Plumeria: home care, growing from seeds, species, photos
Houseplants Published: June 13, 2012 Reprinted: Last edits:
Plumeria (lat.Plumeria) - a plant belonging to the Kutrov family and numbering about 65 plant species. The genus was named in honor of Charles Plumer, a famous botanist in France of the 17th century. Under natural conditions, the plant lives in the north of South America.
Representatives of the genus are shrubs or small trees. Home plumeria is prized for its flowers - white, pinkish, yellow. But the most important thing is the scent of these flowers. Plumeria bloom almost all summer. The flowers are large - up to 10 cm in diameter.
In our latitudes, plumeria are grown quite rarely, so it is not easy to buy plumeria. In indoor conditions, the plant can reach a height of 2 m, although it is more optimal to grow plumeria in greenhouses.
Briefly about growing
- Bloom: lasts almost all summer from late spring.
- Lighting: bright sunlight: the plant needs to be in direct sunlight for at least 6 hours daily for flowering.
- Temperature: from mid-spring to autumn - 25-30 ºC, in autumn the temperature is gradually reduced, and the plant should spend the winter at 16-17 ºC.
- Watering: moderate, in spring and summer - as the top layer of the soil dries up, in winter it is enough so that the earthen lump does not dry out completely.
- Air humidity: increased. It is recommended to keep the plant pot on a pallet with wet pebbles and spend morning and evening spraying the leaves with warm water in the heat.
- Top dressing: with the appearance of the first young leaves - twice a month with mineral fertilizer for flowering plants. From the beginning of autumn, feeding is gradually reduced, and in October it is completely stopped.
- Rest period: 1-1.5 months from mid-October to March. Before going to rest, the plant sheds its leaves.
- Cropping: after exiting the period, based on the fact that flowers are formed at the ends of the shoots of the current year.
- Transfer: in early spring: young plants - annually, adults - once every two years.
- Substrate: two parts of sod land and one part of humus, peat land and sand.
- Reproduction: seeds and cuttings.
- Pests: spider mites.
- Diseases: stem and root rot, premature fall of leaves as a result of improper conditions and inadequate care.
- Properties: plumeria juice is poisonous!
Read more about growing plumeria below.
Photo of plumeria
Plumeria care at home
The optimal location for a houseplant plumeria is considered to be southern windows, since the plant will bloom only if it is in direct sunlight for at least 6 hours a day. In principle, the plant grows well on both western and eastern windows. On the north side, the plant will not bloom due to lack of lighting. Indoor plumeria can be taken out into the garden in summer, but the plant must be accustomed to direct rays gradually, as well as to provide protection from drafts and precipitation. Also, do not put the plant in the sun immediately after purchase - burns may appear on the leaves.
From mid-spring and throughout the summer, the plumeria plant needs a high temperature - 25 to 30 ° C. In autumn, the temperature is gradually reduced, and in winter it should not be lower than 16 ° C.
In spring and summer, indoor plumeria is watered immediately after the topsoil dries. Water the plant with soft, settled water. In winter, watering is reduced, making sure that the earthy clod does not dry out. The water should not stagnate in the pot - this can destroy the plant, therefore, when the temperature drops or on rainy days, plumeria is watered very carefully.
The homemade plumeria plant responds very well to spraying during the growing season. You need to take soft water for spraying, let it stand for at least a day before spraying. You can also put the pot on a pallet with wet pebbles or expanded clay, making sure that the water in the pallet does not touch the bottom of the pot. Water should not come into contact with the flowers.
After the appearance of new leaves in spring, the plant is fed with complex fertilizers. After that, the plumeria is fed with fertilizers for flowering plants twice a month. If the plant is outdoors in the summer, then after a time the plumeria can be fertilized by foliar method - the fertilizer is diluted in half of the concentration suggested by the manufacturer and the leaves are sprayed on both sides. Do this in the evening once a week and a half. With the arrival of autumn, the frequency of fertilizing is reduced, and in winter it is completely stopped.
When growing plumeria in indoor conditions, the plant retires in winter - depending on the type of plant, dormancy lasts 3-6 weeks. During this time, the plant usually sheds only old leaves, while the younger ones remain on the tree. At the end of the dormant period, new leaves and flowers begin to appear on the plants.
When the plant comes out of hibernation, it needs to be pruned. When forming the crown of a plumeria, it must be borne in mind that flowers appear at the ends of shoots that have grown in the same year. For trimming, a very sharp knife or pruner is used, which must first be treated with alcohol. Cut branches can be used for propagation by cuttings.
Plumeria flower is transplanted in early spring: young trees every year, and older trees every two years. The pot should be 2-3 cm larger than the previous one. If there is no larger pot, then you can cut the roots by 5 centimeters, and fill the remaining space in the pot with fresh substrate. The soil is composed of sod, peat, humus and sand (2: 1: 1: 1). At the bottom, you need to pour expanded clay or broken brick at 1/5 of the height of the pot. Some growers use eggshells instead of expanded clay.
Growing from seeds
The seeds are sown in pots 6 cm in diameter. When shoots appear, and the root system gets stronger, the young are transferred into 9-centimeter pots. The earthen mixture is used the same as when transplanting plumeria. Plants grown from seeds are usually different from the parent plumeria. Home plumeria usually begins to bloom in the second or third year.
Propagation by cuttings
Cuttings for propagation must be cut at an oblique angle, and best of all in late winter - early spring. The place of the cut is dipped into water, and then into a root formation stimulator. A plumeria stalk is planted in a clever way: the pot is filled in three layers - a third with a soil mixture (described above), a third with perlite, and again with a soil mixture. The stalk is placed vertically so that its lower end is completely in perlite. It is advisable to use the bottom heating, because the temperature for normal rooting should be between 25-28 ° C. Provide bright lighting (if necessary - fluorescent lamps), watered carefully. The appearance of leaves indicates the rooting of the plumeria cuttings - this usually occurs after 2-3 months. Watering is gradually increased, then transferred into a large pot and looked after as an adult specimen. Flowers usually appear the next year, and maybe the same.
Plumeria sap is poisonous and can cause irritation if it comes into contact with mucous membranes or skin. If the juice gets on the skin or mucous membrane, you should immediately rinse this place with plenty of clean running water.
Diseases and pests
Plumeria sheds leaves. If plumeria shed its leaves before the arrival of winter, then you should not be afraid - this is a natural phenomenon.
Plumeria does not grow. If the plant has stopped growing, the leaves lose their turgor, hang down, turn yellow, fall off - most likely the plumeria is not watered enough.
Plumeria rots. If you add a rotting stem and roots to the above symptoms, then most likely the watering is too abundant.
Plumeria pests. The main enemy of plumeria is the spider mite.
White Plumeria / Plumeria alba
It grows naturally in the Antilles. These trees grow up to 10 m in height. The leaves are linear, the underside of the leaf plate is densely covered with white hairs, the edges of the leaf are slightly raised; in length the leaf reaches 30 cm, and in width - up to 7. Flowers smell very nice, not very large - up to 2.5 cm in diameter, white with a yellow eye.
Red Plumeria / Plumeria rubra
It grows mainly in Venezuela and Mexico. The trees are lower plumeria white - up to 5 m in height, deciduous. Leaves are ovoid, up to 15 cm wide, almost 0.5 m long; the underside of the leaf is both pubescent and smooth; the top of the leaf is usually blunt, but sometimes it is sharply pointed. Flowers are collected in clusters at the top of the shoots, up to 5 cm in diameter. Depending on the variety, the flowers are pink, white, red, yellow, purple. In different varieties, the shape of the leaves may also differ.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Kutrovye
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Indoor Plants Information
Sections: Houseplants Beautiful flowering Kutrovye Plants on P
In nature, plumeria is a spreading bush or tree up to 15 m high, but in an apartment it rarely grows above 2 m.The leaves are long and dense, glossy, the flowers are large, up to 10 cm in diameter. The plant blooms for a long time, the whole warm season. The buds are bright, multi-colored, consisting of 5 petals.
The main attraction of plumeria is its aroma. He is strong and very peculiar, changing with the time of day, but extremely pleasant. The fruit is inedible, but it is easy to take seeds from it for planting. They germinate well if allowed to mature to the end.
Preliminary preparation for planting plumeria seeds at home
Plumeria seeds are planted throughout the year. It is important to provide the plant with at least 6 hours of daylight. Therefore, containers with seeds planted for germination are placed on the windowsills on the south side.
Before planting, it is necessary to carry out special preparation not only of the seeds, but also of the soil.
First of all, you should choose high-quality planting material. It is better to plant purchased seeds, since in this case the plant retains its varietal characteristics.
The highest germination rate is observed in fresh seeds. Therefore, the shelf life of such planting material should not exceed 1.5 years. It is also important that a winglet is present on each seed.
Land mixtures with good water permeability and aeration are suitable for growing plumeria from seeds. For self-cooking, it is recommended to combine peat and vermiculite.
If ready-made mixtures are used, preference is given to soil for cacti and a mixture of leaf soil with pine bark. Before using the soil, the soil mixture is heated in the oven for 10 minutes, or kept in the microwave for 3-5 minutes.
For disinfection, the seeds are soaked for an hour in a warm fungicide solution or a pink solution of potassium permanganate.
Then the seeds are placed in a growth stimulant solution for an hour.
In order for the seeds to germinate quickly, each seed is wrapped in a damp cotton pad. In this form, they are packed in a plastic bag with a sealed fastener.
When suspended, it is placed in a warm place and periodically sprinkled with cotton pads with clean water. It is important that the seeds are in an upright position, that is, with their wings up. After 7-9 days, small sprouts hatch and the seeds can be planted in the ground.
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When growing plumeria from seeds at home, it is better to immediately purchase a phytolamp. Such exotic cultures require good lighting, without which they stretch, pale and lose their decorative effect.
Decontaminating the soil in the oven before sowing seeds is a very effective method. But, along with harmful spores and bacteria, useful microflora also perishes. Therefore, after roasting the soil, it must be left for 1-2 weeks to recover, and only then sow the planting material.
To disinfect the soil mixture, you can pour it with boiling water or a solution of a complex fungicidal preparation. If the seeds have been germinated, then it is better to lay them out in the prepared substrate using tweezers. Otherwise, there is a risk of damaging the sprouts. It is important not to let them grow too much, the seeds should be planted as soon as the sprouts are visible.
Do not allow the cotton pads to dry out, as well as the appearance of mold on them. It is also convenient to use cotton cloth for germination. Moisture for spraying must be warm.
Before disinfecting the planting material and lowering it into a growth stimulator, we recommend that you familiarize yourself with the information on the label if the seeds are purchased. Sometimes, they are sold already processed and no additional measures are needed.
General information about the Plumeria plant
Plumeria is a beautiful appearance and a wonderful floral scent.
Plumeria also differs in its size - a flower can grow up to two meters, and this is an important factor that should be taken into account when choosing a flower as a home plant.
In natural conditions, plumeria lives in the northern part of South America, in Mexico, Laos. The flower is named after the French botanist Charles Plumer. Today there are more than 65 species of plumeria.
Bush. Plumeria is a shrub or small tree, blooming with large flowers of white, pink or yellow colors, which can reach up to 10 centimeters in diameter, gather in clusters at the top of the branches.
Flower represents 5 petals collected together on a long peduncle, almost half of the flower is usually painted in a different color.
Plumeria blooms all summer long, before sunrise and after sunset, it fills the air around with a pleasant aroma.
The rest of the plant does not look attractive - its stems are excessively elongated up to several meters and bare, grayish-brown in color, the leaves are collected in rosettes at the tops, the leaf is darker on top, and lighter on the bottom.
For home breeding, the following varieties of plumeria are most often used
Plumeria is blunt. In its natural environment, it is a small evergreen tree, up to 3 - 5 meters high. The leaves are up to 20 centimeters long.
There are also dwarf varieties, for example Plumeria obtus, a dwarf plant with branches up to 40 centimeters long, velvety dark green leaves, which are covered with a fine fluff on the back.
Plumeria white ... The native land of the plant is the Antilles. White plumeria is a tree up to 10 meters high. The lower part of the leaf is covered with white hairs, the edges of the leaf plate are raised, the leaves can be up to 30 centimeters long, with a width of 7 centimeters.
Flowers, in comparison with other species, are small - up to 2.5 centimeters in diameter, white with a yellow center.
Plumeria red... Mostly found in Mexico and Venice. It is a deciduous tree up to 5 meters in height. Egg-shaped leaves up to 15 centimeters wide and almost 50 centimeters long.
Flowers up to 5 centimeters in diameter are collected at the tops of the shoots in inflorescences. Flowers come in different colors depending on the type of plant - white, red, pink, yellow, purple. Also, different varieties may differ in the shape of the sheets.
Types and varieties of bindweed
There are not so many garden species of bindweed. We will present you the most popular ones.
Bindweed Moorish (Convolvulus sabatius = Convolvulus Mauritanicus)
It is an excellent plant for hanging baskets and containers, the shoots of which, covered with delicate gray-green leaves, reach a length of 50 cm.Flowers in this species are most often light lilac.
Bindweed (Convolvulus bicuspidatus = Convolvulus fischerianus)
Originally from Asia, Siberia and the Caucasus, where it grows on dry mountain slopes, along sandy river banks and in mountain steppes. It has recumbent, ascending, slightly curly stems 30-40 cm long, naked or pubescent, arrow-shaped leaves on petioles 3 to 7 cm long and single pink flowers on long peduncles.
Bindweed tricolor (Convolvulus tricolor = Convolvulus minor)
It is a herbaceous annual, densely branched plant native to the western Mediterranean. Its stems are pubescent, creeping and ascending. Leaves are linear-lanceolate, sessile, entire, pointed, dull green, glabrous or slightly rough. Axillary flowers up to 4 cm in diameter on short pedicels have a regular funnel-shaped shape. The corolla bend is bright blue, the middle part is white, and the throat is yellow. The species is represented by forms with purple-blue, pink, white, purple and blue flowers and several interesting varieties:
- Crimson Monarch - variety with crimson flowers
- Royal Ensign - bindweed with shoots up to 45 cm long and dark blue flowers with a golden throat
- Blue Flash - blue bindweed up to 25 cm high.
The star bindweed, which is otherwise called the lobed quamoklite, or the morning glory Mina Lobata, or the Spanish flag, although it is a vine, does not belong to the genus Bindweed.