Features of growing and caring for mulberry in the Moscow region
Mulberry (mulberry) is one of the unique plants that combines the nutritional and medicinal properties of the fruit. The plant has valuable wood, and the leaves serve as food for the silkworm, with the help of which natural silk is created.... It is a deciduous plant that grows up to 15 m in height and is found throughout the world. The plant grows in the subtropical zone of Asia, Africa, North America. And in this article we will talk about the features of growing and caring for mulberry in the Moscow region.
Is it possible to grow mulberries in a summer cottage in the suburbs?
Mulberry attracts gardeners with a wholesome sweet crop. The fruits of the plant are the seedlings of small nuts with accrete pericarp. The berries are white, pinkish and purple. With special care, the mulberry tree begins to produce crops for 3 years after planting.... A larger crop is harvested in 4-5 years.
The mulberry plant is cultivated in the southern regions of the country - in the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, Astrakhan, Rostov, Volgograd and Nizhny Novgorod Regions. Moving northward, in recent years, mulberry is becoming popular in the Moscow region, Siberia, the Urals and other areas of the middle belt..
Since the duration of daylight hours in the Moscow region is short, the growing season is carried out only in spring and autumn. However, due to the unique ability to quickly recover, a mulberry plant is able to withstand Russian winters with temperatures up to -30 degrees... However, this only applies to a few species.
How to start planting mulberries?
Having decided to plant and propagate such an outlandish plant on your site, first of all, you should select mulberry varieties that are cultivated in your region.
The mulberry plant has 17 species. Every year, breeders bring out new plant varieties, which have more than 200 subspecies. The most common types include red, black and white mulberries. White mulberry is grown in the temperate zone.
White and black mulberries differ not in the color of the berries, but in the shades of the plant bark. The trunk and branches of a white mulberry are light beige or light yellow. Black mulberry has darker bark shades.
Choosing the shape of the plant is equally important. Taking into account the cold winters, mulberries are formed by a low-growing tree or shrub... The mulberry green plant is often used in landscaping a site in the form of hedges, alleys, or alone.
How to choose the right seedling, breeding methods
Mulberry tree propagation is done in several ways.: seeds, cuttings, layering, grafting and young shoots.
Seed growing method used mainly by breeders, in order to obtain a stock of varietal seedlings. The method is not complicated, but it takes a very long time. Seeds are stratified two months before planting. And planting in open ground is done two years later.
Cuttings produce seedlings with a good root system... However, under normal conditions, this method is difficult to implement. Gardeners often use the layering method.
The easiest method of acquiring a mulberry plant is seedlings. When buying mulberry seedlings, you should find out in what area they grew... For example, the imported seeds or seedlings from the south in the middle lane will not take root due to the frosty winter. The seedlings grown in your region are more adapted to the local climate.
Mulberry is a dioecious plant with female and male shoots. It is impossible to find out the sex before fruiting. Only 3-5 years after planting, fruits appear on female shoots... Male shoots do not bear fruit. They are used as decoration and landscaping of the garden. Therefore, it is worth stopping the choice only on three-year-old seedlings that have already borne fruit.
Choosing a place for planting a mulberry tree
Mulberry loves sunny, windless places. The best option for placing a mulberry tree is the south side.... The plant will be protected from drafts and wind near the fence or wall of the house.
The soil composition of lands is of great importance. Loose loamy soils with deep underground waters are suitable for planting. However, the plant is able to take root in saline soils. When planting a mulberry tree in empty sandy lands, it is worth additionally creating drainage from a layer of broken brick. To enrich the soil, mineral fertilizers are applied.
Swampy soils, lowlands are destructive for mulberry... In damp waterlogged or compacted soil, the plant withers or dies.
Depending on the shape of the mulberry tree, it is worthwhile to determine in advance the area of its planting. For bushy mulberries, the distance between the seedlings should be 3 m, and for the standard form - 5 m.
Planting rules and technology in spring and autumn
Mulberry seedlings are planted in spring and autumn. In the spring, mainly in April, disembarkation is made before the start of sap flow... In order for the plant to take root in the fall, it is planted before the onset of the season of heavy rains and frosts.
It is advisable to plant mulberries in the middle lane in the spring. During the summer season, young shoots will become overgrown with bark and will not die in the first winter.
Seedlings are planted in pre- prepared pits with a depth of half a meter, measuring 80 * 80 cm... A bucket of compost or humus is placed on the bottom. The straightened, free-lying, roots of the seedlings are lowered, covering them with earth. The filled soil, to improve rooting, is mixed with 150 grams of minerals. Sprinkle with water and tamp. Sowing of mulberries is completed with mulching, which protects the seedlings from freezing in the winter.
Plant a plant and seed way... At the end of autumn, the seeds are treated with a special solution or in the spring they are stratified two months before planting. Such preparation is necessary for the best seed germination. Seeds are placed in soil 3-5 cm deep. Water and lay mulch against freezing.
Mulberry planting recommendations:
- Planting a plant the root collar should be deepened a little... The deepening of the roots of the mulberry, in contrast to the apple or pear, does not lead to the heating of the bark;
- Landing pits are prepared in advanceby giving them the opportunity to survive;
- Digging pits of such dimensions that the roots could fit freely;
- Don't overdo your fertilization. More growth will appear due to oversupply;
- Slender plant stem tied to a peg or a board placed in advance in the pit;
- If the soil is heavy half of the peat wheelbarrow is added to the soil.
Observing all the rules of planting, the plant easily takes root and grows quickly.
Caring for a newly planted seedling
Mulberry is unpretentious in care. If the planting was carried out in the spring, in the first half of summer, mineral or organic fertilizers are applied in a small amount and watered abundantly. After July, seedlings cannot be fertilized.... Also, in the second half of summer, watering is carried out as needed, without overmoistening the soil.
During the summer season, the near-trunk circle of seedlings is weeded and loosened the ground. Old dried branches are cut off.
In summer, young shoots grow rapidly. During this period, the plant can be propagated. Cutting off the shoot, divide it into small cuttings 15-20 cm and planted in the ground in a greenhouse at an angle of 45 degrees. By fall, the cuttings will have roots and can be planted in the garden next spring.
To save the mulberry from strong winds and frosts, in the fall, the lateral shoots are tilted to the ground and covered with spunbond... The edges of the spunbond are pressed with stones or bricks, protecting the plant from rodents. Additionally, mulch from needles, straw or fallen leaves is added to the near-trunk circle. During the winter, some of the shoots will freeze. However, mulberries will quickly adapt to spring and will give new shoots.
Follow-up care of the seedling, how to prune and shape the crown
Water the plant with the onset of dry weather. Top dressing is applied once a season. Fertilize the soil with manure, wood ash, nitrogenous and potassium fertilizers. In the fight against diseases and pests, insecticides, fungicides and urea are used 7%... Fertilizers are applied during the dormant period - in spring or autumn.
For the winter, the mulberry tree is mulched and covered with flooring. In the spring, the flooring is removed and the branches that are weak and damaged during the winter are cut off.
The mulberry tree develops rapidly for the first few years before fruiting. During this period, the formation of the skeleton of the plant is carried out. In April - May, before the onset of sap flow and budding, formative and rejuvenating pruning is performed... Weeping mulberries thin out the crown and shorten the branches. For a standard mulberry, it is necessary to form a crown. Young shoots are removed, leaving one bare trunk with a lush spherical or cascading crown. In summer cottages and backyard plots, plants are formed that are low up to 1.5 - 2 m, cutting off the upper shoots.
Regular mulberry yield occurs at 4-5 years... They accelerate the appearance of fruits with the help of grafts, after which the plant bears fruit in the third year. The berries ripen in July - August. Ripe fruits often fall off. To improve collection, a spunbond is laid under the bush.
Mulberry is increasingly being used in summer cottages. The mulberry plant is resistant to the climate of middle latitudes, quickly takes root and grows intensively. In case of freezing, the plant quickly adapts and gives new shoots. If during the first two years the seedlings have taken root in a new place, then in the future they will tolerate winters well.... By showing concern, mulberries can be passed on to future generations. The plant can be up to 200 years old. And the sweet mulberries will benefit the body. After all, the mulberry tree is one of the most useful plants in the world.
Frost-resistant wisteria in the Moscow region: planting, growing and proper care
One of the most luxurious plants that blooms in spring is wisteria. It is considered an excellent decoration for any yard. Everyone who saw her at this time, for sure, was impressed. The plant is densely enveloped in hanging clusters of white, pink and blue flowers. The foliage behind them is practically invisible. The flowering of this plant is an unforgettable sight. These tall, tree-like lianas are native to North America and East Asia. In this review, we will consider whether frost-resistant wisteria will grow in the Moscow region, and how it should be looked after so that it delights with lush flowering.
Let's dwell on the classification in more detail. Wisteria belongs to the legume family. The various species of this plant form a whole genus called Wisteria.
Let's take a closer look at which wisteria in the Moscow region will grow better:
- Blue sapphire. This species has a leafy vine. In natural conditions, the plant can reach a height of 15-20 meters. Wisteria of this species has large pinnate leaves. Young shoots of the plant are very lowered, but over time they become completely smooth. The flowers are pale purple in color and gather in loose tassels, which can reach a length of 20-30 cm.
- Alba. Perennial deciduous wisteria. Care and cultivation in the suburbs of this variety does not present any particular difficulties. The plant has many cascading shoots that can grow up to 25 meters in length. The stems of the culture are quite massive and can reach a diameter of 30-35 cm. Over time, they become lignified. In the initial stages of growth, you can direct young shoots in the right direction. After hardening, it will no longer be possible to give them the desired shape.
- Wisteria floribunda. Wisteria of this type is distinguished by abundant flowering and a large number of flowers. It is a relatively small woody vine. Growing wisteria in the Moscow region, with proper care and timely pruning, can achieve amazing results. The plant can reach a height of 8-10 meters. Wisteria is abundantly covered with large leaves, consisting of 11-19 leaflets. Interesting fact: the stems of the plant twist only clockwise. The diameter of the stems at the base is 20-30 cm.
- Macrostachia. The homeland of this plant is North America. It differs from previous species in large dense flowers. The value of this species lies in the fact that it was used as a base for hardy varieties such as Clara Mac and Blue Moon.
- Blue moon. What does this species represent? Frost-resistant wisteria Blue moon in the Moscow region grows much better than other hybrids. It is highly resistant to low temperatures. This allows wisteria to endure the winter perfectly, even in cases where the thermometer drops to 40 degrees below zero. This variety is a rapidly growing deciduous tree-like vine. The stems can be up to 8 meters long.
How to plant correctly
Despite the relative unpretentiousness of the plant, it is best to plant mulberry sprouts in mid-spring, when the risk of night frost is minimal. Autumn planting is also possible, but not less than a month and a half before the cold snap, otherwise the tree will not have time to take root and freeze out.
Mulberry grows in hot climates, but with proper cover it can withstand up to twenty degrees of frost. To give the plant a chance to take root in a new place, you must follow the basic planting rules.
Mulberry planting algorithm:
- A sufficiently wide hole must be prepared for one tree.... Approximate dimensions: 70 x 70 centimeters. The depth of the touch is not less than half a meter.
- The excavated soil is mixed with a bucket of humus, if desired, you can add mineral complexes for garden plants... It is better to read how to use them on the manufacturer's instructions; for mulberries, a standard dosage will be enough.
- After fertilizing, it is necessary to sprinkle the bottom of the pit a little so that the minerals do not damage the sensitive root system of the plant.
- The well with the planted sprout must be tamped a little, and then watered well.
- For the convenience of retaining moisture at the roots, soil mulching is often used.... In addition to providing the necessary moisture level, this will help protect the plant from the sun's rays and provide the necessary nutrition during the season.
- The distance to other plantings should be at least six meters for tall species of mulberry... If you plan to grow a standard tree, you can reduce this parameter to three meters. Mulberry bush varieties are arranged in a row with a frequency of half a meter.
On the video - how to plant a mulberry:
Mulberry is undemanding to the composition of the soil, but prefers loamy soils. It readily grows on sandstones, which makes it possible to use the culture to strengthen earthen ditches. For better fruit ripening, it is advisable to place the tree in the most luminous place, the shadow can simply destroy the plant.
Does it grow in the suburbs
As mentioned, mulberries are very thermophilic. In its natural environment, it is found in the subtropics. There, in addition to obtaining a tasty harvest, it is used as a base on which the silkworm is bred to obtain silk.
At the moment, it is known about 17 plant varieties, but in central Russia, two of them are mainly cultivated:
- Black (Morus nigra)
- White (Morus alba).
Most gardeners recommend the white variety for growing. This is supported by the following arguments:
- Withstands frosts down to minus thirty, while the black variety dies when the temperature drops to minus twenty
- Secondly, the fruits of the white variety are simply tastier.
Features of planting works
The plant should be planted with an earthen clod. In the process of planting, it is necessary to ensure that the root collar is flush with the ground. Chubushnik has a closed root system, so its root collar can and should be buried, but no more than 2-3 centimeters. If you bury the root collar to a great depth, this will lead to decay of the root system of the plant.
Immediately after planting in open ground, the mock-orange is watered abundantly. Up to 20-30 liters of water is poured onto one bush. When the moisture is absorbed, sprinkle the hole with dry earth. A couple of days after planting, the trunk circle must be mulched with peat, humus or garden soil. The above-ground part of the shrub should be cut off.
The seedling needs to be left with only a few shoots, each of which will have 2-3 buds. This will slow down the formation of buds somewhat, but will contribute to the rapid growth of the bush.
Vineyard care in the Moscow region
Young shoots of grapes freeze even with slight cold snaps typical for the region. Therefore, to guarantee the safety, even winter-hardy varieties must be covered for the winter for safety. Here it is necessary to observe the measure, since improper cover can cause putrefactive diseases of the stems, which will also lead to death. Shelter of grapes in the Moscow region is done when the temperature is stable below zero.
Spring chores begin with the release of the vine from the shelter. At the same time, the branches are freed from the load gradually. First, a layer of earth is removed, then gradually in the daytime the bush is ventilated, again covered at night. Open fully early, frost damage may occur. To overexpose a plant under cover - to get a dead plant that has grown dry. After opening the bushes, vineyard care in the Moscow region is carried out in the following areas:
- the formation of a grape bush
- plant feeding and watering
- treatment against pests and diseases
All the operations carried out on a green bush, and a lesson on how to care for grapes, the video at the end of the article clearly presents with a detailed explanation.
Only the experience gained in the process of growing vines will help to carry out work with understanding, and therefore, creatively. Pruning bushes is necessary in order to prevent shoots that are not working for the harvest. Each leaf of the plant should be illuminated as much as possible during the day. Shoots that will not bear fruit should be harvested and the crop regulated on the bush. If many brushes are tied, then they will not have time to ripen, the berries will be small and tasteless. A young bush is formed by such an operation. To mature, help to keep the right number of brushes.
From the very beginning of spring growth, the bush needs a trellis to which it is tied or attached with a mustache. These can be any stable structures, and even frames for architectural forms. It is only necessary to provide for a way to lay the vines under cover in autumn. Trellis are installed with one row of wire or double.
Green summer operations in the cultivation of grapes in the Moscow region are:
Watering the grapes is done in grooves at a distance from the trunk. The roots do not like sudden changes in nutritional conditions and humidity.
The vineyard is watered along the grooves between the bushes. If the plant is alone, then the groove must be made at a distance from the trunk, since direct moistening will violate the root regime. Watering is needed at the beginning of the growing season, when the green mass is growing and the berries are being poured. There is no need to water in August, the berries should gain flavor.
Top dressing for grapes in the Moscow region is necessary during the summer. Use organics in early summer for the development of the bush. Later, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are required, preferably in the form of a potassium salt without nitrogen. Top dressing is combined with irrigation along the grooves. The plant is supported by foliar feeding during the growing season, combining them with fungicidal treatments. Compatible forms of trace elements are selected.
During the season, 4 complex feeding is carried out and, if necessary, processed when diseases and pests appear.
Seedling care rules
After you have planted the medlar, you need to take care of the tree spacer. For this, a support is placed next to the seedling, which will prevent the trunk of a young tree from falling over and bending. Such a support can be removed only after a year, after planting in open ground or a greenhouse.
The roots of the seedlings are quite close to the surface of the ground, so it is necessary to provide the young tree with regular watering. Drying out of the soil should not be allowed, otherwise the seedling may die.
In the hot season, you can spray the trunk and branches of the seedlings. When growing medlar in the suburbs, gardeners should be attentive to the condition of the leaves of the tree. A bad sign will be yellowing of the leaf, dying off, twisting. You also need to inspect the outer and back sides of the sheet so that parasites - scale insects - are not visible on them.
Although the medlar has good immunity to various diseases, it can get sick under the influence of various insects and pests. Usually medlar is susceptible to diseases such as scale insects and black fungus, or as it is also called the rabble.
The scale insects are insects with a hard chitinous outer layer. Diseases should be fought immediately after their detection, because they can lead to the death of not only the infected tree, but also the nearby seedlings.
In conclusion, it is worth noting that the cultivation of medlar in the Moscow region is gaining popularity among gardeners. Often the tree is planted for decorative purposes, they make a pretty bonsai from the crown.
However, if you approach the care with responsibility and diligence, you can get a healthy, fruitful tree in five years. As a result, the gardener receives not only a beautiful evergreen tree, but also an autumn harvest of tasty and healthy fruits.
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