The oldest, most popular, most undemanding valuable green vegetable is salad
Among green vegetables, of great value for humans is salad... The history of its culture goes back to the distant past. It was already known in ancient times to the Greeks, Romans and Egyptians. In European countries, salad appeared in culture in the middle of the 16th century.
Until now, the origin of the cultural forms of lettuce has not been precisely established, nor has its existing variety been established. The emergence of a huge number of lettuce varieties is the result of crossing between the main varieties that come from different countries. In Italy and neighboring countries, Romaine lettuce is widely cultivated. In the countries of central and northern Europe, varieties with oily leaves are common.
In America, varieties with crispy juicy leaves are widespread, and, in particular, the Great Lakes salad, the heads of which reach a weight of 1 kg and are distinguished by their density. In China, Japan, Mongolia, asparagus salads are cultivated, in which, along with leaves, thick fleshy stems are used for nutrition. This valuable variety of salad is still a rarity. A large number of varieties belong to separate varieties, and also have a hybrid origin.
The valuable nutritional and healing properties of lettuce have long been known... It is consumed mainly raw. It increases appetite and improves digestion. Lettuce plants grown in hot, dry weather sometimes have a bitter taste, which is due to the lactucion glucoside they contain. This substance has a calming effect, improves sleep and lowers high blood pressure. The salad is rich in vitamins B1, B2, E, C, carotene, potassium, calcium and iron salts. In terms of the content of calcium salts, it ranks first among vegetables. In terms of the total salt content, lettuce is second only to spinach. It is also rich in trace elements: it contains copper, zinc, cobalt, manganese, molybdenum, titanium, boron, iodine.
The cellular juice of the lettuce contains nitric acid, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid potassium salts, which have a beneficial effect on the activity of the kidneys, liver, pancreas and the circulatory system.
Lettuce is an annual herbaceous vegetable from the Asteraceae family... Its root is pivotal with numerous lateral branches located in the topsoil at a depth of 24-30 cm. Leaves are sessile, almost horizontal, of various shapes. The stem reaches 1-1.5 m in height, it is thin in leafy and head forms and thickened in asparagus lettuce. Inflorescences are a basket, one inflorescence contains 10-25 bisexual yellow flowers.
Lettuce is a self-pollinating plant, but cross-pollination by insects is also possible. The fruit is achene. The seeds are silvery gray, brown, yellow or black. When stored under normal conditions, their germination is maintained for 4 years.
Lettuce varieties belong to five varieties:
- leaf lettuce, which forms a plant with a rosette of leaves, which relatively quickly passes to the formation of a stem (Moscow Greenhouse, etc.);
- breakaway, forming a rosette (bush) of large, powerful leaves with a different shape and color, depending on the variety; does not shoot for a relatively long time (Ruby, etc.);
- head, forming, depending on the variety, heads of cabbage of various shapes, density, sizes and resistance to stemming (Large cabbage, etc.);
- Romaine lettuce, combining varieties with an elongated head of cabbage (Parisian green, etc.);
- asparagus, forming plants with a thickened stem, on which elongated narrow leaves are located.
By the ability to form a head of cabbage, by size, color, quality of leaves and head of cabbage, salads are divided into:
- crispy - the heads of cabbage are relatively dense, the leaves are crispy (with green, greenish-brown or brown outer leaves);
- oily - heads of cabbage are relatively dense, inner leaves are tender, oily, slightly compressed, bleached to light golden or oily yellow shades (with green, greenish-brown or brown outer leaves).
According to the method of cultivation, varieties of head lettuce are also divided into:
- distilling plants (for greenhouses and hotbeds);
- early ripening spring for growing in the open field in the early stages;
- summer (resistant to stemming);
- winter, for growing in protected ground in a short day and low light.
Thanks to the wide variety of varieties and the combination of open and green ground, lettuce can be grown all year round.
77 varieties are included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation for 2005.
In recent years, cabbage salads... Using different sowing dates and varietal characteristics of this type of salads, in the presence of greenhouses, you can get products from early spring to late autumn.
The varieties created in 2005 are of particular interest. They are generally neutral to day length and dim light, allowing for high yields in early spring and late autumn. These include varieties: Azary, Amoriks, Assol, Asteriks, Geyser, Diamond, Northern Blush, Fire, Relay.
Biological features of culture
Lettuce is a cold-resistant plant. Young plants tolerate a drop in temperature to 1 ... 2 ° C and short-term frosts (-6 ...- 8 ° C). The varieties with highly pigmented anthocyanin leaves are distinguished by the greatest resistance to negative temperatures. Anthocyanin in lettuce leaves, like in a number of other crops, plays a protective role under adverse conditions. Cold resistance increases with the age of the lettuce.
However, in the phase of head formation, even light frosts can adversely affect the further growth of the plant - they stop setting the head of cabbage. With prolonged frosts, the head of cabbage that begins to form opens up.
In conditions of sufficient light in spring and summer, plants grow well at 15 ... 20 ° C. During the formation of the head of cabbage, the optimum temperature in the daytime is 14 ... 16 ° С, and at night - 8 ... 12 ° С. This is especially important to ensure its normal density. Lettuce tolerates heat worse than comparatively low temperatures. In early varieties, air temperatures above 20 ° C cause premature stem formation. In addition, at high temperatures, excessive decrease in air and soil moisture, lettuce leaves a bitter taste.
Temperature affects the activity of photosynthesis, which determines the rate of growth and development, its quality and the green color of the leaves. Photosynthesis actively proceeds at 20 ... 25 ° С. At 0 ... 5 ° С, photosynthesis is weak, lettuce practically stops growing, at 5 ... 8 ° С it forms only a small rosette.
Lettuce is a light-loving plant: in the shade and with thickened sowing, the development of lettuce slows down or loose heads of cabbage are formed. For the formation of good heads of early ripening varieties, lighting is necessary for 10-12 hours, and for summer, late-ripening varieties - 12-16. Head lettuce forms have higher light requirements than leafy ones. When shaded, they do not give full-fledged heads of cabbage, which is usually the case with thickened crops and delayed thinning. However, the latest breeding varieties have a remarkable ability to adapt to relatively low light, short day conditions and high humidity.
Early maturity and a relatively small area of nutrition are the reason for the high demands of lettuce plants to the conditions of mineral nutrition and the provision of water. Only on fertile soils and with sufficient moisture can high quality yields be obtained.
The salad is fast growing. With a lack of nitrogen and phosphorus, the plants grow poorly, the head of cabbage is formed small with green leaves of dark tones. Among vegetable crops, lettuce ranks third in the removal of nutrients from the soil per crop unit (after radish and asparagus). Moreover, he makes the greatest need for nitrogen-phosphorus nutrition. However, an excess of nitrogen leads to excessive growth of leaves, their delicacy and increased susceptibility to diseases.
The mineral nutrition regimen has a significant effect on the growth of lettuce: a triple increase in nitrogen doses inhibits the growth of young plants and enhances the growth of adults. However, increased nitrogen nutrition in combination with phosphorus has a positive effect on the growth rate of lettuce starting from the first stages of development.
Lettuce is a plant that is sensitive to the reaction of the soil solution. Well-drained fertile soils with a pH of 6.5-7.5 are optimal for it. For growing spring lettuce, the plot is prepared in the fall: deep digging is carried out and 10-15 kg of well-decomposed manure, 0.4-0.5 kg of superphosphate, 0.2 kg of potash fertilizers per 10 m² are introduced. If lettuce is grown as a summer crop, then under deep tillage it is enough to add 0.2-0.3 kg of superphosphate, 0.2 kg of potassium fertilizers and 0.15 kg of ammonium nitrate per 10 m². Manure is not applied directly to sowing lettuce. In addition, fresh manure promotes the growth of pests. Before sowing, the soil must be loosened well, crushed lumps on the surface and leveled.
Agrotechnics of head lettuce
To obtain early production, especially head varieties, lettuce is grown by the seedling method using peat pots. Seedling preparation begins with growing seedlings. The seeds are sown in boxes. The embedment depth should not exceed 0.5 cm. When growing a school, before the first true leaf appears, a temperature of 10 ... 12 ° C and good lighting conditions are required. This will prevent the seedlings from being pulled out (etiolated). After 12-15 days, the seedlings dive into pots all the time in a wet state. Seedlings are usually ready for planting 25-35 days after sowing. Plants by the time of planting should have 4-5 leaves.
The second seeding can be done with a potless culture. However, even with sowing in the first decade of May, the harvest will arrive at a much later date - at the end of June.
In order to get the maximum yield of head lettuce, the planting rate must be observed. Seedlings of lettuce are planted on ridges in three rows at a distance of 30-35 cm. The distance between plants in a row is set depending on the variety: for early ripening varieties - 15-20 cm, for mid-ripening and late-ripening varieties - 20-30 cm. The same distance is made at breakthrough lettuce planted in a seedless way.
Caring for plants consists in weeding and watering during the period of intensive growth of leaves, but before they close in rows, fertilizing with nitrogen-potassium fertilizers is carried out, followed by mandatory loosening. Usually they carry out one or two weeding, two loosening, one or two watering. Regular watering is recommended in dry weather. Good moisture availability will have a beneficial effect on high growth rates and crop quality. During the formation of the head of cabbage, water less often in order to wet the leaves less.
The readiness for harvesting is determined by the size of the rosette and the density of the head, typical for the given variety. Harvesting is recommended late at night or early in the morning to keep chilled plants fresh for longer. Head lettuce is well preserved at a temperature of 0 ... 1 ° C. Packed in plastic bags, it can lie for 3-4 weeks.
N. Lapikov, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences
When eating Iceberg lettuce leaves, you must first of all enjoy the pleasant crunch of the leaves. For this, it is usually eaten fresh. During heat treatment, any vegetable loses up to 60% of nutrients, and iceberg salad is no exception. Therefore, it should be used in food only fresh. The leaves are torn off the main head of cabbage, rolled into a tube and eaten raw, without even adding salt and oil. Delicious lettuce leaves will crunch pleasantly and give off their juice. If the leaves are chopped, or maybe just torn to preserve healthy juice, then you can add a little lemon juice to this mix and season everything with olive oil. An excellent, dietary, low-calorie and tasty dish is ready.
High-yielding, hybrid type of head lettuce, with an early ripening period. The growing season from the moment of sowing seeds in the open ground to harvesting the heads of cabbage lasts up to 50 days. The variety is recommended for cultivation throughout the year. In summer, sowing seeds is carried out in open ground. From autumn to spring, seeds are sown in greenhouses, creating all the necessary conditions for growth. The head of the lettuce ripens loose, the leaves are well separated from each other. The weight of one head can be up to 500 grams. The head is rounded, the leaves are oval, pimpled, threaded at the ends. The color of the head is bright green, the inner stalk is white. The leaves are very tasty, have a specific taste, and go very well with meat delicacies. The salad is eaten fresh, it is not subjected to freezing and heat treatment. The Kuala variety has a good marketable appearance, it is recommended for mass sales through supermarket chains.
Fioret RZ variety
Head lettuce of the Iceberg type. The variety is high-yielding, with an early ripening period. Heads of cabbage are ready to harvest after two months of growth. The weight of one head of cabbage is about 400 grams. By its structure, the lettuce head is quite tight, the leaf plates are large, almost smooth, the veins are clearly visible. The color of the fruit is dark green, closer to olive. Head of cabbage flattened. The leaves are thicker than other varieties, very juicy and tasty. The variety is resistant to early shooting and various fungal diseases. Transportable grade, well transported in special containers. Attractive presentation, storage for about a week in the refrigerator is permissible. Recommended for growing in garden beds and greenhouses. Sells well through supermarket chains.
A head lettuce with a bright green, friable head, even, sinewy at the base, the same bright green leaves, tightly covering the head of the head. Head of cabbage weight up to 400 grams. The variety has good yields and adaptability to weather fluctuations. The variety shows resistance to various diseases, is not attacked by insect pests. Shoots late. It is permissible to sow seeds on the beds in the summer, and cultivate the variety in greenhouse complexes in the winter. The salad is well stored and transported. Differs in fragility of hardwood plates, therefore transportation is carried out in a special container. Used as food only fresh, used to decorate dishes. Selling successfully in the markets.
A head lettuce that looks like a common white cabbage. Deciduous plates are wavy, pale green, large denticles are visible along the edges. The head is smooth, rounded, slightly flattened. The leaves are very juicy and delicious. The weight of one head of cabbage reaches up to 600 grams. The variety is grown for mass consumption fresh, if desired, you can add lemon juice and olive oil. It will turn out to be a very tasty and healthy dish. The salad can be grown both in greenhouses and in open beds. The variety is resistant to fungal diseases. The products of the variety have a presentation and are recommended for sale in the markets. In demand among consumers.
A head lettuce variety with a rounded head, with almost even leafy plates. The head reaches a mass of up to 500 grams, is quite dense and tight, shimmers with a pale green color. The leaves are juicy and crispy. The cut shows a small white stump and tender, yellow-green leaves at the base.The variety has proven itself to be high yielding and late shot. The variety is intended for fresh consumption, as a sliced salad. Growing all year round is recommended. Products of excellent presentation and good quality. In demand in the market. Selling well.
An early variety of lettuce, the ripening period for heads of cabbage lasts up to 40 days. The variety is recommended for cultivation throughout the year. In summer, sowing seeds is carried out in open ground. From autumn to spring, seeds are sown in greenhouses, creating all the necessary conditions for growth. The head of the lettuce ripens loose, the leaves are well separated from each other. The weight of one head can be up to 500 grams. The head is rounded, large, the leaves are oval, pimpled, threaded at the ends, bright, green. The salad is well stored and transported. Differs in fragility of hardwood plates, therefore transportation is carried out in a special container. Used as food only fresh, used to decorate dishes.
Head lettuce, in appearance, resembles ordinary white cabbage. The deciduous plates are curly, pimply, pale green in color, large denticles are visible at the edges. The head is smooth, rounded, slightly elongated upward. The leaves are very juicy and delicious. The weight of one head of cabbage reaches up to 600 grams. The variety is grown for mass consumption fresh, freezing and heat treatment is not performed. A variety of excellent presentation. A transportable variety, stored for no more than a week in cool rooms at 2 degrees Celsius. Recommended for bulk sales.
A hybrid variety of iceberg-type head lettuce. The variety is approved for all-season cultivation. Sowing in open ground is carried out in April, sowing in greenhouses as the soil is prepared. The growing season of growth and maturation of a head of cabbage lasts up to 50 days. The head of cabbage grows quite dense, smooth, pale green in color, with wavy, large, deciduous plates, well cut along the edge. The leaves are juicy and crispy. The variety shows resistance to early shooting and fungal diseases. It is used for fresh food, it is not frozen. Lettuce leaves are also used to decorate dishes. Transportable grade. Stores well in the refrigerator for a week. Recommended for mass market sale. The "Fortunas" variety lettuce has established itself as a very tasty dietary product. It is in demand among buyers.
By purchasing freshly cut heads of iceberg-type head lettuce on the market, you help your body fight for a healthy lifestyle. Lettuce leaves, be they cabbage lettuce or lettuce, should always find their place on your table.
Sneaky - yesterday, salad - today
Two centuries have passed since the lettuce was brought from Europe to Russia. At the royal court, he was received "with a bang", but the bulk of the gardeners simply did not need it: there was a lot of sleepiness, sorrel, nettles around. Only at the end of this century did the salad become desirable in the garden. Various types of lettuce have been created recently. They differ in shape and color of the leaves: from light to dark green, from pink to dark red and brown. There are varieties with a smooth leaf and completely bubbly and even wrinkled, the edge of the leaf is even or curls into intricate scallops. The leaf itself is sometimes delicate silky ("oily"), then thick, juicy, crunchy.
Iceberg lettuce. © Rasbak
Lettuce varieties can be divided into four types: leafy, cabbage, romaine and stem.
Let's try together to understand the variety of salads and the peculiarities of their agricultural technology.
Break-type lettuce differs in that leaves are plucked from it without pulling out the plants. The leaves are large, whole (oblong, triangular, fan-shaped) or carved (oak-leaf, dissected).
What is "real salad" and "not salad"?
The salad itself (aka Sowing lettuce) Is a species of annual herbaceous plants of the genus Letuk of the Astrovye family. What kind of salad is there? From a biological point of view, this plant has only two forms - cabbage and sheet... In the first, the leaves form heads of different density and size, in the second they do not form, and its varieties differ only in color, size and shape of the leaf. A close relative of Sowing lettuce - Asparagus lettuce (asparagus salad, stem salad, uysun), which can also be considered a kind of real salad.
Leaves and sometimes a thickened hollow stem are used as food for lettuce. Its juicy leaves are valuable vitamin greens, they are rich in vitamins (C, B, PP, etc.), salts of potassium, iron, phosphorus and other elements, carotene, sugar, citric and folic acids.
And what then are other "salads", the assortment of which is great both on the shelves with seeds and in the vegetable rows of markets and shops? For your attention - a list of popular and probably familiar to everyone types of tasty and healthy leafy greens, for which the people have long and firmly entrenched the name with the prefix "salad", although they in no way belong to the above-described type of plants of the genus Latuk:
- Chinese salad, aka petsai, aka Peking cabbage - a vegetable of the Cruciferous family, of the Cabbage genus. The taste is refreshing, delicate.
- Watercress, he is also a bug - an annual or biennial herb of the Cruciferous family, of the genus Bug. The taste is spicy.
- Radicchio salad, aka escariol, aka Italian red chicory - herbaceous perennial of the Astrovye family, genus Chicory. Bitter taste.
- Frisse salad, aka frieze, aka endive, aka chicory salad - a herbaceous plant of the Astrovye family, genus Chicory. The taste is fresh and bitter.
- Corn salad, he is a mash salad, he is a field salad, he is rapunzel, he is a vegetable valerian - a herbaceous plant of the Astrovye family, of the genus Chicory. The taste is light, spicy, slightly tart.
- Arugula salad, he is eruka, he is indau - a herbaceous annual of the cruciferous family, genus Indau. The taste is spicy, mustard-nutty.
WHEN AND WHAT TO PLANT SEEDLING
Very useful information for amateur gardeners. Perhaps someone does not know when and what to plant for seedlings, then read this information.
It is not difficult to calculate the timing of sowing vegetable seeds for seedlings.
If you want to get the first harvest by a certain date, you must also take into account the duration of the plant's growing season from planting to the first fruits (usually it is indicated on the seed bag).
For example, in early varieties and hybrids of tomato, the growing season before the first fruits is about 100 days. The optimum age of seedlings for transplanting to a permanent place is 45-50 days. The average time from sowing to germination is 7-8 days. The optimal time for planting prepared seedlings in a greenhouse is around June 1. Thus, in order to get the first harvest of lettuce tomatoes by July 20, seeds must be sown 100 days before this date, plus a week from sowing to germination and about five days for the adaptation of seedlings after planting. The approximate sowing date is April 1-8.
Approximate sowing dates for seedlings of the main vegetable crops for central Russia:
Celery. Landing - May 25. Seedlings age - 70-80 days, from sowing to seedlings - up to 15 days. Sowing - after February 25th.
Bell pepper. Greenhouse planting - June 5th. Seedling age - up to 70 days, from sowing to germination - 12-14 days. Sowing - after March 10.
Early white cabbage. Landing - after May 20. Seedling age - up to 50 days, from sowing to germination - 5 days. Sowing - March 15.
Cauliflower and broccoli are sown together with early white cabbage.
Black onions and leeks. Landing - mid-May. Seedlings are up to 50 days old. Sowing - after March 15.
Eggplant. Greenhouse planting - June 5th. Seedling age - up to 50 days, from sowing to germination - 12 days. Sowing - April 1.
Tomato. Seedling age - 45-50 days, from sowing to germination - 7-8 days. Sowing - April 1-8.
Cucumber. Planting in a greenhouse without technical heating - after May 25. Seedling age - 25-27 days, from sowing to germination - 3 days. Sowing - no earlier than April 25.
Head salad. Landing - June 10. Seedling age - up to 40 days, from sowing to germination - 4 days. Sowing - after April 25.
Mid-season white cabbage. Planting - after early white cabbage. Seedlings are up to 40 days old. Sowing - at the end of April.
Pumpkin, zucchini, squash. Landing - June 10. Seedling age - 25-27 days, from sowing to germination - 4 days. Sowing - after May 10.
Recommendations are given for the Central region of the Russian Federation. The timing of planting seedlings in the ground depends on actual weather conditions and may require changes.
PETUNIA: I plant lobelia, petunia, peppers at the end of February. Everything, everything else on March 9-10. And Class! and stretch marks.
A favorite of many gardeners, the long and profusely blooming petunia (Petunia) is distinguished by its unpretentiousness and endurance. And a colossal number of varieties of all kinds of colors allows you to choose plants for any garden or balcony composition.
Petunias are sown in late February - early March. The seeds are very small, and sowing is carried out exclusively on the soil surface, in no case deepening the seeds. Seedlings usually appear amicably, after 10-14 days (if the seeds are of high quality). The grown seedlings dive into separate pots. In general, petunia seedlings develop better if they are transplanted 2-3 times during the growth period, gradually increasing the volume of the planting capacity. In mid-May, seedlings can be planted in flower beds or containers. By this time, her buds are usually already formed, and some varieties even manage to bloom.
A charming plant suitable for almost any garden arrangement. When lobelia (Lobelia erinus) blooms, its foliage is not visible among the many small flowers of surprisingly clean, bright hues.
Lobelia is sown in late February - early March in seedling boxes on the soil surface. The crops are lightly rolled, without covering the seeds with soil, and abundantly moistened with a spray bottle. Seedlings appear in about 2 weeks. The seedlings are dived and placed in a bright, well-ventilated place, and from mid-May they are planted in the ground or in containers.
Without seedlings in the conditions of the Middle Belt, the flowering of the Shabo carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus var. Schabaud) cannot be admired: it occurs 5-6 months after sowing. Therefore, February is the best time to start growing seedlings.
An amazing unpretentious plant that blooms from June to the very autumn cold. There are many options for its placement in the garden: begonia (Begonia semperflorens) can be grown as an ampelous plant or a flowering border, it is planted in containers for balconies and terraces and used in carpet plantings.
Seeds of ever-flowering begonia germinate for a very long time, therefore they are sown in February. You need to sow on the surface of the soil, then press lightly to increase the area of contact of the seed with the soil, and thoroughly moisten the soil. The optimum temperature for seed germination is +20 degrees. After 1.5 months, young plants dive into separate pots, and in early June they are planted in the ground.
The thermophilic salvia (Salvia splendens) is grown as an annual in the climate of our latitudes. It comes from South America, where it is cultivated as a perennial plant. In our gardens, salvia, also known as glittering sage or brilliant sage, is quite popular.
Salvia is sown in late February - early March, sprinkling with a thin layer of soil. They dive in the 4-5 phase of a true leaf, and at the end of May - beginning of June (depending on the climate and weather) they are planted in the ground, preferably on
If you want the viola (Viola x wittrockiana) to bloom in the year of sowing, and bloom from the end of May until the very snow, sow it on seedlings in February.
This popular plant probably does not need a special introduction. Let me just remind you that this two-year-old culture, very widely used by flower growers, is valued for its long flowering, an abundance of varieties of all kinds of colors and an amazing unpretentiousness. Viola calmly tolerates a transplant even when flowering, grows well and can grow both in flower beds and in all kinds of containers.
Growing mustard leaf.
This cold-resistant annual plant, which ripens quickly, responds well to the introduced organic matter (compost or humus). Mustard is sown in early spring or in the second half of summer, and the yield of the second sowing is much lower than the first. You can sow mustard and conveyor belt after 2 weeks. Sowing depth is 1.5 cm. After germination, thinning is carried out up to 5 cm between plants. Later, with the second thinning, the distance is increased to 10 cm. Leaf mustard needs good watering, otherwise the taste will suffer. As soon as the mustard leaf grows to 10-15 cm, the leaves can be selectively removed.
The varieties of the culture include cabbage, half-cabbage and leaf varieties. The first forms a round or oval head of cabbage. Demanding on abundant sunlight, otherwise the heads of cabbage are formed loose. "Iceberg" with large blistery leaves and dense texture is a popular representative of the species. It has a sweet taste and is suitable for long-term storage in the refrigerator.
The lettuce has delicate leaves, curly at the edges, and a color ranging from light green to brown. The reddish curly "Lollo Rossa" is used for decorative purposes. The early ripe "Fairy Tale" has a large rosette and is resistant to the appearance of arrows. Truffle is grown all year round in greenhouses and in the open field.
Harvesting takes place 40 days after seed emergence. The final harvesting of the plant with roots is carried out before the start of shooting.
You can also buy lettuce seeds with delivery from a warehouse across the Russian Federation and the CIS (Moscow, St. Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, Minsk, Astana, etc.). If you have any questions, call 8-800-234-1000 and get a free consultation from our specialists.