Miscellanea

Why is it better to rejuvenate raspberry bushes in the south in spring?

 Why is it better to rejuvenate raspberry bushes in the south in spring?


Rejuvenation plays an important role in getting a good raspberry harvest. Traditionally, it is held in the fall, but in the southern regions, experienced gardeners are advised to postpone the event to spring.

Why you need to rejuvenate raspberries

To get an excellent harvest of raspberries, you need to rejuvenate the bushes annually. Traditionally, rejuvenating pruning is done in the fall. All old, fruiting shoots are cut as close to the ground as possible. When growing remontant raspberries, the entire aerial part is removed. Rejuvenating pruning stimulates new growth, thinning raspberries and increasing yields.

Rejuvenating Raspberries Increases Yields

Why gardeners in the south are rejuvenating raspberries in spring

In the southern regions (on the Black Sea coast, in the Crimea) winters are usually warm. Gardeners who grow raspberries in the south prefer rejuvenating pruning not in the fall, but in the spring.

If the outside temperature is above zero or there is a high probability of warming, cutting shoots under the base is a risky undertaking.... It provokes the awakening of the underground kidneys. Young growth begins to grow actively, but with the first frost it will die.

Spring pruning is more preferable in this case. As soon as leaf buds begin to hatch on the bush, it is shortened close to the ground. Underground buds develop rapidly and release young shoots. When growing remontant raspberries, the entire aerial part is removed.

In ordinary raspberries, 3-5 of the strongest branches are left, which will yield a harvest next season. The remaining branches are cut. Some gardeners leave annual branches on remontant raspberries. This allows for a double harvest in summer and autumn), but weakens the plant and impairs the taste of the berries.

Shrubs need to be rejuvenated as early as possible, as soon as the snow melts and the threat of frost passes. Young shoots have not yet had time to grow, and it is quite easy to distinguish two-year-old shoots from annual ones. Biennial branches are thicker, darker. For the southern regions, the beginning of March is the optimal time for the first work in the raspberry plant.

I have been growing raspberries on my site for more than 10 years. Although I live not in the south, but in winter we often have thaws. I am engaged in rejuvenating the raspberry tree only in the spring, as once I had a bad experience. I cut out the branches that were fruiting at the root in October, and the autumn was warm. Young shoots began to grow intensively and, of course, died when the frost set in. In the spring, there was very little overgrowth and the harvest was poor. Since then, I no longer risk it. In the spring, it is more convenient to rejuvenate the raspberry tree also because everything is clearly visible. You can combine all types of pruning, cutting off not only fertilized branches, but also damaged, frozen ones.

Fruiting shoots are thicker than young ones and have branches

Gardeners reviews

In the southern regions, it is better to rejuvenate raspberries not in autumn, but in early spring. This will prevent the freezing of young growth, which can form in a warm winter.


Raspberry - planting, care, reproduction

The Latin name for raspberries - Rubus idaeus is derived from the words rubus - "red" and ideos - the name of the mountain range on the island of Crete, according to legend, the place where the wild ancestor of the shrub grows. Wild raspberries have become the ancestor of many cultivars. Today, there are hundreds of them, and at least one is sure to be found in every garden. Raspberries are a unique berry in terms of their nutritional characteristics, and their cultivation, as a rule, is not difficult, because raspberries multiply like a weed! But in order to get juicy and large berries, you need to follow the correct agricultural technology of this plant. This is what our article is about.

Raspberries on the bush. © Paul Keeling


Thanks to abundant watering alone, you can literally increase yields several times! However, turning a raspberry into a swamp is not worth it - a measure is needed in everything: how often to water, the weather and soil will tell you. It is enough to remember: drying out of the soil under raspberries should not be allowed - the harvest is immediately lost!

Fertilizer recipes

  • complex mineral: per 10 liters of water: ammonium nitrate - 30 g, potassium salt - 40 g, superphosphate - 60 g
  • complex "raspberry": add 6 g of potassium + 6 g of nitrogen + 4 g of phosphorus to 3 kg of manure at the rate of 1.5 kg of finished fertilizer per 1 m².

Our market will always help you find the substances you need or their combinations. Compare products and prices of different online stores and choose fertilizers for your garden.

You need to know that an excess of fertilizers or their application at the wrong time leads to a decrease in yield, and sometimes even to the death of a bush. In the next video - tips on mineral nutrition of raspberries from the amateur gardener Mikhail Gulenin:


Characteristics of the variety

  1. The early maturity of Patricia is beyond praise: already in the second year after planting, the berries can be tasted.
  2. The variety does not belong to remontant, but fruiting is surprising in its duration. Harvesting can be done already in the first decade of June, and the harvest season ends only in mid-August.
  3. Fruiting occurs on last year's shoots. The yield is high - on average, up to 5 kg per bush. With proper care, Patricia can produce 8 or even 11 kg of berries from one plant. In the first 2 years, the variety will not be able to show all its capabilities. The peak of fruiting is reached from the age of 3 years and can last up to 10 years of age.
  4. The variety is suitable for growing not only in the southern regions. The climate of central Russia, including the Moscow region, also perfectly meets the requirements of the plant. Patricia can withstand temperatures well at -30 ° C, while regular varieties can freeze out as early as -15 ° C. Raspberries are also tolerant to high temperatures.
  5. Possessing excellent immunity, the variety resists anthracnose, didimella and botrytis. But the plant copes poorly with late blight, so you need to regularly prevent this disease. Of the pests - a variety too tough for the raspberry shoot aphid.
  6. The large and beautiful Patricia berries do not tolerate transportation very well. They lose their shape very quickly due to their not too dense consistency.

Patricia has a long fruiting period - from early June to mid-August.

Table: advantages and disadvantages of the variety

Dignity disadvantages
Large-fruited and high yield Low level of transportability
Excellent taste Tall plant requires a garter
Excellent frost resistance Berries can rot if excessive
humidity
High temperature tolerance
Strong immunity
Long-term fruiting
The absence of thorns makes harvesting easier

general rules for caring for an apple tree
"Gardeners often complain that many have already bought apple seedlings several times, but nothing has caught on (both new and old varieties are the same). In fact, every year thousands of seedlings do not take root with gardeners of the Moscow region and this is a payment for the unwillingness of gardeners familiarize yourself in advance with what needs to be done when planting an apple tree. Everything seems very simple, but in fact many seedlings do not survive. Let's say to ourselves that you still need to read at least simple manuals for gardeners and then you will know what you are not made for your seedlings.Here we pay attention to the more frequent causes of failure.

Very often they sell seedlings that have dried up somewhere and are actually already lifeless, but the sellers soak them in water and then sell them to you. Such seedlings look good, but they will not be able to live.

Also, we often plant even good viable seedlings too deeply and for this reason they will not be able to live. The fact is that on the stem of the apple tree seedling there is a noticeable place of grafting and below the grafting there is an inconspicuous place, which is usually called the "root collar".Many gardeners mistakenly take the site of grafting for the site of the root collar and bury the seedling deep to the site of grafting, which causes the seedlings to die (although not immediately). We very easily find the place of the root collar if we slightly scratch the bark and see the place where the green color of the bark of the aboveground part turns into white or yellow-brown color of the underground part of the seedling. This place is called the root collar. When planting, it should be 5-8 cm above the level of the un-dug earth, since later, when the dug earth settles, the root collar will be just at the level of the earth's surface.

But it is not only important that the seedlings remain alive. It is equally important to help them in their new place “take up strength” and start good growth. All transplanted plants in a new place do not yet have new roots and cannot take fertilizers put in the planting hole. That is why it is important to make top dressing with liquid fertilizers and thus provide quick assistance to the transplanted plant. We have been using top dressing for many years, when we give one spoonful of urea or any saltpeter to a bucket of water and a shovel of fresh cow dung (if any). We give such a solution of urea 2 liters for each seedling, then after 2 weeks we repeat the same thing, and again after two weeks we add the third same top dressing. Plants that have received these three dressings are very different from those that have not received top dressing, and this often saves the lives of many weak seedlings.

Planted apple trees, with normal care, yield a normal yield of good quality fruit. But if there is an opportunity to give such trees increased care, then their yield can almost double and the quality of apples is noticeably improved. Increased care is an additional application of manure or peat, it is timely watering without drought in the garden, it is also loosening of the soil and the absence of weeds. All these activities are well described in simple guides for beginner gardeners and nothing special should be done. It is important not to overlook any of these simple care measures. No matter how much you water, but if there is a lack of fertilizers, then a high yield and quality of fruits will not work, some measures do not replace others. It is especially necessary to help the tree with a large harvest, and not only to obtain high-quality fruits, but also to lay flower buds for next year's harvest.

Gardeners make special mistakes by incorrect pruning. Anyone who prunes a tree should have a good idea of ​​what will result from his work to remove individual branches. Everyone knows that without pruning, there are no good harvests of an apple tree. But if a person heard about this and decided to also prune his trees without understanding the meaning of his work, then almost always he brings irreparable harm to his trees. It has been noticed that it is better not to prune the tree in comparison with the losses from unintelligent pruning.

High yields and good quality apples are only possible if the trees are well developed in your garden. All advice on fertilizing, spraying, pruning becomes meaningless if you have not grown well-developed trees. Many gardening primers, beautiful newspaper articles, and advice from people you respect do not succeed if all of your studies in your garden are graded a “two” or “one”. The main thing is not that you bought gardening literature, but in your practice to embody everything you read. Very often, a person from school has taught himself to study any business by barely a grade, so the books he read gave him almost nothing. That is why everyone decides for himself what else he needs to do so that the trees in his garden are like pictures in books, and with a firm intention to do this is not so difficult. "

Professor of agricultural sciences Kichina V.
Tags: useful information

Apple trees for Northwest Russia
What varieties are best planted in the Northwest region? At the request of a member of our community, I picked up material about those varieties that are bred in the Pushkin nursery of the Leningrad region. (I hope it didn't hurt anyone that I named the city the way I'm used to?)
Summer varieties
Avenarius. The variety was obtained by Pastor Avenarius in Tsarskaya Slavyanka near St. Petersburg. The tree is tall with a dense crown. Fruits are medium-sized (60-80 g), round-conical, yellow-white in color with a striped blush. The pulp is white or slightly pinkish, loose, juicy, sweet. The fruits ripen in mid-August and are stored for 2-3 weeks. The tree begins to bear fruit 3-4 years after planting. The variety is highly winter-resistant, scab resistant.


Wine. A variety of folk selection. The tree is vigorous with a wide-oval dense crown. Fruits weighing 100 g, flat-round, ribbed, yellowish-green with a pale red blurred blush, greenish juicy pulp, sweet and sour taste with a wine flavor. It starts bearing fruit 5-6 years after planting. The fruits stick firmly to the tree, ripen at the end of August, and are stored until mid-October. The variety is high-yielding, winter-hardy, scab resistant.

Grushovka Moscow. An old variety of folk selection. The tree is medium-sized, at first with a pyramidal, and then with a rounded crown of medium density. Fruits are below average size (60-70 g), flat-round, slightly ribbed, on a thin peduncle. The skin is greenish-white, yellowish on the sunny side with orange-red strokes and stripes. The pulp is yellowish-white, juicy, tender, sour-sweet. The tree begins to bear fruit 4-5 years after planting. The fruits ripen in early August. Differs in high winter hardiness and resistance to fungal diseases.

Fragrant. The variety was obtained at the Leningrad Fruit and Vegetable Experimental Station. The tree is vigorous, with a rounded dense crown. Fruits of medium size (80-120 g), round-conical with narrow ribs, yellowish-green with tender, dense, juicy pulp, excellent taste, with aroma. The fruits ripen in August and are stored for up to 50 days. The tree begins to bear fruit 4 years after planting. Differs in high winter hardiness and resistance to fungal diseases.

Sugar yellow. The variety was found in the Vologda region. The tree looks like an apple tree (Chinese). Fruits of medium size (100 g), regular, round-conical shape, yellow with intense bright red, slightly speckled and striped blush, good sweet and sour taste. Ripen at the end of August, stored for 1-2 months. It starts bearing fruit 3-4 years after planting. The variety is characterized by high winter hardiness and annual fruiting.

Gold early Chinese. The variety was bred by I.V. Michurin. Medium-sized tree with a sparse pyramidal crown. It starts bearing fruit 3-4 years after planting. Fruits are small (30-40 g), round, when ripe they acquire a light yellow color. The pulp is dense, yellowish, with a pleasant sour-sweet taste. Fruits ripen in early August, crumble before picking up. Fruiting is regular, the yield is high in some years. The variety has a high winter hardiness.

Korobovka (Medunichka). A variety of folk selection. A tree with a wide spherical crown, begins to bear fruit 6-7 years after planting. Fruits are small in size (30-50 g), flat-rounded, red-striped. The pulp is slightly yellow, juicy, with a pleasant honey aroma. Fruit ripening - early August, stored for about a month. Fruiting with good care is high and annual. Popular in home gardening for its early ripening and excellent taste.

Mantet. Canadian variety. The tree is medium-sized with a sparse oval crown. Fruits of medium size (120 g) are round-conical in shape with slight ribbing, yellowish-green, with a red striped blush. The pulp is white, with a pinkish tinge, juicy, good sweet and sour taste. The variety is prone to periodicity of fruiting. The fruits ripen at the end of August, are stored for 2-3 weeks.

Memory of Lavrik. The variety was obtained at the Leningrad Fruit and Vegetable Experimental Station. The tree is vigorous with a dense oval crown, begins to bear fruit in 4-5 years. Fruits are large (140-300 g), elongated-conical, yellowish-white. The pulp is white, juicy, tender, of excellent sweet and sour taste.The fruits ripen at the end of August and are stored for 1.5-2 months. Surpasses the zoned varieties in winter hardiness, yield, scab resistance, large-fruited.

Folding. An old variety of folk selection. The tree is medium-sized with a wide dense crown. Fruits are of medium size (90-100 g), flattened-rounded-conical with wide ribs, light yellow when fully ripe. The pulp is white, tender, with a good sweet-sour taste. The fruits ripen in August, are stored for 2-3 weeks. The variety is winter hardiness and early maturity.

Suislepskoe. An old variety of Estonian selection. The tree is vigorous with a round or broad-conical dense crown. Fruits are medium-sized (80-120 g), round, greenish-yellow, with characteristic thin strokes and blurred crimson stripes. The pulp is white, pinkish near the skin, juicy, tender, good sweet and sour taste. The fruits ripen in late August and early September and are stored until November. The variety is widespread in the regions of the North-West, it has good winter hardiness.

Melba. Canadian variety. The tree is vigorous with a broadly oval or rounded crown, begins to bear fruit 4-5 years after planting. Fruits above average size (110-180 g) are round or rounded-conical, greenish-porcelain, with an intense raspberry blush. The pulp is white, juicy, tender, dessert sweet-sour taste, with aroma. Fruits ripen in late August-early September, are stored for 1-2 months. Differs in high winter hardiness, productivity and regular fruiting.

Anise striped. A variety of folk selection from the Volga region. The tree is vigorous with a rounded dense crown, begins to bear fruit 5-6 years after planting. Fruits are of medium size (80-100 g), flattened-rounded, light green with a red integumentary color, often in the form of stripes. The pulp is greenish-white, moderately juicy, sweet and sour, with a characteristic aroma. Winter hardiness and productivity are high.

Auxis. The variety was obtained in Lithuania. The tree is medium-sized with a rounded crown of medium density. It begins to bear fruit 4 years after planting, it is distinguished by annual fruiting. Fruits are of medium and above average size (100-150 g), round, light yellow with a carmine-red blush almost over the entire surface. The pulp is yellow, juicy, aromatic, sweet-sour dessert taste. The fruits ripen in September and are stored until December-January. The variety is winter-hardy and fruitful.

Baltic. The variety was bred at the Leningrad Fruit and Vegetable Experimental Station. Vigorous tree with an oval crown of medium density. The fruits are large (140 g), round, slightly conical, light yellow, with a bright red blurred blush and striping on most of the surface. The pulp is white, dense, juicy, aromatic, with a good sweet and sour taste. The fruits ripen in the first half of September and are stored for up to 2 months. The tree begins to bear fruit 5 years after planting. The variety is highly winter-resistant, yields high yields annually.

Bessemyanka Michurinskaya. The variety was obtained by I.V. Michurin. The tree is medium-sized with a dense, broadly oval crown, begins to bear fruit in 4-5 years. Fruits are round in shape, above average size (100-120 g), slightly ribbed, greenish-yellow with carmine-red strokes and stripes almost throughout the fruit. The pulp is slightly yellowish, dense, aromatic, with a good sweet and sour taste. Fruits ripen at different times, in mid-late September, are stored until December. The variety is winter-hardy, highly resistant to scab.

Borovinka. An old Russian variety of folk selection, widespread in the regions of the North-West. A tree of moderate growth with a round, open crown of medium density. Fruits 4-6 years after planting. Fruits are of medium and above average size (120-200 g), yellowish-light green in color with pale red stripes on the illuminated part. The pulp is yellowish, juicy, sweet and sour. The fruits ripen in the first half of September and are stored until November. The variety is winter-hardy, bears fruit annually, gives high yields.

Riga dove (seedling Trebu).A folk variety obtained in Estonia. The tree is medium-sized with a rounded dense drooping crown. It starts bearing fruit 5-6 years after planting. Fruits are medium (85-125 g), round-conical, yellowish-white, sometimes with a slight tan on the sunny side. The pulp is yellow-white, juicy, sweet and sour, with a pleasant aroma. The fruits ripen in mid-September and are stored until December. The variety is relatively winter-hardy, resistant to fungal diseases, fruiting annually.

Cinnamon new. The variety was obtained at the VNIIS named after I.V. Michurin. The tree is medium-sized with a rounded dense crown. Fruits 5-7 years after planting. The fruits are yellow with a dull red striped blush on a large part of the fruit. The pulp is light creamy, good sweet and sour taste. The fruits ripen in mid-September and are stored until February. Average winter hardiness, high scab resistance.

Cinnamon striped. An old Russian variety of folk selection. Widely distributed in the European part of Russia. The tree is medium-sized or tall with a wide-pyramidal or round sparse crown. Fruits 6-8 years after planting. Fruits of medium size (70-90 g), flat-round, greenish-yellow with a dark red striped blush. The pulp is yellowish-white, sour-sweet with a pleasant aroma of dessert taste. The fruits ripen in the second half of September, are stored for 35-40 days, when ripe they crumble. They are characterized by high winter hardiness, average scab resistance.

Autumn striped (Streyfling). An old Baltic variety, widespread in the North-West of Russia. Vigorous tree with a wide-rounded crown, strong skeletal branches. At the time of fruiting begins 7-10 years after planting. Fruits are above average size (100-150 g), rounded-conical, ribbed, sometimes without a depression at the peduncle, light yellow with an orange-red speckled-striped blush. The pulp is slightly yellowish, sometimes pink under the skin, juicy, sour-sweet, spicy, with aroma. The fruits ripen in the second half of September and are stored until November. The variety has high winter hardiness and productivity.

Tambov. The variety was obtained at the All-Russian Research Institute of Genetics and Selection of Fruit Plants named after V.I. I.V. Michurin. The tree is medium-sized with a spreading crown. Fruits 4-5 years after planting. Fruits are above medium size (100-170 g), highly rounded, pale green with a densely diffused dark crimson blush. The pulp is white, slightly friable, juicy, with a pleasant sweet and sour taste. Ripen in the second half of September, stored until November-December. The variety is winter-hardy, productive, relatively resistant to fungal diseases.
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Tags: Apple tree, at your request

apple varieties immune to scab
Currently, there are apple varieties that are highly resistant and immune to scab. Observations have shown that these varieties are really not affected by scab. Here are the names of the varieties: Venyaminovskoe, Imrus, Kandil Orlovsky, Orlovim, Orlovsky pioneer, Pamyat Isaeva, Pervinka, Freshness, Start, Celandine.
Maslovskoe (summer). The trees are large, with a rounded, medium-dense crown. Fruits are large (230 g), flattened, wide ribbed, slightly sloping. The skin of the fruit is dry, shiny, without wax bloom. The main color is greenish-yellow, the integumentary color - on the smaller part of the fruit in the form of pink specks. The subcutaneous punctures are large, green, and numerous. Seeds are underdeveloped or absent. The pulp of the fruit is greenish, dense, very juicy, sweet and sour.
The variety is fast-growing and fruitful
Apple spas (summer). The trees are large, fast-growing, with a round, medium-dense crown. Fruits are large (more than 200 g), medium one-dimensionality, rounded-conical, beveled, the surface of the fruit is highly ribbed. The skin is smooth, oily, dull. The main color is greenish-yellow, integumentary on a smaller part of the fruit in the form of crimson stripes. The subcutaneous points are numerous, large, green, well visible. Seeds are medium in size, rounded, dark brown.Fruit pulp is greenish, medium density, fine-grained, juicy. Advantages of the variety: immunity to parche, early maturity, high marketability of fruits.
Orlovim is a variety of summer ripening period. High-yielding. The fruits are large, one-dimensional. The cover color is in the form of bright red stripes and a blurred blush. The pulp of the fruit is creamy, very juicy, sweet and sour, with a strong aroma.
Oryol pioneer - the autumn ripening period. High-yielding - Fruits are large (150 g), strongly flattened (ribbed). The main color at the time of removal is greenish, the integumentary color in the form of a blurred blush and red stripes.
Imrus - winter ripening period. High-yielding. Fruits are above average in size (120-130 g), conical, slightly ribbed. Cover color in the form of stripes, strokes and blurred blush of brownish-red color at the time of picking the fruit, raspberry color - during the period of consumption. The fruits are stored until the end of February - mid-March.
Bolotovskoe is a variety of winter ripening period. Fruits are large (150-180 g), flattened, wide ribbed. The integumentary color on the smaller part of the fruit is in the form of a red blush, consisting of stripes and specks. The pulp is greenish, dense, juicy. The fruits are stored until mid to late February.
Celandine-winter ripening period. Yielding. Fruits are large, 160 g. The skin is smooth, shiny, the main color is greenish at the moment, greenish-yellow during the consumption period. Fruits are juicy, lie until March.

In addition to immune varieties, varieties with high resistance to scab (slightly affected by it in unfavorable years) have become widespread.
These varieties include: Veteran, Orlik, Orlovskoe striped, Sinap Orlovsky, Zoryanka, Orlinka, Orlovim, Early aloe.

The new varieties are immune to disease, that is, they are not affected by the disease even in the wettest summer. This advantage makes it possible to do without multiple spraying of the garden. This means that the pesticide load on the garden decreases, the summer resident's dream comes true: if one cannot completely do without chemistry in the garden (the apple tree still has to be protected from pests), then at least copper-containing preparations should be excluded from the treatments. Such apples are better stored and, of course, healthier.

Terry currant
Terry is one of the most dangerous diseases for black currant. The whole plant is affected.
The disease spreads with planting material, usually when cuttings are taken from diseased plants. On the site, terry is spread by currant kidney mites. Partial or complete pruning only temporarily restrains the spread of the disease.

The disease is easy to recognize. In spring, during flowering, you can notice that individual flowers on the brushes are not of the usual shape, but with more dissected purple petals. If in doubt, remember these flowers so that you can look at the ovaries later.
When the berries are double, the berries are not tied, the bunch hangs empty. The leaves of young shoots are strongly elongated, become three- rather than five-lobed, their veins become coarse. The color of the leaves turns dark green, the smell characteristic of black currant disappears.

At this stage, the disease can be stopped, and it will not spread to the entire bush. Sometimes heavily infested branches must be broken out entirely. It is better not to use the pruning shears so as not to spread the infection on the blade.

Terry refers to incurable viral diseases, with a strong defeat of the bush, it cannot be cured by any spraying, but with timely detection, the disease can be stopped.
Methods for combating the disease are only preventive in nature - the use of healthy planting material, timely treatment of plants against sucking insects to prevent the spread of black currant terry, compliance with quarantine measures.
The fact is that viral plant diseases are practically not treatable. Bushes showing signs of disease should be uprooted and burned.Viruses spread with the sap of diseased plants, sucking insects (aphids), herbivorous mites. The main carrier of black currant terry is the kidney currant mite.
The spread of viral diseases also occurs during the grafting of diseased cuttings onto healthy plants, when cutting diseased and healthy crops without intermediate disinfection of the instrument.

Terry or reversion of black currant is a dangerous viral disease, widespread in the northwest and central region.

EM technologies at their summer cottage
And it all started when I came across the words of the Russian scientist V.I. Vernadsky: "The German industrialist Krupp, by releasing all his weapons, did less harm to humanity than a man with a shovel and a plow."

In the scientific literature, I found confirmation of this statement: the agronomist-practitioner Ovsinsky, biologist and soil scientist Dokuchaev, academician Maltsev, Japanese farmer Masanabu Fukuoka argued that annual plowing and digging up the soil with a revolution of the soil layer, the use of fresh manure and mineral fertilizers destroy soil fertility.

It should be noted that the basis of soil fertility (humus) is created by soil microorganisms. The more microorganisms are in the soil and the more humus it contains, the more fertile the soil.

One of the products of the vital activity of microorganisms in the soil are organic acids, through which soil minerals are transferred into soil solutions, which are the nutrient "broth" for plants. Loose, permeable to moisture and air, humus, like a sponge, accumulates and retains these "broths", which provides plant nutrition.

Plowing and digging the soil lead to the destruction of the colony of microorganisms in it, the soil loses the producers of acids and soil solutions, the plants are deprived of nutritious "broths".

There are several main points:

1. Remembering Dokuchaev's words that plants bring a lot more organic matter into the soil than they take from it, I do not use manure and mineral fertilizers, but compost all the waste of grown crops, plus leaf litter of trees and shrubs, raspberry trimmings, strawberry leaves, all organic waste, kitchen waste, chicken droppings.

I definitely add aromatic and medicinal herbs to the compost heaps (3-5% of their volume) (they enrich the compost with antibiotics, vitamins and growth stimulants and promote more active activity of microorganisms that decompose organic matter) - nettle, dandelion leaf, chamomile, lovage, dill, valerian, yarrow, mint. The more varied the set of herbs, the higher the quality of the compost.


I prepare composts only with the use of an EM preparation. I put all of the above into compost heaps, grind and lay in layers of 10-15 cm, cover each layer with 2-3 cm of garden soil or the remnants of compost (which is better) and water it with an EM-preparation solution.

I cover the collected pile with a film so that air does not penetrate into it and atmospheric precipitation does not fall. There is no need to shovel such a pile. Compost is ready for use in three to four weeks (a heap matures for 1.5–2 years without the use of an EM-preparation and requires repeated tedding and moistening).

I arrange two compost heaps on the site - one for the autumn and one for the spring. I form the "autumn" heap at one time during the mass harvest, the "spring" heap is formed until mid-July, almost daily replenishing with kitchen waste and early vegetables, chicken droppings and weeds.

From the second half of July, I put all the waste on the site of the autumn heap.

From the "spring" compost, I add compost to the ridges in the fall immediately after harvesting (necessarily on the same day) - one bucket per square meter of planting area, from the "autumn" I add compost to the ridges in the spring in the same amount for 1.5-2 weeks before the date of sowing (planting) crops.

I don't dig ridges either in the spring or in the fall.

I bring in compost, water it with a solution of the preparation "Baikal EM-1" and loosen the surface layer of soil to a depth of 10-12 cm with a Fokin flat cutter.

After applying compost in autumn and watering the ridges with an EM-preparation solution in spring, the soil becomes very loose and easy to process with a flat cutter, which significantly reduces physical activity. This autumn operation provokes the germination of weeds already in the fall, which, growing, fall under the frost, not having time to inseminate, and die without leaving offspring. The roots of weeds cut with a flat cutter through fresh cuts are exposed to the microorganisms of the EM preparation, they are fermented by them and also die.

So, after a year, after a maximum of two, the ridges are completely freed from weeds without special control of them.

In autumn, I perform this operation on the day of harvesting so that the cuts of the roots of cultivated plants do not have time to drag out and also become available to effective microorganisms for decomposition and transformation into humus before the start of spring work.

Effective microorganisms, penetrating through the remains of the roots of cultivated plants to the depth of their occurrence, loosen the soil to great depths without the participation of a shovel and a plow, without disturbing the structure of the fertile layer and the habitat of living soil organisms.

Spring composting and watering the beds with an EM-preparation 1.5-2 weeks before the sowing (planting) of crops also contributes to the destruction of weeds that did not die in the fall. In addition, the soil is pre-populated with beneficial microorganisms, which makes it possible to create nutritious "broths" for plants in it at an earlier date.

Self-healing of the colony of soil microorganisms in our zone occurs approximately by the second or third decade of June, and before the onset of autumn cold weather there is not enough time for the ripening of most crops.

Plants, planted in a soil pre-populated with beneficial microorganisms, do not "freeze", do not wait for the time of self-healing of the living soil environment, but start growing immediately after planting and give high yields.

I water the plants with the EM solution two weeks after seed germination or transplanting, and every two weeks for the entire vegetation period. If, two weeks after germination of seeds or planting of seedlings, compost from the "autumn" heap in the amount of half a bucket per square meter of plantings is added to the aisles of the ridge, then watering with an EM-preparation solution from this moment can be carried out once a month.

Composting in autumn and spring and watering the beds with an EM-preparation solution allows you to abandon crop rotation.

2. Keeping in mind that plants take from 94 to 98% of nutrients from the air and this happens only under direct sunlight from sunrise to sunset, I arranged a garden without shading from the east, south and west.

The vegetable garden consists of beds 45 cm wide with aisles between the ridges 105 cm. The beds and rows in them are oriented from north to south, in each bed there are only two rows of plantings, the distance between them is 25-30 cm. Such an orientation of the beds and rows ensures the longest possible direct solar illumination of plants.

Wide passages help to constantly renew the air environment around all plants and provide them with fresh air. The ground in wide aisles warms up faster in spring and gives off heat to the beds.

I never dig passages, water, fertilize and change places with beds.

At the same time, I add compost and EO preparations to only one third of the total area of ​​the garden, which is a significant saving, while the weeds stop growing and
aisles.

3. In autumn, when adding compost to the ridges, I sift through a mesh with 1 x 1 cm cells a bucket of compost and store it indoors until spring. I sprinkle seed crops with this sifting in spring.

Before sowing, I loosen the soil of the ridges with an EM-cultivator, form it with a rake so that along the entire bed along its edges a soil rim is formed with a height of 8-10 cm, and inside the garden the area between the bumpers would be as flat as possible.

I press grooves along the inner bases of the sides with a board, pipe or corner.I put the seeds in the squeezed grooves (it is very important that the seeds lay on the compacted soil, this way the better contact of the seeds with the soil moisture is ensured) and sprinkle the compost sifted since autumn on top.

I water the crops with water (preferably snow or rainwater) in the amount of 5 liters per square meter of crops so as not to wash out the compost powder.

I plant the seedlings at the inner bases of the sides: I dig a hole, put the roots of the seedlings in it, sprinkle half of the hole with soil, water it with snow or rain water, completely fill the hole without compacting the soil in the hole. When the entire ridge is planted, I water it again with water in the amount of 5 liters per square meter of planting.

The sides along the beds need to be constantly restored so that EM solutions do not spill into the aisles and only get to the plants.

4. You should know and remember that when performing the above actions, the crops will ripen at an earlier date, and the crop must be harvested earlier. For example, potatoes planted in May should be harvested as early as mid-August.

chores-worries
Every time before leaving for two days to work, I think, what would I write to the community again? What information to give for thought so that it does not leave anyone indifferent? So I decided to write more about what awaits us very soon. I think it will come in handy.
Spring is coming. This is nothing that only New Year's holidays, long frosty days and nights are ahead. In January, there will already be more sunny days, more often we will see the blue sky, and the sun will start kissing us with warm lips. The days will become noticeably longer, and the soul will rush to the garden. We will begin to wait more and more for spring. For example, like a she-wolf, I begin to sniff, does it smell even in spring? In the forests, the titmouses will sometimes sing differently, the animals will create pairs for breeding. And for us, spring will bring no small worries and troubles. And we must be ready to not miss the moment.

With the resumption of the active life of plants in the spring, their "parasites" become more active. With the beginning of budding, from the overwintered eggs of aphids, their larvae and suckers hatch, caterpillars of some leaf rollers, moths, scoops, moths, apple blossom beetles, snow beetles, and tube-worms emerge from winter shelters.

During this period, under favorable conditions, the development of plant pathogens also begins. The early spring period, from the beginning of the spreading of the bud scales to the beginning of flowering, is very important for protecting the garden from harmful organisms and lasts from 2 weeks to a month, depending on the dynamics of spring temperatures. rises into the crown. To intercept the pest on the way, for a long time, in the lower or middle part of the trunk, trapping belts were applied or beetles were shaken off on the spread bedding.

To shake off beetles, and not only the flower beetle, burning sulfur and other fumes under the trees help well. Shaking is best done at temperatures below 10 degrees, while the beetles are inactive and do not scatter much, early in the morning. The fallen beetles are collected and poured into a bucket of water or a jar, and then destroyed. 3-4 shaking off and harm can be minimized.

To protect against overwintered pests in the ground, which tend to climb trees faster, they put trapping belts on the boles at a height of 30-40 cm from the ground.

Fishing belts are very comfortable from old, slightly loosened cotton wool. Insects cannot get through the cotton wool strip and get stuck in it. Glue trapping belts are made of thick paper or thin cardboard and smeared on the inside with a strip 7-8 cm wide with non-drying entomological (special) glue "pestifix". For protection from rain over the belt, it is advisable to adapt a visor made of plastic wrap. In old trees, it is recommended to clear the bole from the old, dead bark, under which many pests winter, including the caterpillars of some moths.

It is useful to spray all trees before bud break with lime "milk" (1.5 kg of freshly slaked thick lime per 10 liters of water with the addition of 1 liter of skim milk for better adhesion). The females of the flower beetle and other weevils do not lay eggs on the whitewashed branches. For scab, it is useful to spray trees and soil with a 4% urea solution (400 g per 10 l of water) before bud break.

With an interval of 7-10 days, the treatment with urea is repeated in the garden several more times, but the concentration of the solution is already 0.5% (50 g of urea per 10 l of water). At the same time, it will be a useful foliar feeding.

During the period of bud opening ("green cone"), hatching and overwintered caterpillars of leaf rollers, moths, and fruit moths begin their harmfulness on the buds. At this time, they are available for treatment with pesticides (spark, decis, kinmix, karate and others).

Spraying at low numbers or "just in case" should not be done. Such processing can greatly harm the beneficial entomophages that appear at this time in the crowns of trees and berry stands.

In gardens where moniliosis, scab, clotterosporia and other fungal diseases bring great harm every year, and conditions from spring are favorable for their development, it is better to treat with a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid on a "green cone" (based on 300 g of copper sulfate and lime for 10 liters of water, the amount of lime can be increased to 400 g). Later, 1% Bordeaux liquid is applied. It is not effective against powdery mildew, therefore, it is advisable to use colloidal sulfur for powdery mildew (but not on gooseberries).

From adult suckers, weevils, trees are fumigated in the evening with smoke obtained from burning tobacco dust. You can use a beekeeper "smoker", and in the absence of it, they make a fire in an old bucket of dry material, and put either rotten wood, or corn cobs, or semi-dry grass and a handful of tobacco dust on top. Moving the bucket from place to place, they try to fumigate the entire garden.

To attract beneficial insects, plants are planted and sown under trees - nectar plants: mustard, dill, caraway seeds, coriander, lemon balm, catnip, mint, tagetes, carrot testes.
And you will also need to take care of artificial nesting places for birds. There are two birdhouses in the garden. But one was not settled in the spring. You will need to make a new one. While there is still time I will go look for boards for their construction.
That's how much to do soon! Only not to be late! And all these funds still need to be bribed. Perhaps I’ll start making a list of what is needed.

The time is not far off when we will get the tomato seeds and our garden epic will begin again. I'm sure many of us have already sorted out seeds, checked stocks and bought new ones. Someone has already acquired land for sowing, someone has prepared their own. I am not preparing my land. I always buy in the store.

The substrate intended for growing seedlings must be well-drained and not greasy.
Each type of plant requires a substrate that takes into account its characteristics. When growing seedlings, you can not use soil for potted crops. Suitable containers for seedlings are disposable plastic cups and cups, cut-off plastic bottles, plastic food containers. All containers must have drainage holes through which excess water will flow out or, conversely, flow during irrigation. The containers must stand firmly on the pallet and not topple over. The ideal containers for growing seedlings of cabbage, leeks, onions, cucumbers, peppers, lettuce, beets, celery, tomatoes are cassettes - they are easy to fill, transport and store.
Photo cuvettes, ordinary plastic trays, baking trays, etc. can be used as pallets. - they just shouldn't leak. Sowing can be carried out with both dry and germinated seeds.The seeds are sown in a wet soil mixture: the containers are filled with the substrate a day before sowing and well watered with water at room temperature, the excess water is drained from the pan.

How to grow healthy seedlings.

To grow seedlings, you need a good nutrient mixture - loose, porous air and moisture-permeable, free from pathogens, pests, weeds. Its composition may be something like this (% by volume):
1. Low peat - 75, sod land - 20, mullein - 5
2. Dung humus or rotted compost - 45, sod land - 50, mullein - 5
3. Low-lying peat - 75, horse manure (without straw) - 20, mullein - 5.
Mullein is added to pots (cubes) for their density, but if the seedlings are grown in boxes, glasses or pottery pots, it is not used. To reduce the acidity of the substrate, lime, chalk or ash are added to it: about a handful per bucket. Don't forget about mineral fertilizers. When growing seedlings, for example, green crops, 15-20 g of ammonium nitrate, 20-25 g of superphosphate, 4-6 g of potassium chloride are added to the nutrient mixture (per bucket). What is the best temperature for growing seedlings? The optimal mode for most green vegetables on a sunny day is 14-18 ° С, on a cloudy day - 12-16 ° С, at night - 10-14 ° С. Only twice the temperature is reduced to 6-10 ° C: in the first 4-7 days after the seedlings appear (so that they do not stretch too much, heat contributes to this), and 10-15 days before planting the seedlings in the ground - in order to harden the plants , prepare for possible adverse conditions that await them in the open field. And in the last days before disembarking, the temperature is generally brought to the level of the outside temperature.

What to do if tomato seedlings are stretched out?
This is familiar to many - the seedlings are stretched out. Why is this happening? With the wrong illumination, nutrition, temperature, there may be a stretch of seedlings and a deterioration in its quality. If the seedlings are very elongated, the stem of the plant should be cut into 2 parts at the level of the 3rd or 4th true leaf.
The upper cut off parts of the plants are placed in a jar of water, where after 8-10 days, roots up to 1-1.5 cm will grow on the lower stalks.Then these plants are planted in 10x10 nutrient pots or directly in a box with a distance of 10x10 or 12x12 cm. The planted plants will continue to grow as normal seedlings, which must then be formed into a single stem. From the axils of the 4 lower leaves of plants that have remained to grow in pots or boxes, shoots (stepchildren) will soon appear. When they reach a length of 5 cm, of which 2 upper shoots (stepson) are left, and 2 lower ones are removed, leaving a column of 1 cm. Stepsons do not pluck, but break off in order to avoid a viral infection. The left upper shoots will gradually grow and develop. The result is a good standard seedling.
This operation must be done 20-25 days before landing in a permanent place.

There are several rules for growing good seedlings and harvesting.

For growing seedlings, you can use various containers, in the bottom of which there are drainage holes. It is better not to use wooden containers, as it is difficult to remove pathogens from the tree. It is best to use small plastic trays or bowls. Large seeds can be sown in trays with cells or in peat pots.
Use special seedling compost or general purpose compost. Fill the container with compost 1.5 cm below the edges and lightly brush its surface with a board, compost, moisten.
Do not sprinkle small seeds, sprinkle large ones with compost or vermiculite to a depth equal to two diameters of the seed. Sprinkle the seeds in an even layer, sifting the compost through a sieve. After dusting, rub the surface with a plank. Cover the seed tray or pot with kraft paper and place the glass on top. If the paper becomes damp, change it.
The seeds of most crops germinate at a temperature of 17-19 ° C.When growing seedlings, it is convenient to use a mini-greenhouse with heating. You can also grow seedlings on a windowsill in a room with central heating, which is maintained at a temperature of 16-19 "C.
As soon as shoots appear, remove the paper and lift the glass. After a few days, remove the glass and move the container to a well-lit area out of direct sunlight. The trays and pots located on the windowsill need to be rotated every two days. Don't let the compost dry out. For watering, it is better to use a sprayer that gives fine jets.
In the phase of two true leaves, seedlings dive into trays, small pots or seedlings with cells. In pots and trays, seedlings are placed at a distance of 2.5-4 cm from each other. After picking, the trays are kept in the shade for one to two days at a temperature of 9-11 ° C, watered as needed.
When the seedlings get stronger after picking, they begin to harden them in order to prepare them for transplanting into open ground. To do this, airing is intensified, and then the seedlings are transferred to an unheated greenhouse. For one to two weeks, the vents in the greenhouse are kept closed, then on dry days, when there is no frost, they begin to open them slightly. For a week before planting seedlings, the vents are left open overnight. Seedlings grown on a windowsill are first transferred to an unheated room, then put out in the garden for several days and only after that are planted.

All kinds of usefulness for the hands
Our hands are busy working day in and day out. Work damages sensitive skin, stress is not good for them. I would like to suggest the topic of natural hand skin care. Surely, each of us has our own recipes. Soon again spring, again we will dig in the ground, again the skin will coarse and crack. Of course, you can wear gloves, but how many of us use them?
Nature has prepared everything you need to care for your hands. Let's share our recipes.
I'll start first, perhaps.

NUTRITIVE LAVENDER HAND CREAM
3 tbsp beeswax granules
4 tablespoons almond oil
4 tablespoons coconut oil.
6 tbsp glycerin
6 drops of lavender oil.
For chapped and stressed hands, use this cream. Mix beeswax with almond and coconut oils in a bowl over a saucepan of boiling water until the wax melts. Stir vigorously and add glycerin drop by drop.
Remove mixture from steam bath and stir until creamy. Add lavender oil and transfer cream into a lidded jar. Store in a cool place.
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CALENDULA HAND CREAM
1 handful of dried calendula flowers
100 ml olive oil
15 gr. crushed wax
4 drops of lemon balm or lemon oil
Put the flowers in a saucepan, cover with olive oil and keep on low heat for 20 minutes. Strain through a soft sieve into a bowl.
Place it in a steam bath and add wax. When it melts, remove from heat and beat mixture until smooth. Add the essential oil and transfer the finished cream to a jar with a lid and store in a cool place.
calendula softens rough hand skin and makes it elastic

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NAIL OIL
2 tsp soybean oil
1 tsp avocado oil
1 tsp castor oil
Beat everything for at least 2 minutes, then transfer to a glass jar with a tight lid.
After cleaning your nails, apply a thin layer of oil with a cotton swab or small brush. Do not rinse.This protective oil is good for finger skin and nails
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AVOCADO AND MILK MASK

Remove the skin from the fetus and remove the bone. Mash the pulp and mix with milk to make a homogeneous mass. Apply the cream to your hands and hold for 15 minutes. Rinse, dry your hands and apply cream.
Do this nourishing mask once a week, especially in winter.
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Vaseline nail cream
This cream will strengthen brittle nails and make them more resistant.
2 tsp petroleum jelly
2 tsp lanolin
0.5 tsp salicylic acid
Mix everything until smooth.Store in a jar with a tight lid. Before going to bed, immerse your nails in the cream, put on cotton gloves and leave overnight. Do it for a few days.

scare away pests
Plants and preparations that repel pests.

Tomatoes. Planting tomatoes in the aisles of gooseberries scares off the sawfly and moth.

Onion garlic. Planting onions, garlic in the aisles of strawberries scares away ticks.

Onion. Phytoncides of onions planted next to carrots scares off carrot flies (subject to alternation).
Chopped onions and located near the berry fields scares away birds pecking berries.
Onions planted under the foil with tomatoes reduces pests and diseases in tomatoes.

Carrot. Planting onions next to carrots. Carrot phytoncides scare off onion flies (subject to crop rotation).

Calendula. Sowing calendula (marigold) between vegetables scares away and reduces the number of ticks. Prevents root rot.

Branches of elder, blooming bird cherry. In the bushes of currants and gooseberries in vessels with water, placed branches of elder and bird cherry blossoms scare away the moth.

Blackroot (mouse spirit). Blackroot, planted along the banks of reservoirs, along the boundaries of the plots, scares off mice and rats.

Needle needles (fresh). Processing garlic bulbs with a decoction of needles kills the garlic bacteria.

Elecampane root. Flies sprayed with elecampane root infusion die.

Elder. The elderberry, planted in the ground or placed in containers of water, scares off mice.

Steamed branches of bird cherry. A collar on animals made from steamed bird cherry branches kills lice completely (in 2-3 doses).

Tobacco smoke. Fumigation of the garden. In the evening, in calm weather, during the period of full fledging of the apple sucker before it starts laying eggs. 1 pile of wet straw per 100 sq. m, sprinkled with tobacco dust (1.5-2.0 kg), smoke slowly for 2 hours, avoiding flames.

Celery. The smell of celery sown next to the cauliflower repels the cabbage fly.
In crops of turnip, turnip, radish, celery repels cruciferous flea beetles.

Tobacco dust, lime, ash. The soil sprinkled along the rows with a mixture of tobacco dust and lime or wood ash (100-200 g per 10 sq. M.) Scares the onion fly away.

Potassium permanganate. Crops of potatoes and root crops, poured with potassium permanganate, scare away the wireworm.

Ash. Ash-pollinated gooseberries are not damaged by the sawfly.

Tansy, wormwood. Tansy and wormwood frightens off butterflies of the codling moth.

Radish. A radish sown in a flower garden protects flowers from many pests and diseases.

Garlic, tomatoes. Ants do not tolerate tomato leaves and garlic cloves.

Chrysanthemums. Medvedka cannot stand the smell of chrysanthemums. Even with the remains of chrysanthemums buried in the soil, the bear disappears.

Vegetable beans. Vegetable beans, sown around the perimeter of the site, protect it from moles.

Spoiled fish, herring. In places of large concentration along the perimeter of the ridges, the laid out baits scare away the bear.
Tags: helpful tips

Safe protection
Bitoxibacillin.

It destroys the larvae of the Colorado potato beetle, leaf-gnawing caterpillars of the moth, whiteworm, moths, scoops, goldsmiths, hawthorn, moth, leafworm, apple moth. The death of pests within 1-10 days after treatment.

It destroys leaf-gnawing caterpillars of cabbage and turnip whites, cabbage moths, moths - on cabbage, apple and fruit moths, moths, Zlatoguz, leafworm, hawthorn, silkworm. Caterpillars die in 1-4 days. Harvesting through the do not divide after processing.

Destroys leaf-gnawing caterpillars, moths, moths, whitefly scoops - on cabbage, apple moth, American white butterfly. Zlatoguski, hawthorn, apple moth, winter moth - on fruit crops. Caterpillars die in 1-4 days.

All these drugs, destroying pests, are safe for humans, animals, bees, beneficial insects, birds and fish. Not harmful to the plant itself and the environment. Shelf life 1-1.5 years

60-100 g per 10 liters of water, spraying 2 times, interval 7-8 days. Processing after flowering.

Against pests, diseases: apple sawfly, leaf rollers.

1/2 bucket of dry flowering plants pour 10 liters of warm water and leave for 2 days, strain, add 40 g of soap. Carry out processing before the harvest ripens or after harvesting.

Against pests, diseases: aphids, fungal diseases of gladioli.

Belena is poisonous. It can be harvested in early spring or late autumn. Dry in the wind in a dark place.
Broth: 1 kg of dry grass, pour 10 liters of water, boil for 30 minutes, add soap for sticking, 30 g per 10 liters.
Infusion: pour 1 kg of herb with 10 liters of water, leave for 12 hours.

Against pests, diseases: aphids, spider mites, herbivorous bugs.

1. 1.8 kg of dry or 3 kg of green tops insist 5 hours in 10 liters of hot water. Strain. High concentrations can cause plant burns.

Against pests, diseases: aphids, ticks, whites, scoops, sea buckthorn moth.

2. 1.2 kg of chopped green tops insist 2-3 hours in 10 liters of water, strain and spray, the pests die after 3 hours.

Against pests, diseases: aphids, spider mites of cucumbers and cabbage.

Pour 1 kg of chopped dry tops of 10 liters of water, leave for 4-5 hours, boil for 1-1.5 hours over low heat, strain, dilute with water 2 times and add 40 g of soap per 10 liters of the finished solution.

Against pests, diseases: caterpillars, butterflies, aphids, ticks, moths, moths, cruciferous fleas, vegetable and berry bugs.

1. Pouring hot water from a watering can (water temperature 80 degrees) currant and gooseberry bushes until the buds open.

Against pests, diseases: anthracnose, rust, mites, moths.

2. Pouring hot water (60 degrees) on strawberry bushes from a watering can after the snow melts for the second time pour hot water from a watering can (60 degrees) after harvesting for the same purpose.

Against pests, diseases: against fungal diseases.

Stir 70-80 g of powder with a small amount of water, add up to 10 liters, the solution is used immediately, the toxicity is lost.

Against pests, diseases: aphids, honeydew.

Insist 1 kg of stems or 0.2 kg of roots for 2-3 days in 10 liters of hot water (you can insist for 10 hours and boil for 1 hour). The broth can be stored for up to 30 days in a cool place in a sealed container.

Against pests, diseases: caterpillars, butterflies, sawflies.

Dusting diseased plant areas with crushed charcoal, excluding abundant watering, thinning. To prevent foliar top dressing with a 0.5% solution of potassium sulfate. (Pumpkin crops and cucumbers in greenhouses are affected).

Against pests, diseases: ascochitis.

1. 3 kg of ash to insist in 10 liters of water for 2 days. Spraying black currants in the evening or in cloudy weather (you can also gooseberries).

Against pests, diseases: sawflies, gooseberry moth.

2. When embedded in the soil, wood ash repels wireworm larvae and increases the resistance of black currants and gooseberries to powdery mildew.

Against pests, diseases: wireworm, powdery mildew.

Liming of acidic soils.

Against pests, diseases: black leg.

1. Application of increased doses of potash fertilizers under potatoes in infested areas reduces ring rot.

Against pests, diseases: ring rot.

2. Powdery mildew is prevented by regular watering and increased doses of potassium fertilizers (2 matchboxes of potassium nitrate per 10 liters of water).

Against pests, diseases: powdery mildew on onions.

Spraying plants 1-2 times a week with 0.5-1.0% calcium nitrate solution: 5-10 g in 10 liters of water.

Against pests, diseases: top rot of tomatoes.

1. 50 g of soda ash and 50 g of soap per 10 liters of water. Spraying immediately after flowering, then repeat after 8-10 days.

Against pests, diseases: gooseberry powdery mildew, currants.

2.70 g of soda ash per 10 liters of water.

Against pests, diseases: cherry slimy sawfly.

Brown spots on the leaves on the upper side and orange pads on the lower side. Colloidal sulfur treatment (50 g per 10 l of water).

Against pests, diseases: rust.

Colloidal sulfur, fertilizers.

Increasing the dose of organic and mineral fertilizers, foliar feeding reduces the harmfulness of the tick. Removal of buds and infected branches. At the beginning of the extension of the flower (buds) of the brushes and after flowering, 70-80% colloidal sulfur is used (50-100 g per 10 l of water). Apply in exceptional cases.

Against pests, diseases: currant kidney mite.

1. Boil 100 g of chopped pepper in 1 liter of water for 40-50 minutes, leave for 2-3 days. The infusion is bottled and can be stored all summer. Before use, dilute 130 g of infusion with water to 10 liters.

Against pests, diseases: aphids, moths, sawflies.

2.500 g of infusion per 10 liters of water.

Against pests, diseases: moth.

Well crushed burdock (1/3 to the volume of water) to insist 3-5 days. Strain. You can also spray cabbage (3-4 times) from the cabbage scoop, whitefish and moth.

Against pests, diseases: moths, sucking insects, leaf-eating caterpillars, aphids.

1. 500 g of onion husks pour 10 liters of hot water, leave for 3-5 days, drain. Use within 5-6 days.

Against pests, diseases: aphids, mites (kidney), honeydew, moth.

2. 200 g of onion husks pour 10 liters of water, leave for 24 hours. Spray 3 times every 5 days.

Against pests, diseases: spider mite.

150 - 200 g of onion peel, 200 g of tobacco dust, 200 g of chopped garlic, pour 10 liters of water and boil for 2 hours. Cool, strain, add up to 10 liters. When sprinkling on 10 liters of broth, add 30 g of soap for sticking.

Against pests, diseases: leaf-eating caterpillars, aphids.

2 g of potassium permanganate per 10 liters of water, spraying.

Against pests, diseases: strawberry gray rot.

Potassium permanganate, copper-soap preparation.

In autumn, cut the stems of peonies low, remove. In the spring, when shoots appear, pour potassium permanganate (30-50 g per 10 liters of water). If it does not help, remove diseased plants and spray with a copper-soap preparation.

Against pests, diseases: gray mold of peonies.

Dissolve 10 g of copper sulfate in 0.5 l of hot water. Dilute 100 g of soap separately in 10 liters of water. The drug is prepared before spraying. A solution of copper sulfate is poured into a soapy solution with constant stirring in a thin stream. A properly prepared emulsion will have a greenish color and no flakes. If the water is hard, you can add 50 g of soda ash to 10 liters of water.

Against pests, diseases: powdery mildew (and phlox powdery mildew).

Copper sulfate, potassium permanganate.

To prevent, spraying with a weak solution of copper sulfate or potassium permanganate (5 g per 10 liters of water) can be carried out. Spraying repeat 3-4 times in 10-12 days. Remove single diseased plants or sprinkle with ground sulfur (in exceptional cases).

Against pests, diseases: powdery mildew on onions.

1. Spraying:
1) 5% urea solution (500 g per 10 l)
2) 10% solution of potassium nitrate (1 kg per 10 liters of water).
Carry out processing in early spring.

Against pests, diseases: the wintering phase of apple scab.

2. Spraying with a solution of ammonium nitrate (10 g per 10 liters of water) or 6 g of ammonium nitrate per 1 sq. m for embedding, increases resistance to powdery mildew.

Against pests, diseases: gooseberry powdery mildew, currants.

1. Pour 3 parts of mullein with 7 parts of water, leave for 3 days, strain. Before spraying, add 9 parts of water to 1 part of the infusion. Spraying 2 times at intervals of 8-10 days.

Against pests, diseases: moth.

2. Dilute 1 part of mullein in 8 parts of water, strain, dilute the infusion (1: 4), spray the cucumbers. Repeat after 3 days. Make sure that there are no burns. Burn diseased plants.

Against pests, diseases: powdery mildew.

Infusion of rotted hay (ostozh or mullein).

From folk remedies to prevent powdery mildew, plants are sprayed with a solution of rotted hay or fresh mullein. To do this, 1/3 of the bucket of raw materials is added with water, insisted for 3 days, filtered, the infusion is diluted with water (1: 3). Sprayed weekly in the evening. A freshly prepared infusion is used.

Against pests, diseases: powdery mildew.

one.Insist 0.8 kg of crushed roots or 0.9-1.0 kg of fresh plants for 8-10 hours in 10 liters of warm water.

2. Pour 300 g of crushed rhizomes and 400 g of green leaves with 10 liters of water, leave for 2-3 hours and use immediately. Spraying can be repeated several times, in a break of 10-15 days.

Against pests, diseases: copperhead, aphids, ticks.

600-700 g of volunteers or 100 g of dried fruit pour 2 liters of water, boil for 30 minutes, cool, add 0.5 liters of bread kvass, 20 g of yeast and 250 g of sugar, when the liquid ferments, pour it into jars (with a layer of 2-3 cm ) and hang on apple trees to catch butterflies.

Against pests, diseases: butterflies of the codling moth.

Sprinkle the soil with salt in places where slugs accumulate or spray with a saline solution (100 g per 10 liters of water).

Against pests, diseases: naked slugs.

1. You can collect all summer, dry in the attic, store in a dry place in paper bags. Insist 1 kg of dry or 1.5 kg of green wormwood for 24 hours in 10 liters of water and boil for 30 minutes. Repeat the treatment after 7-8 days.

Against pests, diseases: caterpillars, butterflies, sea buckthorn moth.

2. Boil 1 kg of dried wormwood for 10-15 minutes with a little water. Cool, add infusion of chicken manure (1 kg of dry manure should be insisted for 1-2 days with a little water). Then strain the mixture and add water to 10 liters. Spraying should be carried out 2 times with an interval of 7 days.

Against pests, diseases: leaf-eating caterpillars.

Pour 3-4 kg of finely chopped leaves with 10 liters of water (hot) and leave for 1 day. Before spraying, dilute the solution 3 times with water and add 40 g of soap.

Against pests, diseases: spider mites, aphids, caterpillars, butterflies and other pests.

A mixture of mineral fertilizers.

Anthracnose and powdery mildew are restrained by foliar feeding of plants with a fertilizer solution:
20 g of superphosphate, 7 g of urea, 20 g of potassium salt, 2 g of manganese sulfate and 4 g of copper sulfate in 10 liters of hot water.

Adding superphosphate 2 kg per 10 sq. m. Planting healthy tubers, weeding, hilling.

Against pests, diseases: potato scab.

Boil 1 kg of tobacco or 0.8 kg of tobacco dust for 25-30 minutes with a little water, add up to 10 liters of hot water, leave for 5-6 days. The broth can be stored all summer (in a tightly sealed container in the cold). Dilute 2-3 times before use to avoid burns. Can be dusted with tobacco dust against the listed pests in half with ash or lime.

Against pests, diseases: honeydew, aphids, caterpillar thrips, moths, cabbage moth, leaf rollers, fleas.

4 kg of freshly prepared plants pour 10 liters of water, leave for 3-4 hours, boil for 30 minutes over low heat. Cool, strain, squeeze out the mass. The broth can be stored for a year, it does not lose its toxicity. Before use, dilute with water 2 times and add 40 g of soap per 10 liters of working solution (for adhesion).

Against pests, diseases: moth, cruciferous fleas, herbivorous bugs.

Boil 0.8 kg of dry or 2.5 kg of fresh chopped yarrow for 30-40 minutes in 10 liters of water, insist for a day, strain.

Against pests, diseases: leaf-gnawing caterpillars, aphids, thrips, spider mites, honeydew.

2 tbsp. tablespoons of concentrate per 10 liters of water, used for spraying fruit trees during the period of falling petals, as a deterrent.

Against pests, diseases: butterflies.

50-70 g of concentrate per 10 l of water, spraying of currants, gooseberries during the flowering period.

Against pests, diseases: moth.

1. Disinfection of soil from fungal and bacterial diseases. Dry application in autumn, rake. Consumption 100-200 g per sq. meter.

Against pests, diseases: fungal diseases, root rot.

2. Disinfection of young men, racks of frames, greenhouses, greenhouses. Insist 100 g of lime in 3 liters of water for 3-4 hours, spray with liquid, and whitewash the "structures" with sediment.

Against pests, diseases: bacterial principles, rot.

1. In 10 liters of water, insist 300 g of chopped garlic for 1-2 days, strain. Spray.

2.Insist 500 g of garlic in 3 liters of water for 5 days (in a warm, dark place). Strain. For 10 liters of working solution, take 60 g of infusion and 50 g of laundry soap.

Against pests, diseases: spider mites, aphids, rust.

3. 50-100 g of chopped garlic, pour 10 liters of water and immediately spray the black currant during budding and after flowering. Solution consumption - 10 liters per 100 sq. m.

Against pests, diseases: kidney mite.

4. 100 - 150 g of dry crushed leaves and scales of garlic, pour 10 liters of water and leave for 24 hours (spray on fruit crops).

Against pests, diseases: aphids, caterpillars.

Garlic, soap, mustard, soda ash.

Watering strawberries in order to prevent pests and diseases with a solution: in 10 liters of water 150 g of chopped garlic, infused for a day, 50 g of soda ash, 20 g of tar soap, 100 g of dry mustard, mix thoroughly, add 1 teaspoon of pine extract, strain. Spraying - in spring and autumn, on the eve of spraying with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.

Against pests, diseases: from pests and diseases of strawberries.

300 g garlic (minced), 2 tbsp. tablespoons of mustard to insist for two days. Pour 0.5 liters of ash with hot water and leave for a day, add 2 tbsp. spoons of tar or pine extract and plus 40 g of soap. Strain and bring to 10 liters with water.

Against pests, diseases: apple blossom beetle, honeydew.

Insist 0.8 kg of crushed roots or 1 kg of plants for 8-10 hours in 10 liters of warm water.

Against pests, diseases: scab, caterpillars, slugs, aphids.

Fitoverm
The biological product "Fitoverm" is a broad-spectrum drug. Permitted in greenhouses and for indoor plants.

Active ingredient: aversectin C
Release form: ampoules 4 ml., Ampoules 2 ml. Ampoules 5 ml. Vials 20 ml.

Fitoverm is a highly effective biological product of the 4th generation. Scientific discovery of recent years.

Compatibility with other pesticides: Do not mix with other preparations.

Fitoverm has a wide spectrum of action: against more than 20 types of insect pests, including the Colorado potato beetle, cabbage whiteworm, cabbage scoop, spider mite, codling moth, flower beetles, thrips, all types of aphids, etc.

Extensive tests of Fitoverma were carried out by specialists from the All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection. Observations have shown that it reduces the number of leaf-eating pests on apple and black currant by 94-100%. Against ticks on apple and black currant, the effectiveness of Fitoverm was 96-100%. It caused 100% death of bud weevils and by 75-85% suppressed the development of apple aphids and currant apical aphids.

Two-fold application of Fitoverm on black currant - immediately after flowering and two weeks before the start of berry ripening allowed to completely prevent the harmfulness of the four-legged leaf mite and leaf rollers, 86% of the currant apical aphid.

It does not pollute the environment, rapidly degrading in water and soil. The waiting period from the last processing to harvesting is no more than 3 days. All this makes Fitoverm an almost indispensable preparation against pests of currants, gooseberries, raspberries, apples and other fruit trees, tomatoes, flowers both in the garden and in the room.

It works well even in hot weather, unlike many traditional drugs.

Preparation of the working solution: pour 1-2 liters of water into a bucket, open the ampoule or measure a certain amount of the drug with a dispenser (in accordance with the table) and pour it into a bucket of water and mix thoroughly, then bring the working solution to the required volume of 10 liters and mix again ...

Recommendations for treatments: spray the plants with a freshly prepared solution in dry, calm weather, preferably in the morning (before 10:00) or in the evening (18-22 hours), evenly wetting the leaves, 4-6 hours before rain. The optimum temperature for treatments is from + 12 ° C to + 25 ° C. Do not spray against the wind. The exposure rate is 6-8 hours after treatment in protected ground, 8-16 hours in open ground.Protects plants in greenhouses from 7-20 days after treatment on open ground crops (in the absence of precipitation within 6 hours after treatment) - 7-20 days, depending on the dose and type of pests. Not phytotoxic. Cannot be mixed with other drugs!

Fitoverm does not pollute the environment, rapidly degrading in water and soil. The waiting period from the last processing to harvesting is no more than 3 days. Fitoverm is an almost indispensable drug for protecting against pests of currants, gooseberries, raspberries, apples and other fruit trees, tomatoes, flowers (both in the garden and in the room), because the use of many chemicals is allowed only no later than 20 days before harvest.


Instructions for ampoules of the drug "Fitoverm" 4ml:

Culture: Cucumbers, Peppers, Tomatoes, Eggplants
Pest: spider mite.
Consumption of the preparation: 4 ml per 5 l of water
Consumption of working solution: 10 liters per 100 sq.m.

Culture: Cucumbers, Peppers, Tomatoes, Eggplants
Pest: peach, melon aphids.
Consumption of the preparation: 4 ml per 0.8 l of water
Consumption of working solution: 10 liters per 100 sq.m.

Culture: Cucumbers, Peppers, Tomatoes, Eggplants
Pest: tobacco, western flower thrips.
Consumption of the preparation: 4 ml per 0.4 l of water
Consumption of working solution: 10 liters per 100 sq.m.


Why do pests appear on blackberries?

Blackberries can be attacked by pests for the following reasons:

  1. The line between the species differences of blackberries and raspberries is becoming more and more blurred. Many modern high quality blackberry varieties in their genotype have the raspberry gene, and these two varieties are often grown in the neighborhood. All this leads to the gradual loss of the berry of its natural resistance to diseases and pests.
Blackberries are a close relative of raspberries
  1. Besides raspberries, Blackberries should also not be planted near thickets of wild strawberries, rose hips and roses.... The berries also have common pests with these plants.
  2. Often, gardeners themselves become the cause of the spread of pests on berry plantations, buying seedlings not in large nurseries, but from random people, for example, selling at the metro. Or the option is even worse when the plant is purchased on trips abroad. Why can't this be done? Whatever huge berries you are promised, it is not worth buying varieties that are not tested and not adapted to your region... Due to a dubious plant, you risk creating an outbreak of an unknown disease in your garden, or spreading insect pests throughout the territory.
  3. Lack of proper plant care... In order for blackberries to remain healthy and delight you with a bountiful harvest, they need to be fed, sprayed from insects, and protected from weeds.


Top dressing and fertilizers for blackberries

To get a good harvest of large berries, blackberries are fed three times per season. In the spring, emphasis is placed on nitrogen-containing fertilizers. 7 kg of humus, up to 40 g of ammonium nitrate are introduced under the bush. Good results are obtained with mullein, a solution of bird droppings.

In the summer, blackberries are fed while the berries are being poured. The solution is prepared from 10 liters of water and 2 tbsp. l. potassium sulfate. Before feeding, the soil under the bush is sprinkled with wood ash at the rate of 1 glass per 1 m 2. Potassium solution is poured into 7 liters under each plant. Additionally, the bushes are sprayed with a solution of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus.

In the fall, humus is dug into the ground under each bush - 1 bucket. From mineral fertilizers add 40-50 g of potassium, 100 g of superphosphate. Before the very shelter of the bush for the winter, the stems are sprayed with a solution of copper sulfate.

When, how and how much or what to feed blackberries in early spring

The initial introduction of humus and mineral complexes during planting of the seedling lasts for three years. For the development of the bush and a good harvest, organic matter and mineral fertilizers are applied.

For active growth

Accelerates the growth of shoots with nitrogen-containing fertilizers. In early spring, 15 g of urea or 25 g of ammonium nitrate are added under the bush. After the snow melts, the blackberries are fed with slurry or a solution of bird droppings.Introducing 1 kg of organic matter per 1 m 2. For further development, the plant needs phosphorus. Fertilizers are applied about 10 g.

For a bountiful harvest

Fertilizing from 20 g of saltpeter and 10 g of urea allows you to increase the yield. With the onset of fruiting, the leaves are sprayed with a solution of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. 6 liters of water with potassium sulfate are poured under each bush. The solution is prepared from 10 liters of water and 2 tbsp. l. fertilizers.


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