is impossible to gain weight or ruin the stomach, which is why gardeners often cultivate crops on their plots. Usually a healthy vegetable is grown through seedlings. In this article, we'll talk about when to plant cauliflower for seedlings in 2021 and how and how to ensure proper care of the seedlings.
1. How to choose the sowing time 1.1. Depending on the variety 1.2. By region 1.3. Lunar calendar2. When to plant seedlings3. Recommendations for sowing 3.1. Temperature 3.2. Lighting 3.3. Top dressing 3.4. Watering 3.5. Transfer to a permanent place
Sowing dates for spinach seedlings
In fact, spinach can be sown at home all year long. But on condition that in the autumn-winter period there will be additional supplementary lighting with phytolamps. But this is true primarily for growing greenery on the windowsill.
If you are interested in exactly spinach seedlings for subsequent planting in open ground, then planting seeds is optimal in early April. And the planting of the Sents in the garden is in early or mid-May.
By the way! You can also choose the timing of sowing spinach for seedlings using the Lunar Calendar 2021:
- Auspicious days:
- in March: 5-11, 15, 20, 21
- in April: 15, 17.
- Unfavorable days:
- in March: 12, 28
- in April: 11, 26.
Conditions for growing cabbage seedlings
How long does it take for cabbage seedlings to sprout
8-10 days after sowing, cabbage shoots appear.
The temperature of the content of cabbage seedlings
Perhaps the most crucial moment in growing seedlings comes. At this time, the temperature must be reduced to +8. + 10 ° C. Compliance with the correct temperature regime is one of the most important conditions. At higher temperatures, seedlings stretch out quickly, get sick and often die. Therefore, at home, cabbage seedlings grow poorly.
In a city apartment, the most suitable place for growing cabbage seedlings is a glazed loggia or balcony.
After 1-2 weeks, the temperature can be increased to +15. + 17 ° C, but even at this time, the plants are very useful for the difference between night and day temperatures and frequent airing.
Watering cabbage seedlings in the early stages
At this time, crops should be watered very sparingly, allowing the soil to dry out between waterings. When the seedlings have 1-2 true leaves, you can start picking the cabbage.
Seedling of cabbage before picking.
If you plan to sow seeds for seedlings in February, it is advisable to purchase phytolamps. Germination will slow down significantly without artificial lighting. At the end of March, the ultraviolet light will be enough for the sprouts without lengthening the daylight hours, but there are problems here - the choice of a place for containers.
The necessary conditions are light and coolness. If the boxes are placed on the windowsill, they will have to be covered with thick cardboard. The batteries are still not turned off at this time, and when overheated, young sprouts dry out quickly.
How to prepare seeds
Even if you have purchased planting material from a well-known manufacturer, the preparation begins with sorting. First, the condition is assessed by its appearance, rejecting the damaged ones. Then the seeds can be poured into water and, stirring, leave for 10 minutes. Pop-ups are deleted.
For preliminary preparation, the following manipulations are carried out:
- hardening - soaked for a day in melt water with a temperature of up to 4-5 ℃
- disinfection - immersed in a potassium permanganate solution heated to 50 ℃ for 15-20 minutes
- rinsing - 2-3 minutes with cold water
- drying on fabric.
No additional preparation is required after industrial processing. The "inc" letters on the labels indicate that there is no need to soak the seeds.
Selection of containers and soil
The soil mixture should be light, absorbent and breathable. You can buy a generic primer from a store or make up your own. One of the options: in equal amounts of peat, humus, turf, and a little ash - about 1 tbsp. l. for every 3 kg of substrate. Sand or rotted compost can be used instead of humus.
Ash is not only a growth stimulating supplement, but also a natural antiseptic that protects against blackleg, a disease that causes bacterial rot.
The finished soil must be treated with a solution of potassium permanganate in order to destroy the larvae of pests and pathogenic fungi. Additionally, you can pour boiling water over the soil.
There are no special requirements for packaging. The main thing is that the container is clean. If it has already been used for other garden crops, it is advisable to rinse with boiling water, treat with potassium permanganate and dry thoroughly.
Seed planting scheme
Seedlings and seeds must be planted according to a specific pattern. Thickening negatively affects growth and increases the likelihood of contracting bacterial infections. The intervals between the bushes of early ripening varieties are 30 cm, between the rows - 40-45 cm. Mid-ripening ones are planted at a distance of 50 cm, and between the rows they leave up to 60-70 cm. The late-ripening ones are grown according to the same principle. The recommended spacing between holes is up to 70 cm.
When using the seedless method, 4 seeds are laid out in each hole.
When transferring sprouts to open ground, the earthen lump is not removed. The lowest leaf should be above the ground. Each plant is watered, the soil is compacted around the roots. Sprinkle with dry earth on top.
Pickling cabbage seedlings according to the lunar calendar in 2021
The next stage after planting cabbage is picking seedlings. A large number of seedlings growing in one container next to each other will cause the plants to stretch out, become pale and susceptible to various diseases. To prevent this from happening, after the appearance of two real leaves, cabbage seedlings must be dived. In white cabbage - the most popular cabbage among summer residents - this period usually occurs a month after sowing the seeds. The cut plants should be planted at a distance of about 7 cm from each other.
Cabbage is a light-loving plant: for normal growth of seedlings, the duration of daylight hours should be at least 12-15 hours. In winter - in early spring, the day is much shorter, so the seedlings must be supplemented.
Seedlings will transfer transplant more easily and take root faster in a new place if the pick is made at a time when the plant roots are saturated with the maximum amount of nutrients. According to the lunar calendar, this period occurs during the 1st phase (waxing moon) or immediately after the full moon (3rd phase).
|Favorable days for picking cabbage seedlings|
|January: 3-4, 10-11, 14-15, 18-20, 23-25, 30-31 |
February: 1, 6-7, 10-11, 15-16, 20-21, 27-28
March: 5-6, 9, 19, 21, 26-27
April: 2, 5-6, 10, 15-16, 19, 21, 23-24, 29-30
May: 1, 4, 13, 15-17, 20-21, 27, 30-31
Fertilizing cabbage seedlings according to the lunar calendar in 2021
Carry out the first feeding of cabbage seedlings two weeks after germination. The next one - a week after the pick, when the seedlings will take root in a new place. At this time, they need nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus. Top dressing will accelerate the growth of green mass, increase the volume of the root system and strengthen the immune system. To make it easier for the seedlings to absorb nutrients, try to use liquid fertilizers.
For nutrients to be as effective as possible, you need to feed the plants during the period when the growing Moon is in Libra or in one of the "wet" signs - Pisces, Cancer or Scorpio.
Cabbage is a well-known "water bread", but waterlogging can greatly harm it and cause dangerous diseases. To prevent this from happening, carefully monitor the soil moisture and water the seedlings only after the soil begins to dry out. This usually happens every 1-1.5 weeks.
After planting cabbage seedlings in a permanent place, the frequency of watering should be increased to 2-3 times a week. If the moisture level is insufficient, the heads of cabbage will not form well in the vegetable.
The lunar calendar recommends watering while the moon is in Libra or in water signs. But the days when she visits Aquarius, Aries, Taurus, Gemini or Sagittarius, it is better to leave "dry", without moisture.
|Favorable days for watering cabbage|
|January: 3-9, 12-13, 16-17, 21-22, 26-27, 30-31 |
February: 1-5, 12-14, 22-24, 27-28
March: 2-4, 12-13, 17,19-20, 22-23, 26-28, 30
April: 9, 14, 18-19, 23-24, 26-28
May: 7, 10-12, 15-17, 21, 24-25
June: 2-3, 6-8, 11-13, 16-22, 29-30
July: 4-5, 9-10, 13-19, 26-28, 31
August: 1, 5-6, 10-15, 23-24, 27-29
Fertilizing cabbage does not end at the stage of growing seedlings - they continue throughout the growing season. The first feeding after planting seedlings in open ground is carried out immediately after the seedlings take root well, i.e. in about two weeks.
You can increase the benefits of dressing if you adhere to the recommendations of the Lunar calendar and feed cabbage on those days when the Moon is in the constellations of Capricorn, Cancer, Libra and Scorpio.
When to plant seedlings in the middle lane
Timing recommendations for different regions
The middle zone of Russia is characterized by a temperate continental climate, there is a significant difference in temperature in winter and summer. In winter it can be up to -45 degrees, and in summer - up to +45.
Winters are snowy, summers are quite warm, usually with plenty of precipitation, but the most unpleasant thing is spring, or rather, its recurrent frosts. Spring in the middle lane can come early, this is its deceit. In May, even in June, quite protracted return frosts are not uncommon, sometimes reaching serious values of -5 and even -7 degrees. Often they are even accompanied by snowfall.
The middle zone of Russia is divided into the Central part, North, South and East
|The central part (represented by such regions as Bryansk, Vladimir, Tula, Ryazan and others).||Here spring comes later than in the southern regions - by about 5-7 days. Therefore, return frosts may occur later, and there is no need to rush to plant seedlings.|
|Northern part (Leningrad, Novgorod and other regions)||There may be recurrent frosts even later, and it is not worth planting seedlings earlier than the beginning of June.|
|Southern regions (Lipetsk, Voronezh and other regions)||The climate is milder, spring comes earlier, therefore, already at the end of May, seedlings can be planted in the ground.|
|East (Kirov, Penza and other regions.||It is also worth postponing the planting of seedlings at the beginning of June.|
Sowing dates in the middle lane by crops
Now let's talk about when it is better to sow seeds in order to obtain seedlings of a particular crop.
White cabbage, cauliflower and red cabbage of early maturity for seedlings are sown throughout almost the entire March - from the beginning to the 20th. And seedlings are planted in a permanent place throughout May, depending on the region, from 1 to 20.
For mid-season white cabbage, Brussels sprouts, savoy cabbage, kohlrabi and broccoli - slightly different terms. Seeds are sown in mid-April - from the 10th to the 20th. And they are planted in a permanent place towards the end of May.
Late cultivars of red and white cabbage are sown on seedlings from April 5 to 15, and planted in the ground at the end of the month.
Peking cabbage seeds are sown from April 10 to 20, and planted in the ground from May 25, this is not the most capricious vegetable.
Chinese cabbage seeds are sown from April 25, planted in the ground at the end of May.
Lunar calendar planting seedlings in the middle lane in 2021
We publish favorable and unfavorable days for sowing seeds in accordance with the lunar calendar.
|Month||Auspicious days||Bad days|
|February||4, 5, 13, 14, 17-19, 22-24||10-12 and 27 numbers.|
|March||3, 4, 17-18, 22-23, 30-31.||12-14, 28.|
|April||8, 9, 14, 18, 19, 28 numbers.||11-13, 27, especially for tomatoes.|
|May||5, 6, 7, 15, 16, 17, 24, 25 numbers.||11, 12, 26 numbers.|
Read also our other articles about planting:
Seedling planting calendar 2021
Do you follow the planting calendar? Share your feedback with other gardeners in the comments.
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