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When to plant watermelons for seedlings and what you need to know

When to plant watermelons for seedlings and what you need to know


A sweet juicy watermelon in any region of the country today is a reality. The technology of transplanting thermophilic berries allows you to harvest an excellent harvest even in the Moscow region, even in Siberia. You can work without greenhouses and special fertilizers, and grow a fruit of 8-10 kg. How can this be achieved? What are the subtleties or tricks, we will tell in our article.

Landing technology

This is the most common nutritional product that can break down salts without irritating human organs. In addition, it can eliminate toxins and cholesterol, as well as restore bowel function. Contains a huge amount of magnesium, vitamin B9 and iron, which helps to eliminate anemia and normalize the heart.

To grow watermelons in Siberia and the Moscow region in 2021, a special technology is needed. Working with open ground will not work, since the soil warms up late in these parts and the melons simply do not have time to ripen. Therefore, we plant ready-made seedlings in warm, prepared soil - watermelon bushes with several leaves. The earth warms up enough only in mid-May. The seedlings must be at least a month old. So the time for sowing seeds for seedlings is early April.

For seeds, prepare cups or pots measuring 10x10 cm, 3-5 seeds are sown 3-4 cm deep. To retain moisture, the crops are covered with oilcloth. Until the seeds germinate in the room, the temperature should be kept around 18-25 ° C.

When shoots appear, the pots are placed in a lighted place, preferably on a windowsill, and the air temperature is reduced by several degrees. Compliance with the temperature regime is the main trick when growing watermelon seedlings, at night it should not fall below 16 degrees, during the day it does not need more than 25 ° C.

If you are afraid that the seedlings will stretch, try to arrange additional lighting. Watering is also important: only with warm water, water infrequently under the root, and not on the leaves. When the seedlings are placed in pots, after 10 days they will need special stimulation with a mullein solution, water after feeding. It is equally important to harden the seedlings by taking them to the balcony and airing them. Planting watermelon bushes in the holes is carried out with a lump of earth, up to the level of cotyledon leaves. It is necessary to plant seedlings when it has a strong root system and 3-4 full-fledged leaves.

The place of the future beds with watermelons should be chosen on a sunny southern plain. If the land is virgin and other crops did not grow on it, you can do without fertilizers, but if your site has been cultivated for many years, for a good harvest, you will need to add pus (or compost) to the beds about 8-10 kg per 1 sq. m. The best time for composting will be autumn, before digging. In the spring, mineral fertilizers are added to the furrows and holes.

Seedlings should be planted at the rate of 2-3 bushes per 1-1.5 m, leave 1.5-2 meters between rows. Melons love space. With dense planting of seedlings, the fruits will be small. Since watermelons do not like any damage to the root system, it is necessary to provide for planting seeds in peat tablets or in containers with a large amount of soil, so that later all this land, together with a sprout, can be planted in a hole.

It is best to fill the hole with a mixture of sand, ash, compost or humus. To warm the soil, you can close the wells with glass or foil. When we plant seedlings in the holes, do not deeply deepen it, there is a possibility of decay. On summer cottages near trees, you do not need to plant bastans, the crowns of trees will shade them.

Watering should be organized twice a week, preferably with warm water (about 23-30 ° C). In the amount of 8-10 liters per 1 sq. For the entire period of growth and ripening of the fruits of watermelons in Siberia, you will have to water the beds five to six times. Watermelons are stopped 10-15 days before ripening. In order for melons in Siberia to grow as large as the Astrakhan ones, it does not interfere with pinching the main stem and side shoots of the plant, as well as small non-fruiting branches.

Choosing the right seeds

With a strong desire to grow watermelons at home, it is important to select varieties that are suitable for your region.

The main criterion for the selection of watermelon seeds is their ripening period. There are three types of seeds:

  1. early (early maturing). Indoor planting is generally recommended. They are unpretentious to climate conditions. Fruits appear by mid-July. The crust is rather thin, which determines their early ripening. The size of the fruit is not very large, weighing up to 3 kg, but no less tasty than other types of watermelons;

  2. mid-season. The most productive. Seeds are intended for planting in open warm ground. Fruits ripen by the end of July. The mass of watermelon berries is about 6 kg. They can be stored for 1.5 months and are well transported;

  3. late. Watermelon seeds are also planted in open ground, giving a good harvest. Fruit weight depends on the variety, it can reach up to 25 kg. They are perfectly stored until the new year, without losing their taste.

For planting watermelons in the Moscow region in 2021, you need to select special varieties. Traditional watermelons (Farmer F1, Delicatessen F1), which have a rounded-oval shape, with characteristic dark and light stripes, will grow well.

The most successful was the Beijing Joy F1 series. Watermelons are quite early and very sweet. On the beds in the Moscow region, they gain weight up to 4-6 kg. For example, dark green Coral has a very sweet taste and a thin crust, with no light stripes, matures in 77 days.

The Krestyanin variety, on the other hand, with a dense and thick bark, typical color and unusual elongated shape, is well stored, transported, does not burst or crack. An excellent result (up to 25-30 kg of fruits) gives an early ripe Honey giant, with elongated fruits and an unusual gray-green "marble" color on the bark.

A special place among the common varieties in the Moscow region is occupied by the Prince series: Prince Hamlet F1, Prince Arthur F1, Prince Charles F1, Prince Harry F1, Prince Albert F1. It is also a group of early ripening and rather sweet watermelons, unrivaled for growing in areas of unsustainable farming, even outdoors.

In the regions of Siberia, early early ripening varieties are suitable for 2021. For example, an unpretentious and cold-resistant variety "Ogonyok", which yields a harvest with a dark green, shiny crust and weighing about 2 kg. Very sweet fruit, juicy, with rich red pulp.

The Sibiryak variety is specially bred for Siberia, capable of withstanding temperature changes. Fruits can reach 5 kg in weight, have juicy and sweet pulp. "Ultra-early" and "Crimson Sweet" - convenient for processing, not weaving variety. Fruit weight reaches 4 kg. The pulp is red, juicy and sweet. The mid-season Astrakhansky variety is good for growing seedlings. Fruits grow up to 5-6 kg, round in shape, with dense sweet pulp.

Planting seedlings for 2021 in the ground should be carried out when she turns 20-25 days, in a greenhouse - 30-35 days. For the regions of Siberia and in the Moscow region, it is important to wait for such a time of the year when there is no danger of the last spring frosts, and the soil warms up to 14-15 ° С. These are not all recommendations for growing seedlings. As you know, you need to take into account the dates of the lunar sowing calendar for a year.

So, in 2021, watermelons are sown for seedlings in tunnel shelters and under film in early May. The most favorable days when you should plant bastans in open ground are May 16-20. In the southern districts of the Voronezh and Tambov regions, melon can be sown directly into the ground with watermelon seeds.

For northern latitudes in 2021 Siberia and in the Moscow region, watermelons should be planted only with seedlings, which must be sown in the first decade of April. When the plants are 25-30 days old from germination, we move the bushes to greenhouses, under film shelters or into open ground.

Video "We plant early watermelons"

Sowing preparation

The process of preparing for sowing seeds is very responsible. They need to be carefully sorted out, removing the defective ones. Good seeds need to be heated for two to three hours at a temperature of 50-60 degrees. After warming up, leave in a special solution of potassium permanganate for an hour, rinse with a 2% soda solution and dry. To harden the seeds of watermelon after these procedures, you need to leave at a temperature of zero degrees. Then your seedlings will grow faster and become more resistant to cold. Already before sowing, the seeds are soaked again overnight. In 2021, we plant seeds for seedlings on April 14-15 or April 19-21.

In the process of preparing the garden bed at home, you need to loosen the soil well, which means that in a week or 2 you need to select a bed with a width of at least 120 cm.Next, we prepare a manure cushion, leave it for a week to warm up, make holes with plain earth. Or we prepare a mixture of earth, fertilizer and sand. The roots of watermelon penetrate deep into the soil, are very developed - they must supply the whole plant and fruits with nutrients. In addition to organic fertilizers at home, you can prepare a mixture of mineral fertilizers. The recipe is as follows: for 1 sq. m about 30-40 g of ammonium nitrate, 30 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potash fertilizers. You do not need to be zealous with fertilizers, the plant should not be overgrown with leaves. And you don't need excess nitrates.

What else is important to know

Hybrids have such advantages - early maturity, increased resistance to diseases and different climatic conditions. In Siberian conditions, seeds for seedlings planted before April can outgrow, and will take root for a long time after planting. After soaking for a day, there is no need to wait for pecking, but to sow immediately, because the best conditions for germination are in the soil.

The soil mixture in an individual pot must be loose, breathableth, with the addition of humus and coarse sand. The seedling pot must have a capacity of at least 0.6-0.8 liters. Seedlings should not be fed concentratedth organic. It is not necessary to water the seedlings often, but abundantly, with warm water. The top layer of the soil should be loosened.

For the maximum amount of light in May, the seedlings are transferred to a greenhouse, greenhouse or to a glazed loggia. If at first after germination the seedlings are stretched out, you can gently bend the stem in a half ring and sprinkle it with soil. If you turn the watermelons under the sun once a week, they will ripen evenly. The article discusses the main points that you need to remember when growing watermelons from seedlings at home.

Video “Watermelons. Seedlings and agricultural technology "

How to grow watermelon seedlings? Do not know? Then the following video will help you solve this problem. Don't miss out on this visual guide from the experts.


What to plant in the garden: when and how to plant, a list of vegetables and berries

Any novice summer resident is interested in the question of what to plant in the garden. After all, there are a lot of crops grown in our country. In addition, it is not enough just to plant and grow all the vegetables and herbs in a row in the garden. It is necessary to take into account some of the nuances, for example, the correct "neighborhood" of plants. It is also important to know exactly where one or another crop should be planted on the site, because some plants need bright spots, while others need shade. If the gardener knows all the nuances of planting plants in summer cottages, then he will receive a beautiful plot (and the flowers will perfectly decorate his landscape design) and a good harvest.


What other seedlings are you planning to plant?

Fresh cucumber seeds that were harvested last or the year before last have a lot of barren flowers and the yield is always lower. Therefore, for sowing, take seeds that are 3-4 years old. And even older, because their germination capacity lasts 8-10 years.

Already processed seeds are sold in stores, so it makes no sense to soak them in potassium permanganate or some other preparations. They can be sown immediately dry, or they can be wrapped in a damp cloth and placed in a warm place. As soon as they bite, you can sow.

To increase the resistance of cucumbers to cold weather, the seeds can be hardened before sowing. In this case, the seeds are also wrapped in a damp cloth and sent to the refrigerator for 2 days. But here it is important that the tissue is wet all the time, and the seeds are not germinated. After hardening, the seeds are immediately embedded in the soil.

Cucumber seeds are sown to a depth of 1–2 cm in peat pots or plastic cups. And in no case in boxes, because when transplanting, the seedlings take longer and badly take root.

Before germination, the pots are kept at a temperature of 28 - 30 ° C. But as soon as the first sprouts appear, the seedlings are removed to a cooler place with a temperature of 18 - 20 ° C. Otherwise, the seedlings will stretch out.

The place for seedlings should be very bright, ideally a south or east window. On the western and northern windowsill of the cucumber, illumination with phytolamps will be required - 12 hours a day.

Top dressing of cucumber seedlings is not required - for a month before planting on the beds, young plants have enough nutrients that are in the soil.

Before planting seedlings in the ground, it is useful to harden it - for about a week you need to take it out into the open air. Water the day before disembarkation.


Diseases and how to deal with them

Amateur gardeners grow watermelon seedlings at home and achieve excellent results. For novice melon growers, we remind you that any violation of the technology of such cultivation can lead to undesirable consequences: the plants will often get sick, there will be a delay in their vegetation, the fruits, if they ripen, will be of significantly worse quality, and will lose useful properties.

During its development, watermelon seedlings are very susceptible to environmental conditions, below are some plant diseases during this period, the reasons for their occurrence and how to deal with them:

  1. The leaves of the watermelon seedlings turn yellow. This is not a disease yet, but a harbinger of its occurrence. The seedlings make it clear to the gardener that his roots no longer have enough space in the container, the air temperature is too low, the illumination is insufficient, there is a deficiency of nutrients or an excess of nitrogen in the soil. Action to be taken: Immediately eliminate all unfavorable conditions.
  2. The stems of watermelon seedlings stretch upward, the size of the leaves decreases. Reasons: lack of light, too hot in the room or watering with cold water. Measures: add light, achieve the desired temperature, water only with warm, settled water.
  3. The leaves of the watermelon seedlings dry at the edges. Reasons: again, a lack of illumination, an incorrect watering regime, it is excessively abundant or insufficient. Measures: establish regular watering, observe the norms (2-3 times a week, 0.5 liters per seedling).
  4. Seedlings of watermelons are sluggish, drooping. Reasons: there is a lot of nitrogen in the soil, the seedlings are freezing. Measures: do not use organic and mineral nitrogen-containing fertilizing, water the seedlings only with warm water not lower than + 25 ° С, the temperature in the room should be identical.
  5. White spots form on the leaves of watermelon seedlings. This plant is affected by powdery mildew, white rot, or spotting. These diseases are almost impossible to cure, the plant will have to be destroyed. Seedling sprouts that have not become infected with a fungus should be treated with antifungal drugs for prevention.
  6. The stems at the base of the watermelon seedlings have turned black and thinned. Reason: the development of the disease "black leg" or root rot, which occur due to frequent and unnecessarily abundant watering. Measures: the seedlings are destroyed, then the seeds of watermelons are treated in special chemical solutions before sowing.


What to grow in the garden

So we come to the moment when the beds are planned out, it's time to decide what to plant. We draw up the wishes of family members and look at the list:

  • Tomatoes
  • Eggplant
  • Bulgarian pepper and hot
  • Cucumbers for canning and for salad
  • Beet
  • Carrot
  • Onions for the winter and for canning
  • White cabbage early, medium, late,
  • Cauliflower
  • Kohlrabi
  • Radish,
  • Turnip
  • Daikon
  • Garlic
  • Zucchini
  • Squash
  • Pumpkin
  • Beans
  • Leaf salad
  • Head salad
  • Dill
  • Parsley
  • Watermelon
  • Peas
  • Corn
  • Early potatoes
  • Strawberry
  • Strawberry
  • Raspberries

Yes, the list came out long ... What to do? But now we need to cross out the unnecessary. To begin with, let's make a reservation that we grow not for sale, but for ourselves. A commercial vegetable garden is a completely different article.

Therefore, if the territory of the garden and the planned beds is clearly not enough for the desired list, you need to cross out the excess on the basis of the expediency and profitability of cultivation.

For example, potatoes - to provide a family with potatoes for the winter, you need not a vegetable garden, but a separate potato field, a plot. But it is quite possible to grow early potatoes, at a time when they are extremely expensive in stores, and in the basement they are already soft and sprouted. In this case, you only need to plant a dozen bushes in order to provide a family of 3-4 people with potatoes for a month (conditionally).

Cross out the entire list of desired vegetables and berries according to the principle that is more convenient for you personally:

  • which are the hardest to grow
  • which are the cheapest in the market or in a store (easier to buy)
  • that take longer than you can afford
  • which are more difficult to provide with the required temperature, light and water
  • which are incompatible with the rest of the cultures you really need

The yield of certain garden crops is very different, some occupy a large area, but give a small harvest, for example, peas. Its yield is highly dependent on the variety, it takes up a lot of space, and by and large, not everyone succeeds in good peas.

Or corn - occupies a decent area, the yield does not justify it if the site is small. In addition, few people like corn from vegetables - it does not tolerate grapes and beets.

But radish is an undemanding culture and very profitable. Early vegetables are always very expensive, but the most desirable, and such as radishes, combined with many vegetables and berries, are very justified. The same applies to lettuce, basil. Dill may not be grown on purpose at all - it perfectly fills areas of the garden with self-seeding, where it is convenient for it.

If you have a small child prone to allergies or for any reason has to make do with a diet, you may need to give up certain crops, for example, spices, legumes (except green manure), daikon and allergenic berries, but set aside a sunny bed for watermelons , melons or more beds plant cauliflower.

Or take a vegetable such as eggplant - it's not difficult to grow it, find a place in the garden too, and it's more profitable to grow than to buy - eggplant prices are high all year round, and the vegetable goes into many snacks and pickles.

And yet, climatic conditions remain the main criterion for determining what to plant in the country, because it is simply not possible to make a plant that requires a lot of light to bear fruit in the shade. With all your might, you cannot grow watermelons if the area is not sunny and warm.


What seedlings are planted in February

So, in February, it is quite possible to plant vegetable crops such as tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, onions, leeks, celery, basil on seedlings, as well as potatoes when grown by seeds.

Seedling tomatoes

Seeds of tomatoes for seedlings can be sown in February. Of course, there is no need to rush, the most favorable period for this is the last ten days of February, that is, from the 18th. Now it would be most correct to start growing the late tomato cultivars, in which the time period from seedling to harvesting the first harvest is at least 95 days. Usually these are tall cultivars.

Important.
Such young plants will be ready for planting in a permanent place in about 60 days from the moment of germination, and not from the moment of sowing the seeds. This is important to remember, as this crop takes about a week from sowing seeds to germination.

Therefore, if you plan to plant tomatoes in a garden in May (this is a greenhouse or open ground in the South), then the seeds should be sown closer to the end of February. Do not forget to install additional lighting lamps and use high-quality soil.

Planting pepper seedlings in February 2021

Pepper seeds are sown at approximately the same time as tomato seeds - towards the end of February, starting from about the 18th.

Pepper seedlings grow a little faster than tomato seedlings. If tomatoes need about 60 days to fully develop, then peppers - 7-8 days less.

Keep in mind that pepper seeds germinate more slowly than tomato seeds. The latter usually form seedlings after a week, but the former can sprout after 11 and even 13 days when sown dry. Recommendation. To accelerate the germination of seeds, it is necessary to soak them until they swell in usually water (preferably thawed) or, which is much more effective, soak them in a solution of any growth stimulant, for example, Epin.

After the seeds have swollen, they must be placed on a dry cloth for a couple of hours and can be sown in the ground - this way they will germinate faster. This vegetable does not like picks, it is important to remember.

Eggplants for seedlings

Eggplant seeds can be sown in mid-February. A little earlier you can sow late varieties and a little later - medium ones, this is the optimal time for sowing, which the plant requires.

Considering that eggplants are quite sensitive to damage to the root system, as well as seedlings of peppers, we would advise sowing seeds and peppers and eggplants immediately in separate containers. Then there will be no need to waste time and energy on a pick.

If tomatoes are not at all afraid of it and to some extent they even need a pick, then peppers and eggplants will feel better if their root system is not injured. And then, from separate containers, immediately plant them in open ground, well, or in a greenhouse, depending on where you are going to grow them later.

The containers can be single cups, small seedling pots or cassettes with individual cells.

Advice.
You should not sow one seed at a time in one container, it is better to sow two at a time, and when shoots appear, choose a weaker sprout and plant it in a separate container or simply remove it.

Onion

Sowing in February for onion seedlings is possible in open ground or in a greenhouse. The optimal time is the last days of February, and the best varieties for this are Ellan and Delight, although you can try to sow other cultivars. The main thing is to know that they are able to give a turnip in one season, which is always indicated on the package with seeds.

Do not forget that onion seeds will germinate unevenly and give weak sprouts, but they will get stronger in 60-75 days, which are necessary for the full development of the onion.

The bow will be ready for planting in open ground as soon as the temperature rises and settles at around 9-11 degrees above zero. The most interesting thing: onions, already planted in open ground, can tolerate frosts 2-3 degrees below zero.

Leek

The principle of growing leeks is the same as the principle of growing onions. The growing season of leeks is quite long, no one can call this crop a fast-growing one.

With all this in mind, leek seeds can be sown from around February 15th. For sowing, it is best to use small seedling boxes filled with nutrient soil.

Seeds do not sprout together, they can sprout in sections, but if you are sure of the quality of the seeds, then you need to wait for friendly shoots. If some of the seeds did not sprout, which happens quite often, then the seeds can be sown or sown in separate containers.

Note.
Like any seedlings, leeks also need supplemental lighting, it is better to use phytolamps for this.

Celery seedlings

Usually, petiole and root celery cultivars are grown through seedlings, the sowing time is the same as for onions (about mid-February).

Seeds sprout slowly, and seedlings also grow slowly, usually 60 days after the emergence of seedlings, the seedlings can be transplanted to a permanent place - in a greenhouse or open ground.

Do not forget that seeds germinate rather slowly: from the time of sowing to the time of germination, it can take up to 20 days. Therefore, it is advisable to pre-soak the seeds in a solution of a growth stimulant, for example, Epin. If you are not sure about the seeds, then you can soak them for 15 minutes in a pink solution of potassium permanganate.

Seeds are best sown in separate containers. In each, you need to place a couple of seeds, in the future you need to leave one of the most powerful sprout, and remove or transplant the other. Seedlings grown in separate containers will not require picking and will quickly take root in a new place.

Basil seedlings

Basil can also be grown through seedlings, but you should be aware that basil seeds are quite tough and must be soaked in water before sowing.

From about February 10, you can sow seeds for the sake of growing seedlings of this crop. It should take at least 45 days for growth and development before transplanting to a permanent place.

You should also be careful about planting in open ground. It should be borne in mind that basil is a thermophilic plant and at the slightest frost it will die, therefore it is necessary to provide for a greenhouse or grow basil in protected soil.

Seedling potatoes

If you want to update the potato planting material, then it must be grown from seeds, and in order to have time to get the harvest, you must first grow the seedlings.

  • Usually, seeds are sown and seedlings of rare elite varieties of potatoes are grown.
  • Do not forget that this season you will not be able to harvest exactly marketable potatoes, these will be small tubers suitable for planting them next season and getting a full harvest of potatoes.
  • Potato seeds, as a rule, germinate very well, they can be sown without additional processing in the nutrient soil. If you do not want to deal with picking, then you can immediately sow in separate containers.
  • As a rule, after 60–70 days, the seedlings will be ready for planting in a permanent place.


Auspicious days for planting watermelons in May-June 2020

Thanks to the breeding of early ripening varieties, even in the middle lane, this melon crop is increasingly sown in open ground. But if you want to harvest 2-3 weeks earlier, sow seeds for seedlings.

When to plant watermelons for seedlings in 2020 according to the lunar sowing calendar?

The seeds of the watermelon are quite hard, so it is advisable to soften the upper shell slightly by dipping the seeds for 15 minutes in warm water, and then holding them in a damp cloth until sprouts appear.

  • Some gardeners practice hardening, for which they keep the seeds in the refrigerator for 12 hours before planting, and then sow them in separate pots to a depth of 2-3 cm.
  • After sowing, the pots are covered with foil and placed on a sunny windowsill.
  • The grown seedlings are planted in the greenhouse in late April - early May, and in open ground - in the second half of May.

Elements - patrons

No matter how funny it sounds, each type of vegetables, fruits, berries has astrological elements - patrons. For watermelons, this is water and air. In addition, melons are under the great influence of the moon. For this reason, it is recommended to plant the fruit at a time when it is most active. If the fruits are planted at this time, the crop will be distinguished by impeccable taste, appetizing appearance.

At the same time, experts recommend paying attention to the variety of culture. So, if the variety used gives red and juicy fruits, it needs the protection of 3 planets at the same time: the Moon, Mars and the Sun. If the variety is characterized by "sugar" and red pulp, it needs the presence of three elements: water, fire, air. But the popular new types of watermelons with yellowish fruits directly depend only on the Moon.

Recommended time for boarding

As a rule, all fruiting crops are recommended to be planted on the growing moon, but in the case of watermelons, the situation is different. This melon crop is recommended to be planted when the moon completes its growth. Ideally, planting operations will be carried out at the time of the full moon or in the second half of the lunar cycle. The future harvest will definitely be juicy, sweet, numerous, large.

You should forget about the standard landing rules when planting watermelons on the growing moon. If you neglect this recommendation, the fruits are small, hollow inside.

Planting watermelons for seedlings in 2020 according to the lunar sowing calendar

It all depends on the phases of the moon, which can be found out using a special calendar. In addition, one should not forget about the elements. It is very good if seedlings are obtained when the Moon is in Pisces, Aries, Sagittarius. You can also land when the Moon is in Cancer, Libra, Virgo. It is traditionally believed that these zodiac signs contribute to the cultivation of beautiful, juicy, mouth-watering fruits. To obtain the largest possible yield, the preparation of seedlings should be done in the Gemini phase.

Auspicious days for planting watermelons in 2020:
  • May - 5-11 (seedlings can be planted in open ground).
  • June - 6, 11, 12 (you can plant different varieties of watermelons).
Bad days in 2020:

It is strongly not recommended to carry out any agrotechnical work on growing watermelons at the stage when the Moon is under the influence of Aquarius or Scorpio. The fruits will not be juicy, unsweetened, with a high water content.


Watch the video: Watermelon time lapse - 24 days - 4k