Growing white cabbage: planting seedlings and care

Growing white cabbage: planting seedlings and care

Read the previous part: White cabbage: useful properties and growing conditions

Choosing a site for planting cabbage and preparing the soil

Under the cabbage, soils are diverted that are not flooded by melt water, are adapted to drain excess moisture in the spring and are located close to the source of water for irrigation. It is placed as the first crop for organic fertilization, as well as after legumes, cucumber, zucchini, tomato, onion, vegetable roots, and potatoes. Cabbage is a good precursor for cucumber, tomato, onion, root crops, as it leaves the soil free of weeds.

After turnips, rutabagas, radishes, radishes and cabbage, it cannot be placed earlier than three years later, just as they cannot be grown after cabbage, because infection accumulates in the soil, and overwintered pests infect young plants. Cabbage can be the first plant on newly reclaimed land after proper preparation.

The nature of the autumn cultivation depends on the previous crop and the degree of weediness of the site. After vegetable crops, it should be freed from plant residues. From autumn, the area for cabbage should be dug to a depth of 20-25 cm. It is especially important to carry out this work for early cabbage. The dug-up earth is left without leveling, because in this case, the soil freezes, leading to its loosening, as well as to the death of harmful insects.

Early spring tillage consists in loosening the surface layer, digging or processing with moldboard tools such as a flat cutter to a depth of 15-18 cm.To preserve moisture reserves in the soil in early spring, loosen the soil surface with a rake to a depth of about 5 cm.This work is not at all superfluous ... The upper parts of the soil capillaries are destroyed, and with the help of a layer of loose soil, which is closed from above, moisture remains in the lower horizons without eroding.

By the time of planting of late and mid-ripening varieties of cabbage, weeds may already appear, in this case additional processing is carried out to a depth of 6-8 cm. The use of cutters and motor-cultivators for soil preparation contributes to the creation of a fine-crumbly, well-loosened arable layer. In our North-West, cabbage is grown on ridges or ridges up to 20 cm high.

White cabbage as a high-yielding crop takes out a large amount of nutrients from the soil with the harvest. Compared to other vegetable plants, it is more demanding on nitrogen. When growing early varieties, a high nitrogen background is required with a moderate phosphorus-potassium nutrition, mid-ripening varieties need large doses of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers, and late varieties for storage require an increased supply of potassium and phosphorus with a good supply of nitrogen.

At the beginning of the growing season, cabbage plants of all varieties absorb nitrogen more strongly, and during the formation of heads of cabbage - potassium and phosphorus. However, the lack of phosphorus in the soil in the first period of plant growth causes irreversible physiological disturbances that cannot be eliminated by subsequent application of even high doses of phosphorus fertilizers.

The introduction of increased doses of nitrogen on soddy-podzolic soils for early cabbage increases the early and by 25-30% the total yield of cabbage by 2-2.5 times. When growing late varieties for storage, the introduction of potassium is effective, and increased doses of nitrogen negatively affect the preservation of products. With a lack of potassium, cabbage during storage gets sick with punctate necrosis.

The best forms of nitrogen fertilizers for cabbage are ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, urea; potassium - potassium sulfate, potassium sulfate, magnesium; phosphoric - granular superphosphate. Cabbage responds well to the introduction of combined fertilizers into the soil - azofoski, ekofoski, kemira, etc.

Cabbage, especially late varieties, consumes nutrients from the soil for a long time and therefore responds well to the application of organic fertilizers. The significant requirement of cabbage for nutrients, especially nitrogen from the second month after planting seedlings, suggests that high yields of cabbage can be obtained only with the use of organic and mineral fertilizers. As a result of this combination, good cabbage yields are obtained at moderate application rates. For medium and late cabbage, apply 4-6 kg of manure or compost per 1 m² with continuous application. If there is a lack of fertilizer, you can add it to the holes when planting. Then you will need 1-2 kg for 1 m². Fresh manure applied in spring under early cabbage is ineffective, because it does not have time to decompose during the growing season of plants. Under it bring up to 3-4 kg / m² of well-rotted manure or humus.

In addition to organic fertilizers in the non-black earth zone, 20-30 g of ammonium nitrate, 30-40 g of superphosphate and 15-20 g of potassium chloride per 1 m² are applied under cabbage. It was found that on sandy loams and light loams for cabbage, potash fertilizer is of great importance, on heavy loams - phosphorus, on floodplain soils - a combination of potash fertilizers with nitrogen, on peaty soils - a combination of potash and phosphorus fertilizers.

In addition, the application of small doses of nitrogen is effective on undecomposed peatlands. Organic fertilizers and 2/3 of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied in the fall before digging or for plowing. By the time the cabbage grows most at this depth, the bulk of the suction roots will be located. In addition, the soil is usually more moist here, so the fertilizer can be better used by the plants. The rest of the mineral fertilizers are applied in the spring for loosening (spring digging), during planting in holes or in top dressing. This enhances the nutrition of young plants, in which the root system is concentrated in the upper soil layer, and the maturation of the heads of cabbage is accelerated.

On acidic soils, lime must be added under cabbage. This technique not only reduces the acidity of the soil, but also increases the effectiveness of organic and mineral fertilizers. Doses of lime depend on the mechanical composition of the soil, its acidity and range from 400 g to 1 kg per 1 m².

Growing cabbage seedlings

White cabbage in the non-chernozem zone is grown almost exclusively by seedlings. Good seedlings are the key to obtaining a high yield of cabbage. The earliest production is produced by seedlings grown in pots. Potted seedlings take root faster, accelerate ripening and increase yields. A powerful root system develops in pots, which is preserved during transplanting seedlings, there is a large supply of nutrients necessary for the growth and development of plants at the first stage.

To obtain a good yield, it is necessary to use high quality calibrated seeds. Elite and hybrid seeds come already treated with pesticides, so they are not disinfected. If necessary, before sowing, they can be kept in water with a temperature of 50 ° C for 20 minutes, maintaining the temperature at the same level, followed by cooling with water and drying.

Seeds of early ripening varieties are sown in early March in seed boxes. The thickness of the soil layer for growing the school should be 10-12 cm. For the prevention of plant diseases with the keel and "black leg", chalk is added when preparing the soil (100 g per box).

A school of early cabbage seedlings can be grown on a cold, well-lit window; during the day, a box with plants can be taken out to the loggia. Seedlings of mid-season and late varieties are grown in an unheated film greenhouse, greenhouse or warm nursery when sowing seeds in late March-early April. When growing seedlings, you need to ensure that the soil is not contaminated with pathogens of keela and other diseases. The land for growing seedlings must be used fresh, in no case should you take from cabbage and other plants of this family. Seeds are sown in boxes in rows at a distance of 5-6 cm.

1-2 g of seeds are sown in each box. On days 4-5 after germination, the cotyledons take a horizontal position, at 7-12 in the phase of the beginning of the appearance of the first true leaf, the plant develops lateral roots. At this time, they are usually dived. Picking allows you to get by with a smaller area in the initial period of growing seedlings. It is carried out into the heated soil of pots with a nutritional area of ​​5x5, 6x6, and to obtain an early harvest of 7x7, 8x8 cm. During a pick, it is important to keep the maximum number of lateral roots in plants, and during this period they are still very short. Although when selecting seedlings before planting them in a permanent place, a significant part of the roots is lost, nevertheless, the dive seedlings, due to the better development of lateral roots at the base of the stem, have an advantage over the unpicked seedlings.

The maximum preservation of the roots of the seedlings during planting, the best survival rate and the continuity of growth after planting are achieved when growing seedlings in nutrient pots. Potless seedlings, especially in the absence of a clod of earth, grow slowly after planting and only after 20-30 days intensive plant growth begins. Pots with unpicked plants are placed in a greenhouse or greenhouse close to the same level. To increase the area of ​​nutrition, plants in 5-6 cm pots can be placed at intervals of 2-3 cm.

It is imperative, after installing the pots on the surface of the beds, to fill the voids between them with soil to prevent them from drying out. You can sow seeds of mid-season and late varieties in pots. Potless seedlings are usually dived at distances of 6x6, 5x5, 6x5, 6x4 cm.Early seedlings are dived 8x8 cm. Seedlings of early varieties are grown in a greenhouse, mid-ripening varieties can be grown under small-sized film shelters on solar heating by sowing seeds into the ground.

Before the emergence of shoots, the temperature in the room is maintained within +17 ... + 20 ° С. With the emergence of shoots and before the formation of the first true leaf, it is reduced to +6 ... + 8 ° C and immediately gives maximum access to light in order to avoid stretching the plants. In the future, to obtain high-quality seedlings, the temperature is maintained in sunny weather +15 ... + 17 ° С, in cloudy +12 ... + 15 ° С, at night +6 ... + 8 ° С. Regulate the temperature by ventilating greenhouses or greenhouses. When the appropriate outside temperature is reached, remove the film from the shelters and open the doors.

When growing seedlings, it is important to add soil to it. This increases the resistance of the plants, lateral roots appear in the lower part of the stem, which improves the quality of the seedlings. Sprinkle fresh loose earth until the cotyledon leaves.

Seedlings are rarely watered, but abundantly. The soil should be moderately moist. Excess moisture at night is especially dangerous. High humidity of soil and air leads to mass disease of plants with "black leg" and downy mildew. The optimum relative humidity in the room should be between 60-70%, which is achieved by strong ventilation. Watering seedlings can only be done in sunny weather.

The need for seedlings in nutrients at the beginning of growth is satisfied by the reserves in the soil, which are subsequently replenished with top dressing. 10-12 days after the pick, when the second real leaf appears, the first feeding of the seedlings is carried out: 20 g of ammonium nitrate, 20 g of superphosphate and 10-20 g of potassium chloride are taken for 10 liters of water.

The second feeding is carried out a week after the first (30-40 g of ammonium nitrate, 40 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium chloride per bucket of water). It is good to feed cabbage seedlings with organic fertilizers (diluted 3-4 times with slurry or 8-10 times mullein with the addition of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers).

The third feeding is done 7-10 days before planting the seedlings (20 g of ammonium nitrate, 40 g of superphosphate and 40-60 g of potassium chloride per bucket).

Such feeding ensures the accumulation of sugars in plants that increase frost resistance, promotes the formation of a branched root system and guarantees better survival. The number of dressings and the amount of a particular nutrient included in the dressing must be clarified based on the condition of the plants, the variety and growing conditions. With a lack of light and high soil moisture, the dose of nitrogen fertilizers is reduced.

Timely removal of weeds and loosening of the soil are necessary for normal illumination of plants, access to the soil of air and moisture.

Before planting, the seedlings are gradually accustomed to growing conditions in the open field. 10-12 days before planting, it is hardened, leaving open greenhouses or greenhouses during the day, and in the absence of frost, at night. Watering is stopped during hardening. On the day of planting, seedlings are thoroughly watered 2-3 hours before sampling to make it easier to select and not damage the roots during harvesting. Excessive watering of potted seedlings is avoided, as waterlogged pots fall apart. Take out the seedlings, gently digging in, with a pot or lump of soil. At the same time, sick and ugly plants are rejected.

When growing seedlings, special attention is paid to its quality. It should be hardened, have dark green leaves with a light waxy bloom and light anthocyanin coloration of petioles and veins, a well-developed root system, stems with a light anthocyanin coloration, height (from the root collar to the heart) 8-10 cm, 4-6 mm thick , plant height (from the root collar to the tips of the leaves) 20-25 cm.Early potted seedlings should have 6-7, and the remaining varieties should have 4-6 fully expanded leaves without signs of wilting, without signs of keel and black leg with a lump of earth or pots. The seedlings of early varieties should be 45-60 days old, for other varieties - 35-50 days.

Planting seedlings

Seedlings of early cabbage are planted in the North-West in the first decade of May. After early cabbage, seedlings of mid-season varieties are planted, which are grown for summer consumption, then late cabbage for storage in winter, and last of all - at the end of May - seedlings of medium cabbage used for pickling. It is convenient to place cabbage rows from north to south. In the North-West, they are grown on ridges or ridges in order to weaken the effect of waterlogging and improve the thermal regime of the soil.

For the convenience of processing row spacings, the distance between rows is 60-70 cm. The distance between plants in a row depends on the variety. Early cabbage is planted after 25-30 cm, mid-ripening varieties - after 35-40 cm, late ones - after 50-60 cm. The plot is marked with a marker before planting and the seedlings are laid out. Its good survival rate is ensured under the following conditions: 1) protection of the root system from drying out and leaves from wilting; 2) planting seedlings without delay after watering the holes; 3) sheer immersion of plants into the hole and backfilling of the stem with soil to the first true leaf; 4) dense root compression with moist soil; 5) filling the holes on top with dry soil.

Subject to these rules, replanting of seedlings will not be necessary, since almost 100% of the plants take root. Good growth of potted seedlings after planting occurs when the roots penetrate quickly into the soil.

Plant care

3-4 days after disembarking the seedlings, it is necessary to replant it in the places of lunges. Loosening of row spacings and weed control take an important place in the system of care measures. The first loosening is carried out to a depth of 4-6 cm. The second and subsequent - to a depth of 10-12 cm after each rain or watering.At the same time, it is important that the protective (untreated near the plants) zone is minimal, and the plants are not covered with earth and the root system is not damaged. At the first loosening, it is 8-10 cm, with subsequent loosening - 10-15 cm. With a lack of moisture, they loosen smaller, with heavy precipitation deeper. On heavy soils, loosening is done deeper than on light ones. Loosening is aimed at controlling weeds and keeping the soil loose in order to create a favorable water and air regime for plant growth. During the summer, 4-6 loosening is carried out.

Cabbage varieties with a short stump over the summer are spud once, with a higher stump twice, and later varieties - even three times. Hilling is done when the soil is moist enough - after rain or watering. You cannot roll dry soil onto the plant. They huddle for the last time before closing the leaves in rows.

Cabbage responds well to feeding. Fertilization, timed to the phases of increased nutrient consumption - the growth of rosette leaves and the beginning of the formation of heads of cabbage - has a positive effect on increasing the yield. The first feeding is done, combining it with the first hilling, 10-15 days after planting the seedlings (5-10 g of ammonium nitrate, 10 g of superphosphate, and 5-10 g of potassium chloride per 1 m2). It accelerates the growth of leaves, promotes higher yields and is especially important for early cabbage. The first top dressing is not recommended if, during planting, fertilizers were introduced into the holes along with irrigation water. In the second feeding add 10-15 g of ammonium nitrate, 10-15 g of superphosphate and 5-10 g of potassium chloride per 1 m2.

Late-ripening varieties are fed for the third time with the same fertilizers. When carrying out liquid feeding, it is combined with watering. The concentration of fertilizers during the first feeding should not exceed 1%, with subsequent fertilization - no more than 1.5-2%. The first feeding of plants can be done with diluted 1: 3 slurry, 1:10 mullein or 1: 10-15 bird droppings. Instead of slurry, live (or, as it is called, green) manure can be used.

Dry top dressing can be done before rain or watering. You need to beware of fertilizer getting on the leaves, especially on the growing point. Fertilizers should be carefully scattered around the plants, and not at the very root, especially not on the stalk. In cabbage, the suction roots are located at the level of the edge of the rosette of leaves. In our country, in the North-West, the supply of nutrients from the cold soil can be difficult. In this case, the use of foliar dressings is effective, especially with micronutrients: 0.05% boric acid, 0.05% magnesium sulfate, 0.05% ammonium molybdate, 0.05% manganese sulfate, 0.05% copper sulfate or 0.01% zinc sulfate.

The timing and rates of cabbage watering depend on the soil, climatic and weather conditions and the state of the plants. In the absence of precipitation, they are carried out with an interval of 10-12 days. In our conditions, the combination of irrigation with high soil fertility can increase the yield of cabbage by 2-2.5 times and accelerate the harvest. When setting a specific irrigation time, soil moisture is taken into account.

If the soil does not form into a ball that disintegrates when pressed, then watering is required. When growing cabbage intended for winter storage, you should maintain a moderate soil moisture. Although this will lead to a decrease in yield, it will help to reduce waste during storage.

Cabbage pests and control

The larvae of two types of cabbage flies cause great harm to cabbage: spring and summer. An important preventive measure is deep tillage in the fall. To prevent the laying of eggs, systematic loosening is carried out around the plants, since they lay eggs on the root collar next to the soil.

Cruciferous fleas cause severe damage to young seedlings. Aphids suck out the juice, causing the leaves to discolor and curl. In autumn, at least in early spring, it is necessary to remove stumps from the site. To combat the caterpillars of the cabbage scoop, cabbage whiteworm, cabbage moth, deep autumn digging of the soil and harvesting of plant residues from the site are carried out (cabbage moth pupae winter on the stumps). Ash, makhorka infusion, mustard are used to protect plants. You can plant insecticidal repellent plants next to cabbage: celery, parsley, basil, garlic, hyssop, tansy, sage, delphinium. It is possible to use an infusion of potato tops, leaves and stepchildren of tomato, yarrow, burdock, wormwood, dandelion, milkweed, and garlic to protect plants from pests.

Harvesting is carried out when the heads of cabbage have reached economic fitness. Delays in harvesting can lead to losses due to head cracking and the spread of disease. Early cabbage is harvested selectively as it ripens. The head of cabbage is ready for harvesting when the top sheet is stretched and shiny. Mid-season varieties are harvested at one time, since they ripen for harvesting only in late September - early October. Late cabbage is harvested in early October. Harvesting of these varieties is completed before the onset of permanent frosts -3 ...- 5 ° С. Frozen heads of cabbage will be poorly stored.

Pickle - spring vitamin

As already noted, both fresh and sauerkraut have many beneficial properties. And yet you need to know those cases when the use of cabbage can lead to undesirable consequences.

In some cases, it is better to replace sauerkraut with brine. It lacks the coarse fiber that sometimes causes pain and bloating in the stomach and intestines. Brine is a unique healing and restorative agent that acts on the human body similarly to sauerkraut, but much softer. It enhances the secretion of bile, stimulates the work of the pancreas, and is recommended as a vitamin drink. Brine, especially in springtime, is a source of vitamin C and an antiscorbutic agent.

Strongly boiled cabbage eliminates fermentation in the intestines, promotes healthy sleep, strengthens vision, helps with chronic cough, intestinal inflammation, burns, spleen and liver diseases. Boiled for a long time (more than 30-40 minutes), it has a fixing effect, boiled for a short time - a laxative.

Direct contraindications for taking fresh cabbage (but not cabbage juice) are increased acidity of gastric juice, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, gastrointestinal bleeding, pancreatitis and other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in the acute stage. It is not recommended to use cabbage after surgical operations on the abdominal cavity and chest, in acute, accompanied by diarrhea, gastroenterocolitis, after a heart attack.

Sauerkraut is contraindicated due to its high content of organic acids in patients with high acidity of gastric juice, gastric ulcer and intestinal ulcer, liver and pancreas diseases. The high salt content requires careful intake of sauerkraut by patients with hypertension and kidney diseases, since salt retains water in the body and provokes hypertensive crises and edema syndrome. In such cases, sauerkraut is prepared with less salt or washed before use.

Read the next part: White cabbage in cooking →

V. Perezhogina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences

Growing white cabbage: planting seedlings and care - garden and vegetable garden

Useful properties of cabbage.

Cabbage occupies a large place in the human diet. In recent years, many new varieties have appeared with a delicate and unusual taste. The methods of cooking cabbage dishes are also changing. Its main types are white, red, colored, kohlrabi, broccoli, etc.

Cabbage is full of sugars, mainly glucose, sucrose, fructose, maltose, raffinose. It is rich in pectin, starch, fiber, proteins, salts of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, silver, nickel, zinc, molybdenum, silicon, lead, etc.

Cabbage is a storehouse of various organic acids and amino acids, vitamins C, B1, B 2 , B 4, B 6, B 9, PP, D, E, K, U. There are even high molecular weight alcohols, glycosides and other compounds, many of which kill intestinal bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, and other pathogens. Thanks to this, cabbage is the most important medicinal "drug" for many diseases. It is useful for atherosclerosis, cholelithiasis, obesity, gastritis with low acidity, heart disease, kidney disease, metabolic disorders. Promotes the excretion of salts of heavy metals, cholesterol, excess fluid from the body. A compress of white cabbage leaves on the knee joint, lower back with sciatica, arthritis relieves pain, facilitates movement and improves overall well-being. Pigment substances of red cabbage restrain the development of leukemia, remove radionuclides from the body, and phytoncides prevent tubercle bacillus from developing. Silicon contained in cauliflower helps to strengthen bones, maintains the elasticity of blood vessels, and has a beneficial effect on teeth, hair and skin. Finally, broccoli indole inhibits the growth of malignant cells.

Growing cabbage .

All types of cabbage are deciduous vegetables, unpretentious to grow.

The agricultural technique for growing all types of cabbage is the same. It is a light-, moisture-loving cross-pollinated cold-resistant plant. The growing season of different species and varieties is not the same. The area that will be used for planting cabbage is dug deeply since autumn, organic and mineral fertilizers are applied (20-40 g of ammonium nitrate, 30-40 g of superphosphate and 15-20 g of potassium chloride per square meter). In the spring it is not dug up, only slightly loosened with a rake or a hand cultivator. Cabbage loves dense soil.

Before sowing, cabbage seeds are subjected to thermal disinfection, warmed up - immersed in water heated to 50 ° C for 20 minutes. After that, they are cooled by immersing them in cold water for 3 minutes.

Cabbage needs nitrogen at the beginning of the growing season, and during the setting of heads of cabbage - in phosphorus and potassium (10 g per bucket per square meter).

Cabbage requires protection from diseases and pests. And most often the gardeners themselves are to blame for the diseases of cabbage, not compacting, but loosening the soil on plantings. Sometimes seedlings are planted in acidified soil, crop rotation and crop compatibility are not observed (cabbage does not get along with strawberries, tomatoes, beans).

The question often arises: is it necessary to break off the leaves of the cabbage? The answer is: it is necessary to remove diseased and yellow leaves. In other cases, the leaves are removed with strong foliage, and no more than two per plant per week, so as not to disturb the balance between the aerial part and the root system of the head of cabbage.

Late varieties of cabbage are laid for storage, with dense heads of cabbage and green leaves, which protect it from fungal infection. The optimal mode is storage with stumps and green leaves in a suspended state, when the heads of cabbage do not touch at a temperature close to zero (± 1 ° C). When stored on racks, in boxes, each head of cabbage should be wrapped in paper, which will slow down the spread of putrefactive bacteria. It should be checked periodically. In this case, you should not remove the dried lower leaves. But if the sheet becomes wet, it must be removed. When mucus appears, the head of cabbage is cleaned and the healthy part of the head is used immediately.

Growing white cabbage.

In our conditions, all its varieties are widespread - from early to late ripening. They are planted in the ground with seedlings: early varieties - in late April, mid-season and mid-late - in early May, late - in tenths of May. Planting is done according to the scheme from 50 x 50 cm (early) to 70 x 70 cm (late).

When planting seedlings in well-moistened holes, the soil around the plants must be compacted. During the growing season, cabbage consumes a large amount of water, especially it is necessary to monitor soil moisture during the period of leaf growth and head formation. It is noticed that when planting seedlings, willy-nilly, the lower part of the main root is removed, and therefore its root system is located superficially in the soil. Cabbage is a moisture-loving plant, so it should be watered often and abundantly. Seed cabbage sown on the beds does not need such moisture. Conclude: either the preservation of the taproot of the plant, including sowing with seeds, or frequent and abundant watering of the plantings.

Periodically, the soil needs to be loosened, only as close to the plants as possible. During the season, two hilling are carried out: the first - 20 days after planting, the second - 8-10 days after the first.

Feed the cabbage three to four times. It needs nitrogen, especially at the initial stage of foliage and root growth. And in the phase of the formation of a head of cabbage, feeding with phosphorus and potassium is necessary. Cabbage should be fed once or twice with organic fertilizers (mullein solution, bird droppings).

It is good to feed (powder) the plants with wood ash (a glass per square meter), which serves not only as a fertilizer, but also as a prophylaxis against aphids and slugs. The last time for feeding is July - early August, if in a later growing season the plants do not signal a "hunger strike" by their appearance.

The greatest growth of heads of cabbage occurs in late autumn, so you should not rush to harvest it. But often at this time there are frosts, so you need to show wisdom: be attentive, observe the processes taking place in nature, listen to forecasts of weather forecasters. White cabbage painlessly transfers one-time frost to the root. Repeated exposure of cabbage to low temperatures is undesirable. If this happened, before putting the frozen heads of cabbage for storage (with the core not frozen), they must be kept at a temperature slightly above zero for three days, then put into a room for thawing at 10-15 ° C. Such cabbage can be stored for a short time, its taste and properties are restored.

Growing red cabbage.

Differs from white-headed color of leaves and heads of cabbage.

Red cabbage helps to weaken the harmful effects of radiation, prevents the development of leukemia, tubercle bacillus, is more cold-resistant. The duration of its growth is somewhat shorter (160 days) than that of the late white cabbage. Therefore, it is planted in late May - early June.

Growing cauliflower.

Its head is a fleshy overgrown inflorescence. It is poorly stored, therefore, for constant consumption, it is sown at several times with an interval of 10-15 days.

She is capricious in cultivation. Does not tolerate picks. Demanding on the temperature regime - before the emergence of shoots, it is necessary to maintain a temperature of 20 ° C, after shoots - during the day about 10 ° C, at night - 7 ° C, a decade after the emergence of shoots - 18-20 ° C and 10-12 ° C, respectively. She needs a moist and warm soil, sufficiently illuminated, with a high content of humus and nutrients. It needs frequent and regular watering throughout the growth period. Water it both under the root and by sprinkling.

Feed the cauliflower when the head begins to appear. The first time it is necessary to feed with urea or other nitrogen fertilizer, and the second time - with a complex fertilizer. Only a strong plant with large leaves forms large and dense heads. But excess nitrogen fertilization leads to the development of powerful leaves and small fruit heads. Sensitive to the lack of boron and molybdenum. Chlorine intolerant.

To keep the heads fresh and white, they need to be covered from the hot sun with broken leaves.

The heads are cut off in a dense state with the cessation of their growth. They are eaten fresh, fried, stewed, canned, frozen. It is used in dietary nutrition, for gastrointestinal diseases.

Growing kohlrabi cabbage.

It is a spherical stem fruit. Loves hot and dry summers. The growing season is 2 months.

Unlike other types of cabbage, it is very sensitive to sharp and significant temperature fluctuations. She gives two or three harvests.

Fresh kohlrabi contains 50-60 mg of vitamin C per 100 g of the fruit, and in young leaves it is several times more than in the stem. There is a lot of calcium, provitamin A, and iron is the most of the minerals. Young and medium-sized stems taste great: cheese - nutty with a herring flavor, boiled - turnip and cabbage flavor.

Sow kohlrabi finely. They remove it gradually, preventing the heads of cabbage from becoming lumber. It is usually used as a compactor with late-ripening cabbage varieties, tomatoes, cucumbers and as a subsequent crop.

Growing broccoli cabbage.

Broccoli contains most of the essential acids (at the beef level) of certain substances - at the level of chicken egg protein ascorbic acid - twice as much as cauliflower and cabbage carotene - more than spinach, asparagus. The fruits of broccoli contain salts of potassium, magnesium, vitamins B 1, B 2 , RR, E. Useful for heart patients and patients with disorders of the nervous system. Promotes the elimination of salts of heavy metals from the body, increases the body's resistance to radiation. Normalizes blood cholesterol levels. It contains fewer substances that impart bitterness, negatively affecting the functioning of the liver.

Externally, broccoli differs from cauliflower in the structure of the head. The stem of this variety of cabbage is fleshy, at the end of its loose head. During the growing season, the plant forms side shoots on which small heads grow. It comes in green, purple and white. Purple and white varieties are frost-hardy, high-yielding, ripen later than collard, but earlier than cabbage. The growing season is up to 80 days. It is better to sow it at different times in order to constantly use it for food. First, the main head is cut off with a 15 cm part of the fleshy stem, and then, until frost, the side ones. They are grown both as seedlings and seeds directly into the soil.

Growing Brussels sprouts.

This is the most valuable vegetable crop with good taste, especially when it is stuck in frost. It is useful for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes. Rich in proteins, potassium, sodium.

She loves moisture and fertile soil, which must be dense. Otherwise, the heads of cabbage may be loose and will have to be removed. Planting care is the same as for white cabbage. The peculiarity of care is the need for timely, at the stage of compaction of the heads of cabbage, pinching the apical bud to obtain the best quality harvest.

Brussels sprouts are hardy. The growing season is 140-150 days for sowing with seeds and 105-110 for seedlings.

A site about a garden, a summer residence and houseplants.

I have been doing gardening for as long as I can remember. At first she helped her grandmother, and later she got married and acquired her own plot of 20 acres. I grow a variety of vegetables: cucumbers, tomatoes, beets, onions.

But cabbage works best of all.

In mid-late April, I dig up the ground in the greenhouse, add humus (2 buckets per 1 sq. M). After that, I pour boiling water over the soil and close the greenhouse for a day. When the ground is ready, I form grooves about 50 cm long and 3 cm deep. I sow dry cabbage seeds one at a time, 3 cm apart. Sprinkle with earth. I pour it with warm water and tightly close the greenhouse. If it is very cold outside, I warm up the greenhouse with a heater.

By the way, in the same way I sow aster, zinnia, sunflower seeds on seedlings. From time to time I water with small portions of heated water so that the earth does not dry out. After watering, I loosen the soil and weed the weeds. I do not feed cabbage seedlings with anything.

Growing white cabbage in a seedless way

With this method of cultivation, cabbage is sown directly into the ground to a permanent place. Seeds are sown to a depth of 2 cm, the seeding rate is 1.2-2.0 g per 10 m 2. In the phase of three leaves, the first thinning and culling is done. At the age of 5-6 leaves - the final, leaving a distance of 35-70 cm between plants in a row, depending on the variety. Plant care is the same as for seedlings.

This method of growing cabbage is most acceptable for the southern regions; in central Russia, as a rule, it is not used.

1. "Hybrids of white cabbage F1 Fast and Furious and F1 Nakhalenok as a means of obtaining high profits" // Vestnik Ovoshchevoda. 2011. No. 5. S. 21-23.

2. Cabbage. // Book series "Household farming". M. "Rural nov", 1998.

3. VABorisov, AVRomanova, IIVirchenko "Storage of cabbage of different ripening periods" // Vestnik Ovoshchevoda. 2011. No. 5. S. 36-38.

4. SS Vaneyan, AM Menshikh, DI Engalychev "Methods and techniques of irrigation in vegetable growing" // Vestnik Ovoshchevoda. 2011. No. 3. S. 19-24.

Dates of sowing seeds for seedlings

The best option is to calculate the sowing time individually for each variety (hybrid). You can learn how to do this in the article When to sow vegetables for seedlings. Therefore, I will indicate only approximate dates:

  • early - from the beginning to the end of March
  • averages - from tenths of April to 12 May
  • late - from mid-May to June 10.

Calculate the sowing time individually for each variety (hybrid)

Age of cauliflower seedlings before planting:

  • for early varieties - about 60 days
  • for medium - about 40 days
  • for late - about 35 days

Dates for planting seedlings in open ground:
  • early - from late April to mid-May
  • medium early - from mid-May to mid-June
  • late - from early to mid-July.

Many summer residents grow seedlings of different times in order to get a kind of conveyor belt of young cauliflower over the summer.

Cabbage in Siberia is grown only in seedlings. The only exception is Peking - its early ripening hybrids can be sown immediately to a permanent place. For the most part, white cabbage is grown - early, mid-season and late varieties. For each of them, agronomic science prescribes its own sowing dates.

In the harsh climate of Siberia, cabbage is grown in seedlings so that it has time to ripen in a short summer before the onset of Siberian cold and frost.

According to the ripening period, it is subdivided into early, middle and late. Naturally, the timing of sowing seeds for seedlings and planting grown and mature seedlings in the ground are different. Sowing seeds of early cabbage for seedlings is necessary in the spring at the beginning of April, middle and late in the second half of the month.

Transplanting seedlings into open ground is done at the age of 40-45 days from the moment of seed germination. Early varieties are planted approximately in mid-May, middle and late ones at the end of May. The landing is carried out when the threat of possible spring temperature drops has passed.

As the popular sign says, it is possible to plant cabbage in open ground, after the flowering bird cherry, there should be no return frosts.

Are the seedlings afraid of frost, what temperature they can withstand
This is a fairly cold-resistant crop, and it is able to withstand a drop in temperature and small short-term frosts. What is the minimum temperature the seedlings can withstand? Hardened seedlings tolerate short sub-zero temperatures down to -3 ÷ -4 ° degrees.

To save seedlings from low temperatures, you can use the sprinkling method, smoke, but this is work for the whole night and it is not always effective. To preserve the seedlings, you can cover them with hoods made of newspapers, wooden boxes, but it is much easier, more convenient and reliable to cover the plantings with a covering material with a density of 60, under which the plants are able to withstand outdoor temperatures down to -7 ° C frost.

Spring planting in open ground

Planting cabbage seedlings in Siberia in open ground is practically no different from planting it in other regions, except that in shifted terms and for harsh conditions, the plants must be well hardened.

The first to be planted in open ground are seedlings of early varieties, the next in line are colored, Savoy, medium and late white cabbage.

Seedlings with a fibrous root system and 3-5 well-developed leaves are considered ready for transplantation.

Soil preparation

The place for planting is chosen open and well-lit, with loose and moisture-permeable soil. It is advisable to prepare a plot for growing vegetables in the fall. It is cleared of weeds, compost or humus and mineral fertilizers are added for digging. Organic matter is added at the rate of 3-4 kg per 1 m 2, mineral fertilizers - 1 tablespoon of nitrophosphate or superphosphate per 1 m 2. If the use of mineral fertilizers is not acceptable for you, it is enough to add one glass of wood ash per 1 m 2.

It is good if green manures were planted on the site before digging - rye, oats, lupine, phacelia, peas. These plants improve the structure of the soil and cleanse it of such a dangerous cabbage disease as keela.

The best for growing this culture are soils with a slightly acidic or neutral reaction, therefore, acidic soils in the fall must be calcified - add slaked lime, dolomite flour or wood ash for digging. Another reason for the need to deoxidize the soil is the fight against the keel of cabbage, which rages precisely on acidic soils.

You can grow cabbage after cereals and legumes, tomatoes, onions, potatoes, peppers, cucumbers and beets.

Planting scheme and cultivation methods

Each type of culture has its own landing schemes:

  • early white and red - 30 * 50 cm
  • middle and late - 50 * 70 cm
  • Savoyard - 70 * 30 cm
  • colored - 30-60 cm
  • broccoli for good shoot development - 40 * 60 cm
  • kohlrabi - 30 * 40 cm.

Cabbage loves light and good ventilation, so you can stick to a simpler arrangement of plants in a row and between rows 50 * 50 cm.

If planting in double rows is used, then in order to avoid thickening, it is better to plant the second row in a checkerboard pattern.

When planting in single rows, cabbage is well ventilated and it is at ease without close neighbors.

For better use of the free area, cabbage can be compacted with other crops. This plant is very good for neighbors with a superficial root system, such as parsley, legumes (they also enrich the soil with nitrogen), onions, spinach, salads, dill, carrots. Cabbage takes food from the deep layers of the earth, and the neighbors from the upper ones and in such a community, no one bothers anyone.

It is advisable to plant seedlings in cloudy weather or in the evening. Strong and healthy plants are planted, if the seedlings have even the slightest signs of disease, they are discarded. They also do the same with weak plants, which are either not planted, or are planted last in the remaining area.

Neighbors can also be selected according to the ripening period. So next to the garden with early cabbage, you can plant tomatoes and beets. After harvesting ripe cabbage in June, the remaining plants will continue to develop normally.

What to put in the hole in spring and how much

If fertilizers were not applied to the area intended for growing cabbage in the fall, this can be done directly at planting. What to add to the hole when planting seedlings and how much?

In the holes with a diameter of 30-40 cm and a depth of 15-20 cm, you should put 1 tbsp. spoon of wood ash, 1 teaspoon of urea and superphosphate, and of course put humus, enriching and improving the structure of the soil. If heavy perlite is poured on the soil. All the components of the planting hole are well mixed with the ground, poured with a pink solution of potassium permanganate, or with a solution of soda ash (a glass of soda on a bucket) and the seedlings are planted. The seedlings deepen in cotyledonous leaves and slightly compact the soil.

You do not need to spend special efforts on growing cabbage if you adhere to planting dates and follow agricultural techniques. And you will be provided with this tasty and healthy vegetable all year round.

Watch the video: Growing Cabbage: sowing, Transplanting, Care, Harvesting, Storing..