How to grow eggplant seedlings at home
Eggplant is one of the tastiest vegetables in the nightshade class, which is grown in almost every household plot. But not everyone succeeds in harvesting a generous harvest. In order for the plant to please with a large number of fruits, it is necessary to grow seedlings according to the rules. After reading this article, you will become a master of eggplant cultivation in your area.
Timing for planting seeds for seedlings
From the moment of sowing the seeds to planting the eggplant on the beds, it should not take more than two months. If the plant grows under a film cover, you need to think about planting seed in the middle of February. If outdoors - at the beginning of March.
Correct fit in the box
Planting eggplant seeds in a box has been practiced for a long time. This method saves space, care of the seedlings is simplified, and transferring from place to place is not a big deal. Before planting seeds, it is necessary to select boxes of the correct size and of the required material.
Drawers are made of wood or plastic, purchased or homemade, most importantly, they should be as convenient as possible. Having picked up a box of the appropriate size, it is necessary to substitute a plywood pallet under it, and cover the walls with polyethylene so that it does not let water through.
Seeds in boxes are planted in grooves, the distance between which is 5 cm. Despite the obvious advantages of the box, there is a significant disadvantage. The root system of the seedlings is fragile, and even with a very careful dive, the root system can be damaged and the plant will die.
Conditions for growing eggplant seedlings at home
To successfully grow eggplants at home, you need to know 5 rules for choosing seeds:
- Productivity and resistance to temperature changes
- Choosing between a variety or a hybrid
- Choosing seeds corresponding to the growing region
- We use prepared seeds
- Choosing a trusted manufacturer
Seeds with a germination rate of more than 50% are considered suitable.
After the seed has been purchased, it is necessary to carry out pre-sowing treatment:
- Seeds can be soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate
- Dissolve 3 ml of hydrogen peroxide in 100.0 water, heat to 40 degrees and lower the seeds for 10 minutes
The soil for sowing eggplant should be nutritious, light and loose with neutral acidity. We fill the container ¾ with earth, plant a seed, cover it with soil, thoroughly moisten it with a weak solution of potassium permanganate and cover with a film. You can moisten the soil with melt water. Cold melt water promotes growth and gives strength to the future plant, making it more resistant to disease.
Sprouted seeds must be planted in a soil preheated to 25 degrees.
For good growth, you must follow the basic rules of care:
For normal growth, eggplant seedlings, natural light may be lacking and it will have to be supplemented with a phytolamp or fluorescent lamp. The distance between the lamp and the plant should be about half a meter, and the length of daylight hours lasting from 7 to 19 hours.
Lack of lighting can lead to stretching of seedlings, seedlings weaken and lose their bright color. Such plants, when planted in a permanent place, are subject to all kinds of diseases.
Watering must be done with warm, settled water. Watering is done in the morning, using a spray bottle, so as not to wash the seeds or expose the roots. When watering, care must be taken that water does not get on the leaves and stems, as the spring sun can burn young shoots.
Eggplants do not tolerate high humidity and drought in the soil.
Eggplant seedlings, regardless of the quality of the soil, need additional feeding. With good development of the plant, it is fertilized with light feeding. To do this, pour 250 ml of tea leaves with 3 liters of water and leave to infuse for a week.
If the seedlings grow in poorly nutritious soil or the plant grows poorly and loses its rich color, it is fertilized with complex fertilizers or self-prepared groundbait. For preparation, you need to take 1 teaspoon of superphosphate and potassium sulfate, dilute 2 teaspoons of complex fertilizer in a bucket of water.
You can also use wood ash or yeast solution as complementary foods. Ash is sprinkled on the ground in a thin layer, trying not to get on the leaves and stems. Preparation of yeast solution: 10 grams of dry yeast is diluted in 10 liters of water. Let it brew for 2-3 days. Before watering, the solution is diluted in a ratio of 1:10. All top dressing must be combined with watering.
Two weeks before planting the plant in a permanent place, it is sprayed with a 0.5% solution of copper sulfate, to protect against many diseases.
After the formation of 2-3 true leaves, the plant dives into larger pots. The container is filled with a nutrient mixture. The soil where the seeds used to germinate is best suited. The soil is spilled with a solution prepared from wood ash, potassium sulfate or complex fertilizer.
At the rate of 1 teaspoon of fertilizer in a bucket of water. Before diving, the seedlings must be shed. The seedling is carefully removed from the container, trying to take it with an earthen clod, and transfer it to a new container, deepening it to the cotyledon leaves. After transplanting, there should be no open area between the stem and the cotyledon leaves.
After diving, the plant stops growing, adding additional roots. After transplanting, the seedlings are not watered for 6 days and are hidden from the spring sun. After a week, watering is carried out every five days.
As soon as the sprouts hatch, the covering material is removed and the air temperature is lowered. 7 days after germination, you must adhere to the temperature regime, morning temperature should be 16-17 degrees, at night - 13-14 degrees. This temperature is necessary for good development of the root system.
Further, the temperature should be increased again: in the daytime - 25-27 degrees, at night - 13-14. The difference between day and night temperatures makes it possible to harden the seedlings so that they are resistant to temperature changes when transplanted to a permanent place.
Seedlings are transplanted at the age of 50-60 days.
Although growing seedlings is not an easy matter, if you follow all the rules for caring for it, you can get a strong and healthy plant that will delight you with its fruits throughout the season.
Growing eggplant seedlings at home
Many summer residents are wondering: how to grow eggplant seedlings at home? Our article will help you find out. The country of origin of the eggplant is India. The cultivation of this oriental vegetable was not so long ago almost impossible in our moderately cool climate with unstable weather conditions. Today this is no longer a problem: if the care of eggplant seedlings is properly organized, you can wait for a good harvest.
Eggplant is a nightshade crop, very demanding and capricious. Seedling care needs careful and constant. The conditions for growth must be ideal. In its characteristics and properties, eggplant is similar to a vegetable such as pepper.
This culture belongs to the capricious vegetables. She does not like drafts and wind, suffers from temperature changes, does not tolerate drought, but excessive moisture is also harmful to her. With proper care, creating favorable conditions and using home seedlings, you can get an excellent harvest. In warm areas, eggplants are grown outdoors. Vegetables grow from seeds or seedlings obtained in a greenhouse. Areas with temperature extremes, short summers and strong winds require greenhouses.
Seed selection and preparation
Now there are a huge number of varieties of eggplant with fruits of different shapes, colors and sizes. But, choosing a bag of eggplant seeds, you should give preference to zoned varieties. This is especially true for areas in which there is a risk of return frosts in spring and with cool summers.
If the eggplant seeds were collected on their own, then you need to carry out preparatory work to sort them. To do this, prepare a saline solution from 1 tbsp. tablespoons of table salt in 0.5 liters of water, pour the seeds into it, mix and leave for 5 minutes. Those seeds that float are thrown away because they are empty or unripe. The rest of the seeds are washed with running water.
Next, the eggplant seeds must be disinfected. To do this, prepare a dark purple solution of potassium permanganate and dip the seeds into it for 30 minutes, then rinse well.
You can additionally treat eggplant seeds with a germination stimulant - boric acid solution (take 1 g of substance per 1 liter of water), humate or any growth regulator.
This completes the preparation of seeds for sowing, but many experienced gardeners recommend germinating the seeds first. To do this, they are wrapped in a wet cloth and placed in a transparent plastic bag to maintain moisture. The temperature should be kept at 25-30 ° C. You can put eggplant seeds on a sunny windowsill without drafts, but never on a battery.
Step-by-step instructions for sowing eggplant seeds for seedlings
For correct and good seedlings of eggplants, it is important not only to make the correct planting, but also to perform pre-sowing preparation, which includes the choice of capacity, soil preparation, seed treatment. Each of these stages forms a single mosaic of the correct procedure.
Choice of capacity
Nowadays, there are different options for planting containers. They all have striking and attractive advantages and disadvantages. Specifically, for growing eggplant seedlings at home, you must choose separate, voluminous containers, since the seedlings of this culture do not tolerate picking well. Consider the main landing tanks that can be used in this case.
Important! The container should be large and spacious. The approximate volume is 250-500 ml.
1) Plastic cups... A very popular planting capacity, loved by many summer residents due to its availability and low cost. It is convenient to plant seeds in plastic cups, care for seedlings, dive or plant in open ground. But before use, it is imperative to make a drainage hole at the bottom of the glass.
2) Plastic cassettes... Plastic cells are interconnected. They can be conveniently used, easily transported (for example, to a summer cottage). Also, plastic cassettes are affordable. The disadvantages include the fragility of the product; if used carelessly, the cells can be easily damaged.
3) Peat pots (cups)... The container looks like an ordinary glass, only it is made of peat. It turns out that the landing tank is made of environmentally friendly materials. You can plant a seedling in open ground directly in a peat pot. When growing seedlings in peat cups, you need to carefully monitor the soil moisture, since peat pots tend to dry out quickly.
4) Peat tablets... They are pressed peat protected with a special fabric and impregnated with nutrients. Planting in tablets allows you to grow seedlings without picking. Peat tablets are very convenient to use (no need to prepare the ground, do top dressing) and it is convenient to plant them in open ground. But they require constant control of humidity, otherwise, when they dry out, they will decrease in size and the roots of plants may be damaged.
5) Wooden or plastic box... The least suitable container for growing eggplant seedlings that do not favor picking. But if you want to plant it in such a container, then this must be done according to all the rules, providing full care after planting. Of the undoubted advantages, it is worth noting the cheapness and availability of the landing capacity.
For growing eggplant seedlings at home, soil is ideal with the following characteristics:
- has a neutral pH (6.5-7)
- light and loose
- has good air and moisture permeability
You can use a multipurpose seedling soil that can be purchased at specialized stores. Such a soil already has all the necessary properties and has an optimal composition. And you can cook the earth with your own hands at home.
To prepare eggplant soil with your own hands, you need mix the following ingredients:
- sod land (1 part)
- humus (2 parts)
- peat (1 part)
- sawdust (0.5 parts).
Video: soil preparation option.
Five days before sowing, it is necessary to disinfect the ground.... The disinfection procedure will help destroy pathogenic and dangerous pathogens in the soil. You can leave the soil in the oven for 30 minutes, spill it with boiling water, spill it with a pink solution of potassium permanganate or the drug "Previkur", "Fitosporin".
Selection of eggplant seeds
Probably, every summer resident who at least once grew seedlings at home knows that high-quality seed is the key to good, strong seedlings. Therefore, when choosing eggplant seeds for sowing, be guided by the following rules:
- It is necessary to buy seed from trusted sellers. If this is your first time encountering a specialized point of sale or an online store, then you should read the reviews.
- It is better to choose seeds of hybrid varieties. The fact is that they are more resistant to diseases and environmental influences, and can also give a richer harvest.
- All the necessary information (for example, expiration date, legal address, information about the variety) must be indicated on the seed packaging.
- It is recommended to choose seeds that are less than four years old.
Seed preparation for sowing
Presowing seed treatment is an important and useful procedure, it helps to significantly increase the percentage of germination and improves the quality of seedlings. The preparation awakens the seed, accelerates germination, increases immunity, and eliminates various pathogens on the seed coat.
Most often, before sowing eggplant seeds, the following processing is performed (one or two is enough):
- Calibration - the method of processing helps to determine the quality of the material, check for germination, identify strong, viable seeds. For sorting, you need to make a saline solution (one teaspoon per glass of warm water), pour the seeds into the water, while stirring the solution with a spoon. Leave it on for 20 minutes. Those seeds that have surfaced are not viable, they need to be eliminated. And the seeds that have sunk to the bottom are suitable for sowing. Rinse and dry them.
- Warming up - the method of processing, based on exposure to heat, allows you to awaken the seeds and eliminate pathogens. 1.5 months before planting, place the seeds in a cloth bag and place them next to the battery. In this case, it is necessary to shake and turn the bags from time to time to avoid rotting. In addition, there is a faster way to warm up - with hot water. The thermos should be filled with water at a temperature of 50 degrees. Place the seeds in a bag and put in a thermos for five minutes, then dry.
- Disinfection (etching) - treatment aimed at eliminating bacterial and fungal pathogens from the surface of the seed.For disinfection, you can immerse the seed in a dark solution of potassium permanganate or a solution of hydrogen peroxide (1 tablespoon of a three percent solution of peroxide in half a liter of water). Keep the seeds in the solution for twenty minutes. And then take it out, rinse it under running water and dry it.
- Hardening - one of the varieties of the preparatory stage, the meaning of which is the effect of a low temperature. For hardening, you need to put the seeds in a damp cloth bag or wrap them in damp gauze. In this state, they should be about 14-16 hours at room temperature. After this time, it is necessary to move the seeds to the refrigerator for 12 hours. And then move it back to a room with room temperature for 14-16 hours.
- Soak - treatment helps to speed up the emergence of seedlings. Germination is necessary before sowing for three days. Place the seed in a cloth bag or wrap with gauze, place on a saucer and cover with water at room temperature (the water should cover the cloth slightly). Place the saucer in a plastic bag.
Landing method without picking
As noted above, the culture does not like picking, so it is better to immediately plant it in separate volumetric containers. The following will help to correctly plant eggplant seeds for seedlings in separate containers. step-by-step instruction:
- Make drainage holes at the bottom of the planting container.
- It is also recommended to fill the drainage layer with a thickness of one centimeter. Sand, perlite can be used as drainage.
- After you have prepared and disinfected the soil, you need to fill the landing containers. There should be a gap of 2-3 centimeters between the ground and the edge of the container.
- Now you need to water the soil abundantly.
- Transfer the seed. You can use a wooden toothpick to pick up the seed.
- Then you need to immerse the seed in the soil to a depth of one centimeter. You can sow three to four seeds in one separate container, and when the seeds germinate, you can choose the strongest sprout, and pinch off or cut off the rest with scissors.
- Spray the soil lightly with a spray bottle. The water must be clean, settled and at room temperature.
- And finally, it is recommended to cover the containers with a film, a transparent lid or glass and put them in a warm place with a temperature of 25-28 degrees.
Sowing followed by picking
Sowing eggplants for seedlings in a common container, for example, a plastic or wooden box, is also possible. The scheme of planting in a box is the same as for planting in separate containers, but some peculiarities must be taken into account. After you have laid the drainage layer, soil, and irrigated, you need to perform the following manipulations:
- Make small grooves about a centimeter deep. There should be a distance of 4 centimeters between the rows.
- Sow one seed at a time. There should be a gap of about 2 centimeters between the seeds.
- Sprinkle the seeds with soil so that there is a distance of about 1 centimeter between them and the ground.
- We also irrigate from a spray bottle, cover with a film, lid or glass, and put it in a warm place.
Video: how to properly plant eggplant seeds in a common container.
How to sow correctly?
For planting seeds, separate containers must be prepared in advance. Take special pots, you can use plastic cups. Seeds are planted in 2-3 pieces at a distance of 2 cm. After emergence, the strongest sprout is selected, the rest are removed. Before planting seeds, you need to water the soil with settled water. For this purpose, you can use a solution of potassium permanganate with a low concentration. When planting, the seeds are placed in the ground to a depth of 2 cm. Cover with sifted earth on top. Watering is not carried out on the day of planting.
Important! Cover the seed container with plastic wrap or a transparent lid to create a greenhouse effect.
If you carry out the procedure correctly, you will be able to notice the first shoots on the 5th day. When planting seeds without prior germination, the first shoots are found after 10 days. When you notice that the seedlings have grown a lot, you can remove the film, move the eggplants to a place where the temperature is slightly lower (about 5 degrees compared to the conditions at the time of planting). This temperature is optimal for the formation of the root system. Watch this. Avoid periods when the temperature drops significantly, as these can lead to plant death.
How to avoid mistakes? Here are some helpful tips.
- Create optimal conditions for storing seeds, do not leave them unused for too long.
- Refuse abundant watering, make sure to maintain the optimal temperature.
- Do not place seedlings on active heat sources, for example, a radiator, heater, so as not to provoke drying out of the soil.
If you make the mistake of not checking the optimum soil moisture, the seeds will not sprout on time. Sometimes this process is delayed two or more times. Do not throw away soil that does not sprout on time. It is necessary to wait longer (20-25 days), since growth slows down when placed in a dry environment.
Important! Take care of the absence of drafts, as they negatively affect the seedlings. If you find them, move the seedlings to a safe place, while airing the room in a timely manner.
Seedling boxes prices
Video - How to sow eggplants for seedlings
Growing up seedlings need good care from the gardener, who should provide them with good illumination, optimal soil moisture and timely fertilization. This should also include the picking of sprouts in separate containers, if the seeds were sown in a common container.
The organization of additional lighting is necessary when growing sprouts in February, when the sunny day is still short and it gets dark early. Eggplants are grown during summer daylight hours, providing them with additional illumination for 10 ... 12 hours, the device is turned off at night.
Here you need to use a special lighting device - a phytolamp. Its light structure is close to that of the sun, so the plants, being under it, grow and develop correctly. By the beginning - mid-March, such a lamp will no longer be needed, the seedlings on the windowsill will receive a sufficient amount of light with an increase in the length of daylight hours.
Eggplant loves abundant and frequent watering, but while it is at the seedling stage, drying of the upper layer of the substrate is considered a signal for watering, just like when growing any other seedlings. It should not be allowed to dry out or, conversely, waterlogging. Unregulated watering will have a bad effect on the condition of the seedlings. Warm soft water is used to moisten the soil.
Eggplant is responsive to feeding, grows well only with constant fertilization. When a culture is at its initial stage of development, it must receive all the necessary nutrients:
- nitrogen - for fast growth and green mass gain
- phosphorus - for building a powerful root system
- potassium - to enhance immunity.
Thus, the applied dressings should be complex, contain macro- and microelements. It is recommended to use special water-soluble fertilizers. Fertilizing of seedlings is carried out no more than 2 times. Additionally, once a week, seedlings are sprayed with stimulants Epin or Zircon, which will increase stress resistance and resistance to diseases.
Transplanting eggplants is only needed if the sprouts have sprouted in a common container. As they grow, their feeding area and the size of the root system increase, so the plants become cramped, conditions of competition arise. When the sprouts release 2 ... 3 true leaves, they must be planted in separate pots.
This should be done with extreme caution - even after minor damage to the roots, eggplants leave for a long time, their growth is inhibited. Each sprout is carefully placed in a recess in the substrate filling the pot, sprinkled with soil, lightly pressed with your fingers. After the pick, the plants are shed and shaded. After 3 ... 5 days they are returned to the sunny windowsill.
Eggplant seedling care: video
Planting eggplant seedlings in open ground
A month before planting, the plants begin to harden: in the afternoon they open a window or take the plants out into the fresh air. For 2 weeks, the seedlings are sprayed with a 0.5% solution of copper sulfate - this will protect the plants from fungal diseases.
At the time of planting, the plants should have 8-12 leaves.
Eggplants can be planted in the greenhouse in the second half of May, and in open ground - not earlier than the beginning of June.
The answer to the question: when to sow pepper for seedlings - read in this article!