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Zantedeschia

Zantedeschia


Zantedeschia or calla is a plant that came to us from southern Africa, belongs to the aroid family. In nature, it lives in swamps. In cloudless weather, the plant begins to smell like pineapple. The plant is perennial, herbaceous, with a rhizome in the form of a tuber.

In the 19th century, a botanist from Italy named Zantedeschi discovered this plant, as a result of which one of its names is in his honor. To date, 6 types of zantedeschia have been discovered: white-spotted, Ethiopian, Zantedeschia Elliot, Remania and others. They grow mainly in southern Africa, in the subtropics. They are also herbaceous, do not have a stem, their root is thickened.

Zantedeskia care at home

Location and lighting

Zantedeschia is very fond of light, so it is worth keeping it in the most lighted room, but in no case put it in a draft. Since there is not enough light in winter, and calla is gradually getting used to such an amount of it, in spring you do not need to leave it on the window all day at once so that there are no problems.

Temperature

Zantedeschia is a thermophilic plant, therefore it is necessary to maintain the temperature in the room above +18 degrees. The most comfortable temperature for this plant is about + 22-23 degrees. In winter, the temperature can be reduced by almost half, to +12 degrees.

Watering

First of all, it is necessary to clarify that calla lilies should not be flooded in winter, but from spring to autumn, on the contrary, it requires more abundant watering. The water should not be chlorinated and cold. In winter, watering does not need to be reduced, it should be about the same as in summer.

Air humidity

Calla, grown in the subtropics, prefers high air humidity, close to 85%. The plant must be sprayed with a spray bottle and wiped off the leaves. The water pan under the pot should be wide.

Top dressing and fertilizers

In the period from February to June, calla lilies need to be fertilized 2 times a month with a mixture for plants flowering in the room. If you need the plant to bloom faster, choose fertilizers containing phosphorus, while nitrogen fertilizers have a beneficial effect on growth.

Transfer

A pot for this plant must be selected spacious enough and filled with a nutritious mixture of turf, humus, leaf and peat lands and sand in a ratio of 2: 1: 1: 1: 1, respectively.

Calla lilies need to be transplanted in June-July, when it ends its flowering period. Watering needs to be reduced, stop fertilizing it, and when the leaves begin to fall off, transplant it into new soil.

Pruning

With the onset of the second half of July, zantedeschia requires pruning of new grown offspring, because if they are not pruned, then the growth and flowering of the plant will decrease.

Dormant period

When the plant sheds its last flowers, the frequency of watering should be drastically reduced. When the flowers completely fall off, stop it altogether. In the second half of July, you need to get the plant out of the pot, shake it out, and get rid of the calla itself from the leaves by cutting them off.

After such procedures, the zantedeschia can be planted again in the pot, and the pot can be put on the windowsill again, but at the same time maintain a fairly low temperature - up to +10 degrees. At first, watering is required rather scanty, but after half a month it can be increased to abundant. In the middle of autumn, you need to slightly increase the temperature, up to about +15 degrees.

Flowering period

When zantedeschia is two years old, it is able to bloom. With its flowering, it will delight your eye all winter, starting in November. By changing the temperature, you can clearly predict the moment when the plant will bloom. In theory, it can bloom throughout the year, but for calla lilies it will be better if you adhere to the "regime" when it blooms in winter.

Within 2-4 years, calla lilies can bloom excellently, after which offspring grow on it, which must be regularly cut and transplanted into the renewed plant.

At the end of the flowering period, the plant may begin to turn yellow, but the roots will continue to grow despite this.

Reproduction of zantedeschia

When the dormant period ends, the zantedeschia begins to release side shoots, which can be pinched off or cut off and planted in another pot. The soil mixture is the same as for an adult plant, in the same ratio, but without humus. Only a transplanted young plant requires abundant watering, after a few days you can apply a 50% nutrient solution, even later - a concentrated 100% solution.

Diseases and pests

Of the pests in calla lilies, spider mites can be noted, which appear at temperatures from +18 degrees and make the leaves begin to turn yellow. To avoid such a misfortune, you need to regularly spray the leaves.


Calla. Zantedechia — Zantedeschia

Genus Zantedeschia unites 8 species of herbaceous plants of the aroid family, naturally growing in swampy meadows in tropical South Africa. It is a well-known plant that, unfortunately, is rarely seen on windowsills. More often grown indoors, mainly as a cut plant, less often as a pot plant for interior decoration. In different reference books, calla is called differently: zantedeschia, zantedeschia, tsantedeschia, tsantedeschia.

Zantedechia (Calla) - a perennial herb with a tuberous rhizome. The leaves are large, arrow-shaped, on long petioles, juicy-green, shiny, and in some varieties the leaf blades are decorated with silvery-white translucent spots. It has a single inflorescence, typical for all aroids, in the form of a creamy yellow ear, surrounded by a large funnel-shaped blanket, on a long peduncle. The color of the bedspread is varied: white, yellow, pink. Interspecific hybrids also have a creamy blanket, and pink shades are brought to carmine and lilac by the efforts of breeders. In all varieties, without exception, the cover becomes green after pollination and the original color disappears. The flowering period of calla lilies is short - 1-1.5 months. Cut in a state of half-open buds, in a cut it costs two weeks.

Most often in flower shops you can find Zantedechia (Calla) Ethiopian (Zantedeschia aethiopica)despite its name "Ethiopian" it is native to the marshy and humid areas of South Africa. The underground part of the plant is a rhizome. The leaves are green, large, cordate, on long petioles. Peduncle height - 40-150 cm, depending on the variety. Calla inflorescence is a small ear surrounded by a large white blanket, which is mistaken for the original snow-white flower. The blanket is first rolled into a tube and then folded back. In sunny weather, calla flowers have a faint pineapple scent. Blooms from November to April, flowering duration over a month.


Zantedechia (Calla) Ethiopian

Zantedeschia aethiopica Flower of Zantedechia (Calla lily)

In April, flowering begins to fade and stops completely in May. In May, watering is reduced to once every 7-10 days. After flowering, Zantedechia Ethiopia needs 2 months of rest in the fresh air without watering and feeding. During this period, calla lilies do not bloom and grow less intensively, old leaves dry out, although new offspring appear. The plant is periodically cleaned of old leaves. In August, the plant is carefully removed from the pot, dry leaves, as well as weak offspring are removed, leaving 2-3 strong ones and planted in a very nutritious substrate. The soil is composed of sod land, peat, humus with the addition of sand (1: 1: 1: 0.5). The landing should be shallow so that the root collar is covered. The plant is brought into the house, watered moderately until the end of summer.

In the fall, watering is increased and the substrate is kept constantly moist. Since calla is a marsh plant, it requires high air humidity, for this it is necessary to spray the plant daily, otherwise the tips of the leaves dry out and give the plant an untidy appearance, flowering may be delayed.

Every two weeks, fertilizers are added to the water for irrigation and they are fed until the end of the flowering period. At the beginning of the season, zantedechia requires mainly nitrogen fertilizers, and during flowering, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers.

The flowering period of zantedechia is short - about a month. One shoot gives, as a rule, a single peduncle. At this time, the plant prefers to be in a well-lit place with a moderate temperature of 16-20 ° C.

If there are no plans to grow calla lilies from seeds, it is necessary to cut off the inflorescences as soon as the cover turns green. Seed formation is detrimental to the plant.

Also well known are "colored" calla lilies:

Zantedechia elliot (Zantedeschia elliottiana) - tuberous plant. Leaves are broad-hearted, large, green, with white spots. Cover 10-15 cm long, yellow-green outside, yellow inside. The flowers are yellow.

Zantedechia rehmannii - a tuberous plant with a pinkish bracts.


Zantedechia Elliot

Zantedechia Remann

"Colored" calla lilies are mainly tuberous plants, the flowering period is summer. Although zantedechia is sold in flower pots, tubers are easier and cheaper to purchase. The tuber must be elastic and always with live apical buds, with a light yellowish and not wrinkled skin in the upper part. Dried wrinkled tubers with buds without signs of living tissue and gray skin over the entire surface should not be purchased.

The tubers can be kept in the refrigerator in the vegetable compartment for a while until planting. In March (but not later than April), you need to interrupt their dormancy and plant them in a nutritious substrate. The soil for planting consists of turf, peat, humus with the addition of sand (1: 1: 1: 0.5). Calla lilies do not tolerate cramped dishes. If the pot is small, the plant may not bloom.

The tuber should be planted to a depth of 7-10 cm, a shallower planting will lead to lodging of the leaves. Moisten the substrate slightly, and watered sparingly until the first leaves appear. In the future, the care is the same as that of the Ethiopian Zantedechia.

After flowering, watering is sharply reduced. The leaves dry out on their own. They dig out the tuber, clean it of old dry leaves and put it for storage in the refrigerator in the vegetable compartment, sprinkle with dry sand or dry peat. Regularly inspect it during storage, since the main danger is overdrying. If the tuber begins to lose water and shrivels, this means that you dug it out too early, and the protective skin did not have time to form. Only early planting of such a tuber can help. Every year, the substrate for zantedechia is replaced with a fresh one, since it takes out a lot of nutrients from it.

Calla lilies are propagated by seeds, offspring (rhizome species) and by dividing the tuber (tuberous species). Seed propagation is used only for breeding purposes.

In May, the offspring are carefully separated from the calla lilies growing in the soil of the greenhouse or in a pot. The offspring should have one or two roots. Planted in 9-11 cm pots. After planting, the plants are watered abundantly and sprayed with water for a week, 2-3 times a day. The planted offspring can be kept on greenhouse racks, in shaded greenhouses or in open ground beds until August. During this time, calla lilies will root well and give growth. In August, they are planted in the soil of the greenhouse (when grown for cutting) or transferred into 15-18 cm pots.

Once every 2-3 years, it is necessary to divide the tubers before planting. This is a mandatory technique that is needed not only for plant propagation, but also so that the calla lilies bloom every year, otherwise too many small shoots are formed that do not form inflorescences. It is best to gently break the tubers than to cut with a knife, making sure that there is at least one bud on each part. Fresh scraps are sprinkled with charcoal, left to dry for 2-3 days and only after that they are planted. At first, they try not to overmoisten the substrate and only with the appearance of shoots are watered as usual. With proper care, flowering occurs within a year.

If the air is too dry, zantedechia (calla) can be affected by spider mites, cobwebs appear on the stems, the leaves become lethargic and dry out. Also dangerous are thrips, whiteflies and aphids, which settle in whole colonies. Affected leaves become discolored, deformed and the plant disappears. The plant should be inspected regularly. The detected pests are removed with a cotton swab dipped in soapy water. In case of severe damage, the plant is sprayed with insecticides: a 0.15% solution of actellik or karbofos (1-2 ml per liter of water).

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Features of the main types

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Reproduction and transplantation

For Elliot's calla, a transplant is required only when the plant has grown too much and needs to be thinned out.

Calla reproduces well in a vegetative way, with the help of offspring, which are easily separated with a knife. The composition of the soil mixture for growing calla lilies is recommended as follows: compost, greenhouse soil, sod land, peat and sand, in a ratio of 2: 2: 2: 1: 1.

When propagating tubers, a substrate of leafy, soddy soil and sand, mixed in a ratio of 2: 4: 1, is recommended. The tubers are planted in a fresh, specially prepared substrate in March, after which the container with calla lilies is installed in a well-lit place in a house or apartment. Freshly planted tubers need regular watering.

By the way, with the greenhouse method of cultivation in the fall, the tubers are taken out of the soil, shaken off and stored in a cool place.


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