Influence of planting density on potato yield
Read the previous part. ← Technique of planting potatoes with tuber shares
Harvest of Bars potato bushes
Again a question from the mail: “We cut the tuber into two parts. Sprouts sprout out of each half. That is, both from the top and from the bottom (where there should not be sprouts), the eyes turned on and went into growth!
It turns out that the total yield from one tuber should be higher, because the total number of sprouts has increased. Right?"
In the previous article, we agreed that on potato yield it is not the absolute number of shoots that affects, but the number of trunks that will develop from these shoots. Is it possible to say that the more trunks, the greater the yield? It is possible, but with a reservation. This relationship is true only up to a certain limit - 23-25 trunks for marketable tubers (for food and sale) and 25-27 trunks for seed potatoes per square meter. If there are more trunks, the yield drops. This is due to the intraspecific struggle for sunlight, nutrient solutions in the soil, and water.
You cut the tuber. The number of trunks grown from one tuber will definitely increase. But there is no direct relationship here. Let's take a closer look at this issue. For example, the vertex has 7 peaked eyes (see fig 23)... On pieces with a large number of sprouts (as well as on whole tubers), as a rule, not all sprouts become trunks. Ultimately, 1–5 shoots can develop from this vertex. But more often several shoots develop from the top, and not one. What determines the number of developed trunks? I dont know.
Take a piece of stolon piece with 4 sprouts. On such a piece, 1-4 trunks can develop (see Figure 24).
On a piece with two eyes, 1-3 shoots can develop. 1-2 sprouts will develop on a piece with 1 eye (see fig. 25)
Why am I talking about this in such detail? It is important to understand what to expect from pieces with different numbers of eyes. And do not harbor illusions that each peephole will definitely give a full-fledged plant (trunk).
Looking at the potato bushes during harvesting, I noticed the following pattern: in bushes that grew from a whole tuber, 1-3 tubers grow on each plant (trunk). In multi-stem bushes on some plants (trunks) there are no tubers at all (see 26)... More often in such a bush there are 6-10 tubers.
I was examining a plant that grew from a piece of a tuber with one trunk. One such plant has 2 to 10 tubers. Moreover, large ones.
Why is this happening? On the Figure 27 shows the developmental stages of a bush grown from a whole tuber. As a rule, first one sprout sprouts, then the second, the third. The whole tuber until a certain time regulates the supply of nutrients to the sprouts. And most of the food goes to the topmost sprout. Then in descending order - to everyone else. Therefore, the first sprout is initially in an advantageous position.
With the formation of roots, each individual trunk begins to live its own life - this is already a separate plant. They are all very close. Already at the very young age of developing plants, each of them experiences a competitive struggle within the bush.
And it is at this age that the plant is "programmed" for the harvest - it decides how many future tubers it can feed during the growing season. The stronger the competition, the more the plant is “programmed” for a smaller yield. Stems - the latter are oppressed by the firstborn. And often give one or two small nodules. For the bush as a whole, they are, in fact, weeds - they use food, shade their neighbors, but do not give a significant harvest.
The same processes occur when planting a part of a tuber. Part "considers" itself an independent tuber. The difference is that there are few sprouts on it. And at a young age, they experience much less competition. This means that they lay more stolons - they are ready to give more tubers. You can make a bush from separate pieces (see 28).
With this planting, the development of all plants will occur more evenly than from a whole tuber. In this case, the number of tubers under the bush will be more than from the whole tuber. In addition, tubers grown from chunks in plants will be the largest (see 29).
Bearing in mind the competitive struggle and the special importance of the initial stage of development of a potato plant, it should be borne in mind that the farther from each other active shoots are located during planting, the better. That is why among the landing options that I use (see 14-16), the most yielding is the one in which there are fewer sprouts in one "nest" - option 3 (see fig 16)... That is why in other variants I place the sprouts in the "holes" away from each other. (see fig 18).
In addition to the competition within the bush, plants from tuber parts have another advantage. They have more leaves. This means that the whole plant receives more products of photosynthesis - the yield increases. The increase in the leaf surface occurs due to the fact that “stepchildren” - additional trunks - appear in the leaf axils. Such a plant does not look like a trunk with leaves, but like a small tree. On the Figure 30 the arrows show the stepsons.
Several times I have come across statements that if we cut the tubers, we will get a yield from the same planting material 2-3 times more. It is possible. But I would not guarantee it. In my case, in the case of using cut planting material, the yield always increased by 30-70%. As a result, it was possible to slightly step over the border of 25 bags from one hundred square meters. I think that in my case not all the reserves have been used up, and much better results can be achieved.
Oleg Telepov, member of the Omsk club of potato growers
When you can and can not plant potatoes according to folk signs
When determining the landing dates, one can follow not only the data of the lunar calendar, but also folk signs.
In the villages, "grandmother's" secrets are passed from generation to generation, the knowledge of which will allow you to determine when to plant potatoes and grow a rich harvest:
- if the night air temperature does not drop below +10 degrees for three days,
- you can safely go out into the field and plant potatoes
- 30 days after the beginning of flowering of coltsfoot, potatoes of early varieties can be planted
- if during planting the soil does not stick to the shovel, but crumbles, wait for a good harvest
- if you plant the tubers on Wednesday or Saturday, the crop will not be stored for long.
Our ancestors were guided, most often, by the birch: as soon as the young leaves reach the size of a penny coin, you can start planting. But here it must be borne in mind that we are talking about an old Soviet penny, now it can be replaced with a 2-ruble coin.
Another common omen related to bird cherry and elderberry: as soon as they began to bloom, the peasants planted potatoes.
According to popular beliefs, potatoes should not be planted later than the bird cherry blossoms and before they bloom on the birch.
Neighborhood of cultivated plants
Plants that are the same in height and branching, while closely planted, do not get along well with each other. Also, representatives of the same family do not like the neighborhood.
Good neighbors are, for example, herring and cabbage. Cabbage stimulates the growth of celery, and herring helps deter butterflies that eat cabbage. In addition to celery, parsnips and marigolds get along well with cabbage. It is worth noting that marigolds also help cabbage fight whiteflies.
Cucumber and radish can be safely planted together. The thick tops of the radish reliably protect cucumbers from ticks and leaf beetles, and also have a beneficial effect on the soil and taste of the fruit.
To make the taste of potatoes and radishes rich, it is recommended to plant bush beans next to them, which will also repel pests.
Tomato and salad can be a profitable tandem. The salad saves the tomato from the invasion of harmful insects, and also improves the taste and stimulates growth.
The most versatile plant is spinach and can be planted with all plants except fennel, asparagus and vegetable marrow. It promotes good growth for the neighbor and creates a supportive environment for him.
Flower and spice crops next to vegetables can not only repel pests, but also attract insects that collect nectar and pollen.
The main advantage of mixed planting is the ecological protection of plants from harmful insects and diseases. The correct arrangement of cultivated plants will help save space on the land.
Auspicious days for digging potatoes in 2021 by the moon
The timing and favorable days when to dig potatoes in 2021 according to the lunar calendar may differ in different regions of growth. This is due to agro-climatic features. If in central Russia, in the conditions of the Moscow region, digging can continue until the end of September, then in more northern regions all field work is completed at the beginning of the first autumn month. The timing of harvesting potatoes is also influenced by the characteristics of the variety - the growing season.
- The importance of meeting cleaning deadlines
- Signs of tuber maturity
- Determining the timing of the lunar calendar
- Influence of the variety
- By region
- Unsuitable periods for cleaning
- Conditions for digging tubers
- Crop storage recommendations
- Separate storage of vegetables
- Storage preparation, containers
- Bulkhead tubers during storage
- Failure to meet deadlines
- Consequences of early cleaning
- Late digging
Potato planting dates
When to plant potatoes? Each region has its own terms. Usually this is the time when the soil temperature reaches + 7-9 ° C. In order not to run around the corners of the plot with a thermometer, you need to navigate by nearby trees. The bird cherry blossomed, and the leaves blossomed on the birch? So the time has come, the land has warmed up enough.
Fresh articles about garden and vegetable garden
By the way, the optimal seeding depth is no more than 15 cm. Otherwise, you will have to wait for seedlings for a very long time. With the size of tubers slightly larger than a chicken egg by 1 hundred square meters (20 five-meter beds), only 5-6 buckets of planting material will be needed.
This potato disease is sometimes called speckled mosaic. Its causative agent is the X virus.
The description of the symptoms of a common mosaic is similar to the description of the symptoms of a wrinkled mosaic. Small specks of yellow-green color appear on the leaves of the plant. Over time, the affected tissue dies off, along with the top of the leaf, but the bush does not dry out. Deformations of the sheet may also appear. This disease does not lead to the death of the plant. Sometimes, the symptoms disappear after a while. But, it is worthwhile to understand that no disease goes away without consequences. During the formation and maturation of tubers, changes took place in the structure of the plant, which could not but affect the quality of the crop. It is impossible to use such tubers as planting material. The disease in the second and third generations manifests itself more clearly and lowers the yield by 30-50%.
The virus is transmitted through the affected tubers, spread by rodents and pests. Healthy plants are affected by contact with diseased plants.
Treatment and prevention
Treatment of an ordinary mosaic is reduced to the removal of diseased plants from the site. And tomatoes, tobacco, clover, and some weeds are affected by this disease.
Preventive measures include the control of pests that spread viral infections.
Introduction of the thesis (part of the abstract) on the topic "Influence of tillage systems, fertilizers and lime on the yield and quality of potatoes in the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug"
On the farms of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, plowing for potatoes is carried out in the spring to a depth of 20-22 cm in dumps. In recent years, there has been a decrease in the cultivated area under potatoes by 225 hectares, the gross harvest of potatoes has decreased by 25.2 thousand tons.
The consumption rate of potatoes per person per year is 124.2 kg. In fact, 1.5 kg of potatoes are produced per one inhabitant of the district in agricultural enterprises, in all categories of farms - 66 kg, i.e. 53% of the total consumption rate. This means that there is a need to increase the cultivated area for potatoes, increase the yield, and therefore the use of new technological systems of potato cultivation.
PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDIES and the cost-effectiveness of growing potatoes.
The tasks of the research were to determine the effect of the main tillage, fertilizers and lime on:
- dynamics of nutrients
- water-physical properties of soil
- contamination of potato plantings
- yield and quality of potato tubers
- energy and economic efficiency. SCIENTIFIC NOVELTY In the conditions of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, for the first time, an agro-economic assessment of conventional plowing (20-22 cm) and plowing (25-27 cm) with a plow with a cut-out body in combination with the introduction of organic, mineral fertilizers and lime when growing potatoes was carried out. A new technological system of potato cultivation has been developed.
PRACTICAL VALUE OF THE WORK The conducted research on the agroeconomic and energy assessment of the technology of potato cultivation established the possibility of using plowing with a cut-out housing against the background of the introduction of organic, mineral fertilizers and lime in the conditions of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug.
The research results can be used in the development of a zonal farming system.
Research materials were reported at a scientific conference dedicated to the 40th anniversary of the Tyumen State Agricultural Academy in 1999, annual reports were approved by the academic councils of the agronomic faculty of the TSAA.
The research results were introduced in the Repolovsky state farm on an area of 120 hectares with an actual annual effect of 120.2 thousand rubles and a peasant farm in Zaimka with an annual effect of 2 thousand rubles.
Possibility and efficiency of using a plow with cut-out bodies for the main cultivation of the soil for potatoes against the background of the introduction of lime, organic and mineral fertilizers in the conditions of the Khanty-Mansiysk autonomous ok1ll / gd