The basics of feeding
How to increase the fertility of the garden with the help of fertilizing (part 3)
Read the previous part of the article: Types of feeding
For all the undoubted benefits of feeding, they can also bring harm if certain rules are not followed. So, with root dressing, the fertilizing solution is poured directly under the root or (which is preferable) over the entire area of the root system. In this case, the solution should in no case fall on the leaves and root collar. The latter is especially dangerous when feeding melons and gourds.
Also, when carrying out liquid root dressings, it should be remembered that top dressing with liquid fertilizers on dry soil leads to root burns, so you first need to moisten the soil with water, and only then feed it.
Taking into account temperature and precipitation
If the temperature outside the window does not exceed 10 ° C, then only dry dressings can be carried out, liquid dressings at such a low temperature are completely useless.
In cold and rainy summers, the priorities of plants change somewhat - the need for potash fertilizers increases, so the dose of potassium during such periods should be increased when feeding.
In addition, during rainy weather on sandy soils, a strong leaching of fertilizers occurs - in fact, a considerable part of the applied fertilizers (mostly nitrogen and potassium) simply disappears, leaving the lower soil layers, and as a result are not used by plants. Therefore, in such weather, it is not worthwhile to apply large doses of mineral fertilizers at one time - it is better to feed them little by little, but repeatedly.
Taking into account the condition of the plants
When carrying out dressings, it is imperative to take into account the condition of the plants, and when making appropriate decisions, be guided by the appearance of green pets. You should not feed obviously sick plants - it is better to wait with feeding and treat them with growth and root formation stimulants and (or, that is, according to the situation) with drugs for diseases. And only after you are sure that the plants are "come to life", you can apply a weak top dressing to them.
If you notice a lack of some nutrient (say, potassium), then it is most effective to carry out a complex feeding with a more concentrated solution under the root and a weak solution on the leaves. Well, if you determine what the plant specifically lacks, you cannot, but you understand that it is still a matter of nutrition, then it is worth remembering about macro- and microelements. After all, it is quite simple to determine the lack of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
In this case, the most reasonable thing is to carry out foliar feeding with any liquid preparation with a complex of trace elements and huminates, and the plants will "come to life". Better, of course, not once, but at least 2-3 times with an interval of a week. By the way, if the assumption about the lack of some macro- or microelements is correct - you will understand this already in a couple of days after the first foliar feeding according to the improved appearance of the pets, then do not be lazy and feed the plants with the same solution, only in greater concentration, under the root, and plants you will be thanked.
And yet, in my opinion, in most cases, when feeding, it is worth giving preference to complex fertilizers, and monofertilizers (separately phosphorus, potassium or nitrogen) should be applied only when the plants clearly lack the appropriate nutrients. Or at certain physiological periods of their development, when there is a great need for such mono-fertilizers (for example, spring feeding with urea).
To avoid the accumulation of nitrates
However, everything is fine in moderation - no fertilizers, especially nitrogen fertilizers, should be abused, since excessive application of nitrogen fertilizers leads to the accumulation of nitrates; the keeping quality of vegetables also decreases and their susceptibility to disease increases.
In general, a certain amount of caution should be exercised with regard to the application of nitrogen fertilizers. First, relatively large doses of nitrogen fertilizers are applied only in spring, then only as needed and in small doses.
Secondly, you should not feed green crops (lettuce, watercress, spinach, cabbage, rhubarb, dill, parsley, etc.) with mullein, bird droppings or slurry, since these plants accumulate nitrates to the greatest extent. If you see that you absolutely cannot do without such feeding, then two weeks after feeding, do not harvest.
Also, to reduce the overall potential for nitrate accumulation by plants, it is necessary to ensure regular watering, avoid thickened plantings (with a lack of illumination, the amount of accumulated nitrates increases) and, if possible, use complex fertilizers with molybdenum (the introduction of molybdenum reduces the likelihood of nitrate accumulation).
About mixing fertilizers
Since fertilizers are chemicals that can react with each other, be very careful when using multiple fertilizers in the same nutrient solution. And clearly know which fertilizers can be mixed with each other, and which - in no case.
You cannot mix:
- ammonium nitrate - with urea, with simple superphosphate, with lime, dolomite, chalk, manure;
- ammonium sulfate - with lime, dolomite, chalk, manure;
- urea - with ammonium nitrate, simple superphosphate, lime, dolomite, chalk;
- simple superphosphate - with ammonium nitrate, urea, lime, dolomite, chalk;
- granular superphosphate, double and neutralized - with lime, dolomite, chalk;
- potassium chloride, potash salt - with lime, dolomite, chalk;
- potassium sulfate - with lime, dolomite, chalk;
- lime, dolomite, ground chalk - with ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, urea, simple superphosphate, granular superphosphate, double, manure;
- manure, bird droppings - with ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, lime, dolomite, ground chalk.
You can mix, but only immediately before adding:
- ammonium nitrate - with ammonium sulfate, granular superphosphate, double and neutralized, potassium chloride, potassium salt and potassium sulfate, ammophos;
- ammonium sulfate - with ammonium nitrate and urea, with potassium chloride and potassium salt;
- urea - with ammonium sulfate, granular superphosphate, double and neutralized, potassium chloride, potassium salt and potassium sulfate, ammophos;
- simple superphosphate - with potassium chloride and potassium salt;
- granular superphosphate, double and neutralized - with ammonium nitrate and urea, potassium chloride and potassium salt;
- potassium chloride, potassium salt - with ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and urea, simple, granular, double and neutralized superphosphate, ammophos;
- potassium sulfate - with ammonium nitrate and urea.
How to determine the dosage of fertilizers without scales
If you need to apply fertilizer, and you don't have a scale at hand, a matchbox, glass, tablespoon and teaspoon can help you out.
The table is based on materials from the book "Amateur Garden" (authors V. I. Ivanov, P. M. Shepel)
|In a matchbox|
|In a tablespoon|
|In a teaspoon|
|Fertilizer mixtures (garden, fruit and berry, etc.)||230||24||18||6|
The capacity of one faceted glass is 13 tablespoons, one tablespoon - 3 teaspoons, one teaspoon holds 5 g of water.
It is worth noting that the given data are approximate - in other sources the information on grams is slightly different, which is not surprising, since even the presence of a slide on the same spoon that is almost invisible to the eye will significantly change the weight of the fertilizer. Therefore, if it is necessary to carry out ultra-precise calculations (which may be required for drip irrigation with fertilizer solutions), one cannot do without scales. In all other cases, these data may well be guided by.
Svetlana Shlyakhtina, Yekaterinburg
In the process of growing cucumbers, in order to obtain the maximum result, it is necessary to carry out not only root dressing, but also foliar processing. In the second case, fertilizers fall on the leaves and stems of plants and are absorbed by them.
In order to finely and evenly spray the nutrient solution onto the vegetative part of the plant, you will need a garden sprayer or spray bottle. The advantage of such feeding is the low consumption of fertilizers and the speed of action.
Before the flowering phase, foliar feeding of cucumbers with urea is carried out. To do this, you need to do the following:
- 3 liters of clean water
- 5 grams of urea
When the cucumbers enter the fruiting phase, it is recommended to feed them by spraying them onto the leaves with boric acid. The boron contained in the acid improves the absorption of potassium and promotes the synthesis of active substances.
The feeding composition is prepared according to the following algorithm:
- 1 liter of water
- 1 gram of boric acid
Foliar dressing with boric acid can be carried out during the entire fruiting with an interval of 10-15 days.
Some gardeners also perform foliar feeding with potassium nitrate or magnesium nitrate. In the first case, top dressing contributes to the formation of complete and beautiful fruits. In the second variant, magnesium promotes photosynthesis, which is very important for the plant.
Top dressing of cucumber seedlings is an important assistant to the development of the plant. It is fertilizers, whether they are mineral compositions or organic matter, that are the source of the nutrients necessary for the culture to form the vegetative mass and yield the fruits.
When growing cucumbers, it is necessary to develop a feeding system that covers all stages of plant development and includes fertilizing at the root, as well as foliar applications.
What fertilizers are needed in the spring for the garden?
Spring is the beginning of the growing season of plants. The introduction of the correct dressing in the spring months and the provision of the plantings with the necessary amount of nutrients guarantees not only rapid development and healthy growth, but also allows you to get high yields of vegetables in summer and autumn. Therefore, every gardener and gardener should remember that fertilizers is an essential item on the shopping list at the start of a new planting season. Today, they are on sale in a wide range and it can be difficult to navigate this variety.
Precautions for handling ammonia
For crops, ammonia is a nutrient, but safety precautions should still be followed during processing. Applying a caustic composition without protective agents for dressing can harm the body, since the substance is prepared in large volumes for spraying.
Getting on the skin or in the respiratory tract, ammonia vapors can cause serious damage to health. For such events, personal protective equipment is required... Before processing, put on a special overalls, rubber gloves. Hair is removed under the headdress, and all parts of the face, eyes and mouth are covered with a special mask and glasses.
Onions and garlic are useful and irreplaceable vegetables in the human diet. Ammonia greatly facilitates the care of crops and helps to get a good harvest of greens and root crops.
Root feeding of cucumbers in the greenhouse
Such dressings are used no more than twice during the growing season of crops. The first time nutrients are introduced into the soil after the appearance of the third true leaf on the plant. Fertilizer granules are applied in grooves, which are made at a depth of 3-5 cm at a distance of 7 cm from the cucumber bush. For each square meter of usable area, you need to take 3 g of potassium chloride and 15 g of superphosphate. A good effect can be achieved by feeding the cucumbers with ash in the greenhouse.
Plants absorb nutrients better in liquid form. For watering crops, you can use a special solution. In 10 liters of water, 10 g of potassium chloride and 15 g of superphosphate are diluted.
Some gardeners use organic substances to fertilize crops, for example, a mullein solution of 1 part of the specified substance to 10 parts of water. A good effect can be achieved after applying poultry manure at the rate of 1 kg per 20 liters of liquid.
What to use for spring garlic feeding
No specialized products are required to fertilize garlic. The culture is suitable for traditional mineral and organic compounds. They can be used both in combination and separately. The time for carrying out such procedures must be chosen deliberately, since the culture does not like excessive moisture and can rot from excess moisture. It is recommended to combine watering of garlic plantings with top dressing. Fertilizers are applied according to the scheme, alternating mineral complexes and organic matter.
After the nutrient solution is absorbed into the soil, the aisles need to be loosened up.
After fertilizing, the aisles need to be loosened
When cultivating onion crops, simple and complex mineral fertilizers are used. In stores, you can find complex formulations that contain several components. The use of such substances is more justified in the industrial method of growing garlic in areas with a large area. But summer residents also use minerals when it is not possible to use organic dressings.
At the very beginning of the growing season, when leaves are actively growing, garlic requires nitrogen. Urea (urea) or ammonium nitrate (ammonium nitrate) are used as highly concentrated nitrogen-containing fertilizers.
Urea is a high nitrogen fertilizer
Minerals are diluted with water in the following proportions:
- urea - 10-12 g, water - 10 l
- ammonium nitrate - 8-10 g, urea - 6-7 g, water - 10 l
- ammonium nitrate - 18–20 g, water - 10 liters.
You can use any of the solutions. The approximate consumption of the working staff is 1 bucket per 5 m 2 plantings. It should be remembered that ammonium nitrate should be handled with care, as this substance gets very hot in the sun. A fire may occur if diluted ammonium nitrate comes into contact with sawdust, peat or dry straw.
Use ammonium nitrate carefully.
During the formation and maturation of the heads, garlic needs elements such as potassium and phosphorus. For secondary feeding, complex fertilizers are taken: nitroammofoska, nitrophoska or potassium salt. They are bred as follows:
- potassium salt - 18-20 g, 10 liters of water
- nitrophoska - 30–35 g, 10 l of water
- nitroammofoska - 60 g, 10 liters of water (consumption - 10 liters per 2 m 2).
Potassium salt is rich in potassium
At subsequent stages, it is advised to use simple phosphorus fertilizers (superphosphate, double superphosphate, etc.). the granules are dissolved in water in the following ratio:
- superphosphate - 30-35 g, water - 10 l
- double superphosphate - 30–35 g, potassium sulfate - 40–45 g, water - 10 liters (consumption - 4–5 liters per 1 m 2).
Superphosphate is a versatile and very common fertilizer
Other complex preparations have also proven their effectiveness:
- Kemira Universal
- Fertika, etc.
Garlic can be fertilized with other mineral fertilizers, for example, Fertika
All fertilizers must be applied strictly according to the instructions that come with the package.
Do not get too carried away with fertilizing, since an excess of fertilizers is also harmful and will not have a positive effect on the development and growth of garlic onions. You should always consider the quality of the soil on which the crop grows. Depleted and poor soils must be supplemented with mineral compositions throughout the growing season. It is necessary to add minerals to the rich and loose soil only during the active growth of plants.
On sale you can find fertilizers designed specifically for onions and garlic.
Experienced growers are advised to pay attention to the appearance and condition of the vegetable. Pale foliage and yellowing of feather tips may indicate micronutrient deficiencies. But this phenomenon can also be caused by bacterial infections or attacks by insect pests.
On our site, the land is rather loose and oily. We try not to use chemical mineral compositions without urgent need and usually do with natural organic matter. Dig up a garden bed for garlic and onions with the introduction of good humus, and then mulch the emerging seedlings with peat, humus or even freshly cut lawn grass. The lawn has to be cut frequently, sometimes twice a week, so there is always plenty of grass. Under the sun's rays on the garden bed, it dries very quickly and after a few days turns into dust.
Video: spring feeding garlic with inorganic fertilizers
Natural organic fertilizers are widely used by gardeners and gardeners to feed garlic. It is believed that these substances are safe for human health, since as a result of their use, a large amount of dangerous nitrates does not accumulate in the pulp of the fruit. Especially active organic matter is used by rural and rural residents, who have constant access to it. The most popular organic foods are:
- chicken droppings
- wood ash
- table salt
Liquid organic fertilizers are the most popular among summer residents.
Cow dung, or mullein, has a high nitrogen content, which is especially necessary for plants at an early stage of development. But fresh manure cannot be used, as it can burn young shoots. He must be given a good fermentation.
The technology for preparing the working solution is as follows:
- fresh manure is placed in a container and poured with water in a ratio of 1: 5
- the container is tightly closed with a lid or covered with plastic wrap and tied with a rope
- leave to ferment for at least two weeks
- the fermented composition is diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10 and the beds with garlic are watered (bucket for 1 m 2).
Mullein must be infused for two weeks.
Do not allow the working solution to get on the leaves; watering should be done as carefully as possible.
In order to avoid the appearance of burns on the leaves of plants, fresh chicken manure is not used. It is recommended to mix it with peat or compost and add it during the autumn digging of the site (the amount should not exceed 50 g per 1 m 2). Dung is rich in nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus, it increases the resistance of plants to various diseases, stimulates their growth, and also restores the acidity and microflora of the soil.
Chicken droppings are very often used to fertilize garlic.
For spring dressings, a freshly diluted infusion of chicken fertilizer is used. 1 kg of manure is poured into a separate container and 15 liters of water are poured. After thorough mixing, garlic beds are watered with this composition at the rate of 10 liters per 5 m 2.
At the end of the procedure, it is necessary to wash off the remaining solution from the foliage with water, otherwise burn marks may remain.
Ash contains a very large amount of nutrients and trace elements that plants need for normal development and growth: potassium, phosphorus, cobalt, copper, manganese, boron, molybdenum, etc. Garlic grows poorly on soils with high acidity, and wood ash can lower it.
Garlic wood ash can be used in a variety of ways.
Ash fertilizers can be applied in several ways:
- Liquid root dressing. 1 cup of sifted wood ash is poured into 1 bucket of water, mix well, then water the plantings
- Foliar spraying. 0.3 kg of ash is poured into 1 liter of water, boiled for half an hour, then filtered. The solution is diluted with water, bringing the volume to 10 liters. For better adhesion, a little grated laundry soap (50 g) is diluted in the composition and the plants are sprayed.
- Dry. Shallow grooves are made between the rows of garlic, into which ash is poured. Then sprinkle with earth.
- Dusting. The bushes are sprinkled with crushed and sifted ash to repel pests.
Ashes can simply be scattered between the rows.
Ash is alkaline, so it should not be added to soils with an increased alkaline reaction. It cannot be applied simultaneously with nitrogen-containing fertilizers, as a chemical reaction (neutralization) occurs.
From the school chemistry course, everyone remembers that table salt (sodium chloride) contains sodium and chlorine. These elements in moderation are also beneficial for onion crops. Pour 3 tbsp into a bucket of water. l. salt, then mix and pour under the plants, 2.5–3 liters of saline is enough for 1 m 2. Sodium chloride is not only a good spring top dressing, but also a means to combat the lurker, aphids and onion flies. An aqueous solution of salt is also effective when the tips of garlic feathers turn yellow and dry.
Garlic plantings are poured with a solution of sodium chloride
One small pack (100 g) of raw yeast is diluted in a bucket of lukewarm water, infused for a day, then filtered through cheesecloth. The resulting solution is poured over the plantings of garlic at the rate of 10 liters per 3 m 2. Some summer residents use a more complex composition:
- yeast (dry or wet) - 10 g
- granulated sugar - 5-6 tbsp. l.
- wood ash - 500 g
- chicken dung - 500 g.
Yeast contains nitrogen, which is very necessary for garlic in the early stages of development.
The composition is allowed to wander for 2-3 hours, then diluted in a ratio of 1:10 and the beds are watered. Yeast compensates for the lack of nitrogen and stimulates root formation.
Salmon contains nitrogen, which is necessary for the growth of green mass. It is used as a foliar dressing. To do this, add 25 ml of alcohol to 10 liters of water, then the garlic tops are sprayed with the solution. Ammonia is used to combat certain insect pests (wireworm, aphids, onion flies, etc.). In order for the composition to stay on the leaves longer, a bar of finely grated ordinary laundry soap is bred in it. Better to take hot water, so the soap dissolves faster. Landings are processed about once a week.
Ammonia not only fertilizes garlic, but also scares away pests from planting
Top dressing of peppers in the open field and in the greenhouse
Whether the pepper is grown outdoors or sheltered, it needs the same set of elements. There is only one caveat - in greenhouses, with excessive application of nitrogen fertilizers, the soils are oversaturated with this element, which leads to an increase in the content of nitrates in the fruits.
Therefore, the application rates of nitrogen-containing fertilizers in greenhouses are set at a level half that in open ground, and when feeding, they try to ensure abundant watering, which contributes to a more even distribution of nitrogen.
For greenhouse peppers, the most suitable mineral nitrogen fertilizer is urea (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water)
Types of dressings
According to the method of feeding, they are divided into two types:
In the first case, fertilizers are applied by embedding in the soil or by watering in liquid form in the root zone. In this case, nutrients are absorbed by the roots and through the vascular system of the plant reach the leaves and fruits. This does not happen all at once, but within 2-3 days after feeding.
Foliar dressing is carried out by spraying plants with fertilizer solutions, while their effect begins almost instantly. This method is especially good when an urgent need to correct the situation - for example, in the case of detection of signs of deficiency of any element.
When foliar feeding peppers, nutrients are very quickly delivered to all parts of the plant.
To improve growth
Nitrogen is primarily responsible for the growth of green mass and stems. Therefore, the introduction of nitrogen-containing fertilizers is important at the stage of growth of bushes in the first weeks of plant life. After the bushes have reached a height corresponding to the variety, the use of such fertilizers should be stopped or the dosage should be sharply reduced. Ignoring this requirement leads to the formation of dense and lush bushes without flowers and ovaries, and if they do form, then the resulting fruits will have an increased content of nitrates.
Urea is necessary for pepper during the growth stage of bushes in the first weeks of plant life.
In addition, calcium is required for growth, but its deficiency is very rare.
To increase yields
After the pepper enters the flowering phase, it is good to use boron to increase the number of ovaries, which is applied by spraying flowers with a boric acid solution.
Fertilizer "Mag-Bor" is used to increase the number of ovaries
And for the growth of fruits at this time, phosphorus and potassium are needed. The best forms that contain these elements are potassium monophosphate or wood ash infusion.
To strengthen the plant's immunity
Compliance with a balanced diet with basic macro- and microelements in itself contributes to the strengthening of plant resistance to diseases. And there are also special preparations that activate the defenses and stimulate the acceleration of plant development. These drugs are called immunomodulators or stimulants.
Succinic acid is a good growth stimulant due to the activation of metabolic processes
Their use is not mandatory, but when diving and transplanting seedlings into the ground, it helps faster rooting and survival, as well as strengthening immunity.
Video: feeding pepper
Table: signs of deficiency and excess of certain macro- and micronutrients
If signs of deficiency of any element are detected, it is necessary to quickly correct the situation by feeding with appropriate fertilizers. A good and quick result is given by foliar dressing with complex mineral fertilizers.
Yellowing and further browning of the tips of the leaves of the pepper indicates a lack of potassium.
It is better not to allow an excess of nitrogen, but if this still happened, then you can try to wash it out of the soil by abundant watering.
Table: types of fertilizers for pepper
|Fertilizer||Structure||Dosage||Method of application|
|Cow dung (mullein)||Complex of elements||The use of these organic fertilizers is possible in the form of infusions. To do this, they are loaded into a barrel and filled with water. After 5-7 days, filter the infusion, dilute with water 1:10 (chicken manure infusion 1:20) and pour one liter of peppers under each bush|
|Freshly cut grass|
|Humus||3-5 kg / m 2||For digging when preparing the beds, and can also be used for mulching|
|Peat||Practically free of nutrients, it is used to improve the structure of the soil, as a substrate for seedlings, for mulching|
|Ammonium nitrate||Nitrogen 26-34%||20-30 g / m 2||Close up in the soil during digging or add during watering, previously dissolving in water|
|Urea (urea)||Nitrogen 46%||10-20 g / m 2|
|Calcium nitrate||Nitrogen 13%, Calcium 19%||20 g / m 2||Dissolve 20 g of nitrate in 10 l of water. Can be used for both root and foliar dressing|
|Superphosphate||Phosphorus 20%||30-40 g / m 2||Digging in autumn|
|Granular superphosphate||Phosphorus 30%||20-30 g / m 2|
|Double superphosphate||Phosphorus 45-50%||15–20 g / m 2|
|Potassium monophosphate||Potassium 28% phosphorus 23%||10-20 g / m 2||During the period of formation and growth of fruits, they are used for watering, previously dissolving in water|
|Boric acid||Boron||The drug is dissolved in boiling water at a rate of 1 g / l, cooled and used to spray flowering peppers|
|Kristalon yellow||Complex of essential microelements||0.2-0.3 g / m 2||Used in dissolved form for seedlings and for the first time after transplanting into the ground|
|Kemira suite||According to the instructions on the package|
|Yeast||Beneficial bacteria||In 1 liter of warm water, dissolve 1 g of sugar and dry yeast, let it brew for 1–2 hours, then water the seedlings or plants transplanted into the ground. Used to accelerate growth|
|Iodine||Iodine||Used for foliar feeding, after dissolving one drop of pharmaceutical iodine in 2 liters of water. As a result, the leaves become juicy and rich in color.|
|Tea||Potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron and some other trace elements||1/2 liter of dry leaves of cheap tea (you can also use dormant tea, but it is less effective) pour 3 liters of boiling water and leave for 5 days, after which it is used to fertilize seedlings|
|Wood ash||Potassium, etc.||3 liters of sifted ash is insisted in a bucket of water for 1-2 days, after which the pepper is filtered and poured at the rate of 1 liter per bush|
|Immunomodulators (growth stimulants)|
|Zircon||Caffeic acid||According to the instructions on the package|
|Epin||Plant hormone epibrassinolide|
|Narcissus||Succinic and glutamic acid|
|Potassium, sodium humates||Humic acids|
Photo Gallery: Organic Pepper FertilizersIn the store you can buy a concentrated mullein in bottles Granulated chicken manure is a valuable fertilizer An excellent organic fertilizer can be made from common weeds Humus can be used to mulch garden beds
Photo gallery: some popular mineral fertilizers for pepperAmmonium nitrate contains 26-34% nitrogen Urea contains 46% nitrogen Double superphosphate contains 45-50% phosphorus Potassium monophosphate is one of the best fertilizers for increasing yields Calcium nitrate promotes the development of strong pepper bushes Crystalon yellow contains most of the trace elements necessary for pepper Complex fertilizer Agricola is one of the most popular among gardeners Kemira Lux contains both macro- and microelements
To obtain a high yield of high-quality pepper fruits, it is necessary to ensure the presence of all the necessary elements in the soil in balanced quantities. At the same time, good results can be achieved by using both mineral fertilizers and organics in combination with folk remedies.