The spectacular calceolaria plant is grown indoors as a flowering and decorative deciduous plant. This culture can be both a shrub and a herbaceous plant, while it is related to the Norichnikovye family. Calceolaria is native to South America, where it grows in humid and warm climates. Depending on the region and variety, calceolaria is cultivated as an annual or perennial.
In nature, the bush reaches a height of about 0.6 m. Ornamental varieties, cultivated at home, are rather stunted (from 20 to 30 centimeters). This plant has original flowers that look like shoes. From Latin the name of calceolaria is translated as “like a shoe”.
During flowering, a large number of bright flowers appear on the bush, which are highly decorative. But before decorating your home with this plant, you need to consider that it is quite demanding in terms of care and growing conditions. Therefore, it is not recommended to grow it for beginners.
Calceolaria is fast growing. In just one season, the young plant reaches the size of an adult bush. Flowering lasts from the last spring to the first autumn weeks. This plant belongs to perennials.
Brief description of cultivation
- Temperature... Best of all, indoor calceolaria feels cool.
- Air humidity... It needs high air humidity, while it is impossible to spray the bush itself from a spray bottle.
- Illumination... Grows best in bright sunlight. It is not allowed to expose the bush to direct sunlight for a long time.
- Watering... This procedure is carried out regularly and in moderation. The plant is harmed by both overdrying of the earthy coma and stagnation of moisture in the substrate.
- Soil mixture... It should be loose, nutritious, well-drained and neutral.
- Fertilizer... Top dressing is carried out in the spring-summer period with a frequency of 1 time in 1.5 weeks, for this, a mineral complex fertilizer is used.
- Transfer... Transplant a recently purchased flower if the pot does not fit its size. Also, a transplant is needed for strengthened seedlings.
- Reproduction... Cuttings and seed.
- Care features... In culture, it is grown indoors and outdoors, as a perennial or annual.
Caring for calceolaria at home
Caring for calceolaria at home
Typically, homemade calceolaria blooms in May and fades in September. However, the beginning and duration of flowering largely depends on the time of sowing the seed, and also on the conditions of detention. If the plant is completely healthy and in a cool place, then it looks very impressive, and its flowers have a delicate pleasant smell. Different species differ from each other in color and shape of flowers. However, in most species, the flower has a similar structure: the two-lipped corolla is decorated with two or three stamens, which are located in a four-membered calyx.
The lower lip is puffy and large, and the upper lip is small, spherical. Outwardly, the shape of the flower is very similar to an unusual shoe or an open handbag. The height of the peduncle and the number of flowers in the inflorescence depend on the species and variety. One bush can form 30-50 flowers. After pollination, seed pods are formed, within which there are many very small seeds.
Landing after purchase
If you decide to grow the purchased calceolaria bush indoors for one season, then the plant will need only one transplant. It is recommended to carry out this procedure immediately after buying a flower. The transplant will allow you to choose the most suitable pot volume, as well as replace the substrate with a more nutritious one.
This culture is distinguished by high demands on the temperature regime at home. In order for the bush to bloom luxuriantly and for a long time, it should be kept cool throughout the year. However, this condition is not feasible for every grower. Optimal temperature regime for calceolaria:
- in the daytime - no warmer than 20 degrees;
- at night - no warmer than 15 degrees.
The minimum temperature for this plant is 16 degrees during the day and 10 degrees at night. If the room is too warm, it will lead to the buds flying around and the bush will fade very quickly.
When grown in indoor conditions, such a plant requires increased air humidity. In order to maintain optimal humidity levels, you can use a humidifier or spray bottle. Remember that you can only humidify the air around the bush. It is impossible to spray the plant itself with water, because of this, the corollas of the flowers are injured.
It is recommended to shade calceolaria from the scorching direct rays of the sun, otherwise burns may appear on the foliage, and the inflorescences wilt very quickly because of this. However, in order for the bush to develop and grow within the norm, it must be provided with bright diffused lighting and a long daylight hours. During the growing season, the bush can be rearranged to a new location with more suitable lighting. In order for it to bloom in autumn and winter, it needs artificial lighting.
Make sure that the potting soil is moderately moist, but do not allow water to stagnate in it. It is the soil mixture that is moistened, while making sure that water does not get on the plant. Bottom watering can be used, but remember to pour excess liquid from the pan.
In order to ensure increased air humidity, it is recommended to put expanded clay, sphagnum or peat pillow moistened in advance in the pallet. The selected material is placed in a deep pallet, and a container with a flower is placed on top.
Calceolaria is poured with well-settled or filtered water, the temperature of which should be close to room temperature.
The size of the pot is chosen depending on the stage of growing the flower:
- For sowing seeds, use low trays or containers. They are covered with glass or foil on top to create a greenhouse effect, which makes it possible to speed up the appearance of seedlings.
- For picking up the strengthened seedlings, use small cups or pots, reaching about 70 mm in diameter.
- After the seedlings are 1 month old, they are transplanted into permanent pots, the volume of which should be equal to 0.8-1.2 liters.
For planting an adult calceolaria, you can use plastic or ceramic pots. It is important that there are drainage holes at the bottom of the container.
For sowing seed, a well-drained, loose and light substrate is used. For example, you can use a commercial potting mix sold at a specialist store. You can also make it yourself by combining sand and bedding peat in a ratio of 1: 7. Do not forget to mix 1 kilogram of the finished substrate with 15–20 grams of chalk, wood ash or dolomite flour. It is also recommended to add a little crushed activated carbon.
An adult bush is recommended to be planted in a soil mixture consisting of peat, leaf humus and sod soil, which are taken in equal shares. In order for the substrate to pass air better, a little sand is added to it.
Remember that if you prepared the substrate with your own hands, then it must be disinfected. For this, a solution of potassium manganese is used, or the substrate is placed in an oven, where it is calcined at a temperature of 90 to 100 degrees.
Fertilizer is applied to the soil mixture together with watering at a frequency of 1 time per 1.5–2 weeks. For calceolaria, a flowering plant mineral complex is best (follow the instructions on the package). After transplanting the bush, no fertilizer is applied to the substrate for 15 days.
So that calceolaria is always neat and beautiful, it is grown for one year, after which the old bush is thrown away, replacing it with a younger one. As a rule, only a recently purchased bush is transplanted. They also transplant seedlings or rooted cuttings into separate pots.
The transplant is carried out very carefully, while trying to keep the earthen lump intact. It is recommended to replant young plants at the beginning of spring, and older ones - in autumn, when they finish blooming.
Calceolaria. Transplant result.
When calceolaria fades, the bush is completely cut off, then it is removed for 6-8 weeks in a shaded place where it is always cool. Watering the plant at this time is very scarce and rare. However, do not overdry the substrate, as this may cause the bush to die. When the young growth appears, the container with the flower is placed in its permanent place. The second time the bush blooms earlier than the first, however, such a plant has a faster elongation of the stems, and in a relatively short time it loses its attractive appearance.
Growing from seeds
Growing indoor calceolaria from seeds is a rather complicated process. It usually takes 8 to 9 months. Grow a flower through seedlings.
Fill the box with soil mixture and level its surface well, then moisten it with a spray bottle. Spread the seed evenly over the surface of the substrate, then lightly press down on it. You do not need to cover the seeds from above with earth. Cover the crops with a moistened napkin on top, and cover the container with glass or film. The optimum air temperature for the appearance of seedlings is about 20 degrees, and the crops also need high humidity. Do not forget to ventilate them in a timely manner and remove condensation from the surface of the shelter.
Before transplanting seedlings into a permanent pot, they are subjected to picking at least two times. As a rule, planting in a permanent pot is carried out 6-8 weeks after the last pick.
The time of sowing the seeds depends on when the bushes will bloom. If sowing is carried out in the last days of June, then young bushes will bloom at the beginning of the spring. If you sow seeds in the last days of winter, then the first flowering can be seen only in autumn.
"Little shoes" decorate your garden. Growing calceolaria: from sowing seeds to flowering
Calceolaria is propagated by cuttings in the first spring or last summer weeks. Rooting cuttings is a rather complicated process, in this regard, it is recommended to use agents that stimulate flower growth.
The planting of the cuttings is carried out in a fertile soil mixture. He needs high humidity, so he must be covered with a cut plastic bottle or glass jar on top. The roots will grow back in about a couple of months. During the rooting period, the segments need warmth (20 to 25 degrees), high humidity and diffused bright light. After the cutting begins to actively grow, the shelter must be removed. In order for calceolaria to be thicker and more effective, several cuttings are planted in one pot.
If you do not provide home calceolaria with optimal conditions for growth, then it can not only lose its decorative effect, but also die. Most often they make mistakes such as:
- Dry air in the room and excessive heat (above 18-20 degrees)... Because of this, the buds begin to fly around, and early aging of the bush is also observed.
- Poor lighting... This results in poor flowering.
- Excessive watering with cool content and regular spraying of the bush. This is a favorable environment for the appearance of rot.
- Pests... The most dangerous for the plant are spider mites, aphids and whiteflies.
Types of calceolaria with photos and names
There are more than 300 types of calceolaria. They differ from each other in structure, size and growth of the bush, and also in color and shape of flowers, foliage and inflorescences. However, not all species are widespread. At the same time, only a small part of these species are grown in room culture. Below will be described those species that are most popular with flower growers.
Hybrid calceolaria (Calceolaria herbeohybrida)
This species has many varieties that have the same shape of flowers, but they differ in color and various blotches of a different color: streaks, strokes or blots. The varieties also differ in the size of the peduncles and inflorescences, however, any of these plants has a high decorative effect and spectacular flowers of a rich color, which can be very different. The plant reaches a height of 15 to 40 centimeters, it is decorated with greenish leaf plates. This species and its varieties are the most popular in indoor culture. The best varieties: Dundee, Star Rain, Tiger, Aida, Dervish.
The stems of the species are highly branched. They are decorated with small inflorescences, the flowers are rather large (about 50 mm). The plant reaches a height of about half a meter. Corollas, outwardly similar to lanterns, have a rich yellow color.
Calceolaria purpurea (Calceolaria purpurea Graham)
This species differs from the others in that the lower lip of the flowers is strongly elongated, and they are also painted in a lilac-red or purple hue. The seamy surface of the serrated leaf plates has a pale lilac hue.
Long erect shoots (from 0.2 to 0.5 m) are decorated with small wrinkled leaves and many dense inflorescences, consisting of small corrugated flowers (10-25 mm in diameter). Outwardly, the inflorescences resemble rich yellow clouds. The flowers are decorated with brown dots. Varieties: Goldbouquet, Sunset.
Soft shoots reach a height of about 0.6 m, their surface is covered with small hairs. The shape of the wavy pubescent leaf plates is ovoid. In the upper part of the bush, they are practically sessile, and at the roots - long-petiolized. The inflorescences are scutellum-shaped and consist of large yellow flowers with brownish-red specks. The shape of the corolla resembles a shoe, the upper lip is saccular.
Cobweb calceolaria (Calceolaria arachnoidea)
The bush is undersized (no higher than 0.3 m). The flowers are deep purple in color. The species is extremely rare.
Calceolaria. Growing by March 8.
Description of the plant
Marigolds (lat.Tagetes) as a botanical genus were described in 1753 by Charles Linnaeus himself. Tagetes is an annual plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. In the wild, it covers the continents of America in the zone of tropical and warm temperate climates. These flowers from the Americas were in demand long before they were grown in our gardens - they were considered sacred by the Aztecs. The source of the admiration of the ancient society was primarily their longevity.
Flowers have other names:
- in the Latin manner - tagetis
- English name - "Marigold" - translated as Mary's gold
- Ukrainian name - Chernobryvtsy
- the Belarusian name is aksamitki.
The Aztecs actively cultivated marigolds, using them for rituals and healing - healed hiccups and lightning strikes! The Spaniards, who colonized South America, immediately became interested in flowers - this is how their seeds got to Europe in the 16th century, and then to North Africa and Asia.
Today, wild specimens commonly cover the banks of ponds and rivers, wetlands, marshes, and deciduous forests. In Europe, marigolds are grown in gardens mainly as annuals, although in warmer climates they grow as perennials. More than 50 confirmed marigold species have now been found, ranging in color from cream to orange and red, and in height. The lowest varieties reach a height of several centimeters, the highest - more than 2 meters!
In our climatic conditions, marigolds bloom in June - July and delight with bright flowers until October, and sometimes until November and December frosts.
- Small-flowered (French) - Tagetes patula (Tagetes patula nana). Dwarf forms 20-30 cm high and 40-75 cm high - with double or simple yellow-orange flowers with a red spot or dark brown with a yellow border.
- Erect (African) - Tagetes erecta. They grow up to a height of 40-100 cm, with double orange and yellow flowers.
- Thin-leaved (narrow-leaved) - Tagetes tenuifolia. Up to 30 cm high, with numerous small orange or yellow flowers with a red spot at the base of the petals.
- Small ones - Tagetes minuta.
Verbenas reproduce well on their own. Gardeners often leave withered flowers in their backyards, hoping that they will self-sow next year. This rule does not apply to hybrid verbena, which, being an artificial variety, does not produce identical offspring, often does not even scatter. To grow hybrid verbena from seeds, the seed must be bought from the manufacturer, independent breeding is impractical.
When to collect seeds?
Verbena blooms from July to September, sets seeds abundantly, giving good self-seeding in a good position. You can collect seeds in the fall by cutting off the inflorescences yourself after the first frost. Inflorescences left before the fall will spontaneously shed seeds. This should be borne in mind during spring work in the area where verbena grows. Seeds will germinate only in spring, so as not to destroy young shoots, you should not weed or loosen the soil under the verbena. Young shoots appear at the turn of March and April.
When to sow seeds?
The optimal time for sowing seeds in the ground is the end of summer, so that the seeds lay in the soil and prepare for spring germination during the period of winter dormancy (they were stratified in natural conditions). Occasionally in the fall, single seedlings appear, which rarely survive the first winter.
We can also sow verbena with seeds in the spring in a greenhouse (after 30 days of cold stratification). Sowing seeds for seedlings is carried out in February-March. If the seeds are sown too late, you need to be prepared for the fact that this year we will not see flowers or the plant will not bloom profusely.
When to plant verbena on seedlings depends on the region, the terms may be shifted by 2-3 weeks. The guideline is that you need to sow verbera seeds for seedlings at home 6-8 weeks before the last frost.
In the southern regions, you can plant seeds at the end of February, but the seedlings will require additional lighting, since the daylight hours are still short. In the Moscow region, verbena can be sown for seedlings in March. In the Leningrad region, sowing begins at the end of March, in Siberia, in the Urals - at the beginning of April.
Selection of capacity, soil preparation
Sowing seeds is best done at home in early spring, so that the plants have time to get stronger before planting in open ground. We sow in small pots, trays or plastic planting cassettes, followed by growing verbena at home on a windowsill at home or in a greenhouse.
Sowing requires a fertile, permeable soil with a neutral to slightly alkaline pH. You can buy a universal soil, add perlite (for 5 liters of soil - 0.5 liters of perlite) or river sand.
If the soil mixture is prepared from garden soil, you need to add to 1 part of the garden soil:
- peat - 2 parts,
- a handful of ash
- river sand - 0.5 parts.
The prepared soil must be treated against pathogenic fungi and pests. There are several ways of processing:
- steam up
- bake in the oven,
- chemical treatment - spill with a solution of potassium permanganate, phytosporin, fungicides.
Sowing and germination - step by step
- First you need to prepare a tray with soil for germination, moisten it well.
- Soak the seeds for 8 hours, and just before planting, while preparing the containers and soil, you can soak the seeds with a growth stimulator (Epin) for 20 minutes.
- Place the seeds a few millimeters deep into the soil. In order to make it easier to sow very small seeds, placing them one by one at a distance of 2 cm, you can use a wooden toothpick. You can also scatter the seeds over the surface, but then, with friendly seedlings, you will have to remove some of the seedlings.
- Sprinkle the seeds with a very thin (2 mm) layer of dry soil or fine sand. We moisten the surface very carefully from a spray bottle so that the seeds do not fall deeper into the ground with large drops of water.
- All are covered with cling film and placed in a well-lit room, but not necessarily in direct sunlight. In the first week after sowing, it is good to rearrange the pots in a room with a temperature of 4-8 degrees Celsius. This contributes to the emergence of seedlings. Seeds germinate in different ways, sometimes quickly and amicably, sometimes for a long time. From time to time you need to remove the film, ventilate, moisten the soil, wipe the film from condensation.
Growing seedlings, picking
- When the seeds germinate, the film can be removed. The room temperature should be 20-26 degrees. The soil should be kept moist at all times. Watering is carried out carefully, on the soil, trying not to soak the plants.
- If the daylight hours are still short, you need to supplement the seedlings with phytolamps or fluorescent lamps, extending the lighting period to 12 hours a day.
- Picking. When young seedlings develop 2 true leaves, they need to be transplanted into separate pots. For picking, the plants are well watered, carefully pry off with a nail file (another convenient object for this) and transplanted into separate cups or into a large container, at a distance of 5 cm. The seedlings are buried in the ground up to the cotyledons. Fingers slightly compact the soil, watered.
- After picking, the pots are placed in a warm place on the windowsill.
- After 3-4 weeks, the tops of the seedlings can be trimmed so that they bush. Pinching the top is especially important for ampel varieties of verbena.
- Top dressing. This plant is not very demanding for feeding. But a week after the pick, you can feed it with a water-soluble complex fertilizer, diluting it well.
- Hardening. When 10 days remain before planting in the ground, they begin to harden the seedlings - gradually they accustom the seedlings to outdoor conditions. The pots are placed on an open window, balcony or taken out into the street first for 1-2 hours, then gradually the hardening period is increased, taking into account the weather conditions. By the time of planting, the plants have already spent the whole day on the street, only at night they are brought into a warm room.
Features of summer sowing of calceolaria
As mentioned earlier, if you want to see flowering in early spring, the seeds need to be sown at home in the summer, in June. Sowing is done in the same way as in winter or early spring. Growing conditions are the same.
The first pick is made when the first two or three true leaves appear in a 150 ml container.
When a rosette is formed, it is necessary to make a pick a second time, this time the plants are transplanted into a container with diameters of 8-9 cm.
In September, transplanting into pots with diameters of 10-11 cm is carried out. The transplant is carried out by the transshipment method, that is, the entire earthen lump is transplanted into a new container without destruction. Plants need to be placed in a bright place.
And already in winter (in January-February) calceolaria seedlings need to be transplanted into volumetric pots. After transplanting, you need to pinch the top of the plant over 3-4 leaves.