Do-it-yourself well for water by hand and percussion-rope method
Any estate, be it a country cottage or a private house, must be provided with water. Without life-giving moisture, no cultivated plants can grow, delighting the eye with exuberant flowering, and fully bear fruit. A well for water with your own hands, despite the seeming grandeur of the process, is a very real possibility of water production, which can be done independently without the use of heavy drilling equipment. There are several drilling methods that are quite simple to perform and do not involve the use of expensive equipment and significant efforts.
Varieties of downhole structures
Water extraction can be carried out using different technologies. The main types of water wells used for the extraction of life-giving moisture:
- Arrangement of a well, which, in the presence of a good spring, fills up quickly and, being an excellent water storage, can hold up to 2 cubic meters of water;
- Filter well on sand, which is a pipe d = 100 mm, submerged with a screw to a depth of 20-30 meters. At the deepened end of the pipe, a stainless mesh is fixed, which acts as a filter, being immersed in the sand of a coarse fraction. The well depth is 10-50 meters, the service life is 5-15 years.
- A filterless artesian well used to extract water from layers of porous limestone rocks. The depth of the well is 20-100 meters, the service life is about 50 years.
The exact depth of the water well cannot be determined in advance. This will be roughly the same depth as a similar well drilled in adjacent areas, or a nearby well. Since deviations are possible due to the uneven occurrence of the soil layers, the casing should be purchased based on the parameters of the water supply sources already equipped at the site, but with a slight adjustment.
The design of the water well is a kind of narrow well
The service life of wells directly depends on the intensity of use: the more often you use the structure, the longer it will last
Drilling a well by hand
To carry out the work, the drill itself, a drill tower, a winch, rods and casing pipes are required. A drill tower is necessary when digging a deep hole, with the help of this structure, a drill with rods is immersed and lifted.
The easiest way to drill a water well is rotary, which is carried out by rotating the drill
When drilling shallow wells, the drill string can be removed manually, without the need for a tower at all. Drill rods can be made of pipes, products are connected using keys or threads. The lowest bar is additionally equipped with a drill.
The cutting attachments are made from 3 mm sheet steel. When sharpening the edges of the nozzles, it should be taken into account that when the drill mechanism rotates, they must cut into the soil clockwise.
The drilling technology, familiar to most owners of home gardens, is applicable to the installation of a well under water.
The tower is installed above the drilling site, its height should exceed the height of the drill rod in order to facilitate the extraction of the rod when lifting. Then a guide recess for the drill is dug onto two bayonets of the shovel. The first turns of rotation of the drill can be performed by one person, but as the pipe sinks, additional help will be required. If the drill does not come out the first time, turn it counterclockwise and try again.
As the drill deepens, the rotation of the pipe becomes more difficult. Softening the soil with water will help to facilitate the work. As the drill moves down, every half meter, the drill structure should be brought to the surface and freed from the soil. The drilling cycle is repeated again. At the stage when the tool handle is level with the ground, the structure is built up with an additional knee.
Since lifting and cleaning the drill takes a significant part of the time, you should maximize the capabilities of the structure, capturing and extracting as much of the soil layer as possible to the surface.
When working on loose soils, it is necessary to additionally install casing pipes in the well, which prevent the soil from shedding from the walls of the hole and blocking the well.
Drilling continues until it enters the aquifer, which is easily identified by the condition of the excavated land. Passing the aquifer, the drill sinks even deeper until it reaches the next aquifer, the water-resistant layer. Submersion to the level of the water-resistant layer will ensure the maximum flow of water into the well. It is important to note that manual drilling is only applicable for submersion to the first aquifer, the depth of which does not exceed 10-20 meters.
To pump out dirty water, you can use a hand pump or a submersible pump. After two to three buckets of dirty water, the aquifer is flushed out and clean water usually appears. If this does not happen, the well should be buried another 1-2 meters.
You can also use a manual drilling method based on the use of a conventional drill and a hydraulic pump:
Rock drill technology
The essence of this method, how to make a well for water with your own hands, is that the rock is broken with the help of a driven glass - a heavy tool falling from the height of an equipped tower.
To carry out the work, a home-made drilling rig is needed, as well as tools for using the percussion-rope method and extracting soil from the well.
The well tower, which looks like an ordinary tripod, can be made of both steel pipes and ordinary wooden logs. The dimensions of the structure should be proportional to the dimensions of the downhole tool.
The optimal ratio is the height of the derrick, which exceeds the length of the downhole nozzle by one and a half meters.
The process consists in alternately lowering the driving nozzle, which breaks and captures the rock, and lifting to the surface with a captured blade of the drilling tool.
To equip the drilling rig, you can use a steel pipe, the end of which is equipped with a cutting device. The cutting edge, which looks like a half turn of the auger, will be in direct contact with the bottom. Half a meter from the edge, a hole must be made in the steel pipe through which the extracted soil can be extracted, emptying the drill bit. A cable is attached to the top of the glass, with the help of which the glass will be lowered and its contents removed to the surface. The glass should be freed from the ground as the structure is deepened for every half meter.
Here is a video example of conducting exploration drilling in this way:
Nuances of installing casing pipes
A do-it-yourself well dug under water requires additional casing, which can be made both from a solid asbestos-cement pipe, and from separate cuts of asbestos pipes. When working with cuts, special attention is paid to the equal diameter of the pipes in order to ensure subsequent unhindered immersion of the entire structure. Each pipe link is kept from slipping and secured with staples, which are then hidden under stainless steel strips.
A do-it-yourself water well can also be cased with steel or plastic pipes.
Pipe “casing” is required:
- to prevent wall shattering during drilling;
- to prevent well clogging during operation;
- to cover the upper aquifers with poor water.
A pipe is lowered to the bottom of the well with a filter made of a fine mesh that does not allow a grain of sand to pass through and provides water filtration. The pipe lowered to the required depth is secured with a clamp. This will prevent spontaneous subsidence.
With a competent arrangement of a well for water, the above-ground part of the structure is covered with a caisson - a head that protects the source from pollution.
The head is a tank with a closing hatch with a hole diameter allowing easy access to the water well
Over time, the effect of slight squeezing of the pipe out of the soil may be observed. The natural process of spontaneous lifting of the pipe to the soil surface does not require additional burial measures.
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Varieties of drillings
The Abyssinian well is a driven well, which is the simplest option. To equip it on the site, the water layer must have depth up to 12 meters... The quality of the water in it depends mainly on the structure of the soil. If necessary, such a development can be arranged in the basement.
The sand hole, the layout of which is in great demand, is only suitable for personal use. Water from it is characterized by its properties as technical, therefore it is used only for bathing or watering the garden. On average, the aquifers in this well lie at a depth of about 10-50 meters.
By the way, it is possible to carry out drilling operations in such formations with your own hands, the main thing is that no shale passes through the area after a few meters. Passing it without the help of professionals is unlikely to work.
Sand wells, of course have some disadvantages... The main disadvantage of such a development is the interruption of the water supply. There is a problem with seasonal changes in the level of life-giving moisture. In addition, it needs to be serviced periodically, especially for summer residents who need water only in the summer. In this situation, the filter in the well becomes silted over time. This is why the rise of water must be regular. In addition, the service life of such a well is no more than 15 years.
Artesian development, although it is considered the most expensive, is the most effective method of centralized water supply. For its drilling, large equipment is used, which allows you to deepen approximately 200-300 meters.
Water from an artesian well is better and of better quality than from a sand one. Even in it, the filter almost does not clog. It is mounted at the bottom of the 219 mm diameter supply pipe. This production guarantees 99% constant supply of life-giving moisture, and its service life is 50 years.
True, such wells also have disadvantages. For example, sometimes it is necessary to install additional filtration systems, since the water can contain various iron compounds. Plus, as mentioned earlier, it is expensive to set up. You will also have to obtain permission to drill such a development and coordinate the project.
Well drilling technology
The work procedure for the construction of a well is quite simple. First you need to find a suitable location for drilling. It must be easily accessible for timely maintenance. It is necessary to locate the well drilling point at the lowest point of the suburban area. Then the borehole is drilled, casing pipes and equipment are installed.
If you are planning to drill a deep well, you should contact a professional. They have a special technique that allows drilling quickly and cost-effectively. Particular attention should be paid to independent well arrangement.
Before you start drilling a well for water, you must first equip a pit. It should have dimensions of 1.5x1.5 m. The depth of the pit should be about 2 m. It may not be equipped. However, with the pit, longer rods can be used when drilling.
The further sequence of well drilling operations is as follows:
- It is necessary to equip an oil rig. It can be a tripod made of logs and pipes. Semi-professional towers can also be used. They are often rented to perform wells on private property.
- When drilling, you need a certain number of nozzles. Each of them is necessary for the passage of certain breeds. For example, to drill soft ground, you need a coil. When drilling in dense layers of soil, use spoons. A chisel is used to break stones. To remove arrogance and pass quicksand, you need a bailer.
- The main element used for drilling a well is a drill string. It is a metal tube with a diameter of 25 mm. Nozzles are put on it. The column is composite. When immersed to a certain depth, the pipe is extended with additional sections. Column elements are connected by both pins and threads.
- One stroke during drilling allows you to plunge into the ground by 0.5 m. Then the column should be pulled out and cleaned. After opening the top of the seam, you need to go to the bailer. It has a non-return valve. The aquifer is quite soft. It can be done quite easily. You should not go deeper than 0.5 m. If you do not take this moment into account when drilling, you can pierce the sole, and the water will begin to go down.
You can also use a simpler drilling technology - percussion. The principle of operation is quite simple. This drilling method includes the following steps:
- The soft soil layer is passed by the auger.
- Then a projectile must be executed from the pipe. Its length should be about 0.5 m. From the lower side, the projectile is sharpened and tempered. You can use a finished drill bit.
- On the reverse side, in order to make the projectile heavier, you will need to weld a barbell, and tie a cord to it.
Drilling with this design is quite simple to explain. The projectile is thrown into the barrel. It sinks under its own weight. Then it must be pulled out by the cord and cleaned. However, this method has one drawback. The barrel walls will not be straight. In this case, its diameter will be quite small. Such drilling is quite simple to carry out. The work is done quickly and effortlessly.
When the drilling of the shaft is completed, it is reinforced with siege pipes. There are 3 options that should be considered in more detail:
- Steel pipes. They are used for drilling, if the soil in the area is unstable, as well as at great depths of drilling. Such products are very durable and reliable. Their only drawback is their susceptibility to rusting.
- Asbestos-cement pipes. They are used to strengthen columns quite often. However, only high-cost pressure pipes are suitable for such tasks. They are connected by a coupling, which reduces the diameter of the column.
- Plastic pipes are also widely used in well drilling. Their cost is quite low, this material does not rust, it is environmentally neutral and durable. If the ground is stable, and drilling is carried out to a depth of 50 m, plastic pipes can be used without fear.
The well cannot be operated without a filtration system. In the structure, there is always a column in which there is a grid for coarse water purification and perforation. The perforated sector is supplemented with a filter layer. In the design of the filtering system, there is a sump in which the sludge settles. The filter in the column can be slotted or perforated.
Hole filters are fairly straightforward.They can be made by drilling a number of holes of the required diameter. You need to make holes in a checkerboard pattern.
Slotted columns are more efficient. The slots in them are cut into certain sectors. The filtration mesh located around the string is selected depending on the drilling depth.
The filter can be installed by hand. To do this, follow a series of simple steps. First, sludge is removed from the column and its bottom is drowned. To solve such a problem, it is necessary to make a small bag (by the size of the column) and fill it with a cement mixture. The composition should contain 1 kg of sand and the same amount of cement powder. The pouch is lowered to the bottom of the column. After three days, the cork will be firmly seized.
Adapter or caisson
The caisson is a well installed at the top of the structure. It is necessary to be able to service the well all year round. One of its main functions is insulation. In addition, it also has a protective function. Special devices are placed in the caisson, which allow the well to function normally. One of the advantages of installing a caisson is the absence of noise from operating equipment.
The caissons are made of various materials. They can be plastic or reinforced concrete. The most common are metal and plastic products. This is due to their durability and tightness. If the ground is stable, it is better to use plastic pipes. This will save money on the well construction. In the presence of quicksand or groundwater, a metal column is installed.
The adapter is a special adapter that allows you to make the exit of the string from the casing completely sealed. Hugo is installed below the level of soil freezing. Its cost is lower than that of a caisson. However, after every 2-3 years, it is necessary to change the gaskets in it. For this reason, many people choose to install a caisson.
The principle of operation of a water well is quite simple. The water in it rises from underground lakes upward due to high pressure. It is supplied to the house by a pump. At the same time, the pump plays a major role in the operation of the autonomous water supply system. Household pumps should not be used when installing a water well. They are not suitable for long term use. As a result of constant vibration, sludge rising from the bottom clogs the filtration system.
Before choosing a specific pump, the level of the water mirror should be determined. If it is located at a depth of 8 m, self-priming units should be used. At a mirror level of 15 m, the same devices are used, but with an upper ejector. For diving to a depth of more than 20 m, submersible pumps are chosen.
The list of related equipment includes:
- Casing head. Thanks to this structural element, debris does not enter the barrel. It is also made of plastic or metal. The plastic head can withstand a load of up to 200 kg. When using a metal product, the maximum weight of the load can be 500 kg. The connection is flanged. It is completely sealed. For this, a rubber gasket is used.
- The accumulator is designed to compensate for water hammer. Due to its use, the pump is operated less intensively. It is often referred to as a membrane tank. The capacity of the accumulator is selected based on the capacity of the installed structure. Install a hydroaccumulator in the caisson.
Another downhole tool is a pressure switch. It controls the activation of the pump. In addition, it turns on the pressure gauge and the valve for removing air from the system.
Rope percussion drilling
Methods for drilling water wells are not limited only to auger drilling, there is also percussion-rope drilling, which consists in crushing the rock using a steel nozzle, which falls from the height of a home-made drilling rig equipped for this purpose. A tower (tripod) is made of steel pipes or wooden logs in proportions corresponding to the size of the driven glass. The optimum height is one and a half lengths of the percussion instrument.
The process of equipping a well for water with an impact method consists in a sharp lowering of the hammer, breaking the soil, capturing the rock, and raising it to the surface. A piece of steel pipe with a sharpened bottom edge in the form of a half of a screw thread can be used as a shock nozzle.
A rectangular hole is made above the cutting edge to excavate the raised soil when the equipment is raised. In its upper part, a fastening is made for a lifting cable. The bottomhole device is cleared of soil every half a meter of the borehole.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The video will clearly show the process of manually drilling a well with the installation of a casing and a filter in the casing:
Each type of water well has its own advantages and disadvantages.
Now that you have got an idea of the type of wells, their structure and construction methods, it will be easier for you to make a choice in favor of a particular design, based on the characteristics of your site and from your own financial capabilities.
If you have ever drilled a well with your own hands, tell us how complicated or simple the process was. Please write your comments in the block below. Ask questions, share your impressions, post pictures on the topic of the article.