General information about clematis, types and planting
Liana clematis - queen of climbing plants
General information about clematis
In the 80s of the last century, an incredible interest in a rare perennial liana - clematis, whose name comes from the Greek word literally meaning "branch or shoot of grapes", flared up in our country.
In the ancient world, this term was used for various climbing plants, including clematis. One of the first written mentions of it dates back to 1548: in the work of V. Turner "The Name of Medicinal Plants" there is information about Clematis vitalba, which at that time was used for medicinal purposes.
Experts say that only in European languages this plant has about 200 popular names, although its culture is very young in comparison with many garden plants: clematis, warthog - so they call him in Russia, elulyng ("string of life") - in Estonia, ragan ("Witch on a broom") - in Lithuania, mezhvitenis ("climbing plant in the forest") - in Latvia, sippranka ("climbing anemone") - in Sweden, waldrabe ("forest vine branch") - in Germany.
Perhaps the most poetic folk names for clematis exist in England, and in translation they sound like “the joy of the traveler; the joy of the shepherd; girl hair; honesty; flame; fucking gut and witch's rope; the warthog and the old man's beard ", and even" the snow at the time of the harvest "
If you think about it, this amazing plant really evokes a lot of similar associations. The lush green of the carved leaves is akin to girlish curls, and the large bright flowers that cover the bush are like a flame; and clematis fruits are very decorative, their fluffy filaments in a rounded head really resemble snow balls.
Botanists count about 150 species of this genus of the Buttercup family, widespread in nature in the temperate climatic zone. The most common life form is a climbing liana, which attaches to supports with leaf stalks and leaflets twisting around them. Vine stems can be woody, in which case the entire shoot hibernates; semi-woody - they have only the lower ranks of the shoots by the spring; and herbaceous, dying off at the end of each season and regrowing in spring. It is the origin of the species and variety that dictates the features of their cultivation, including pruning.
Less common are evergreen forms, which are especially interesting to grow in a container culture (as, indeed, deciduous ones). In culture, there are both species clematis and varietal groups of Zhakman (English breeder G. Jackman), Vititsella, Lanuginoza, Florida, Integrifolia and others. Many of the varieties that were bred in the late 19th century in England are still grown and will be multiplied in the future. Clematis is such a beloved plant in the world that it was awarded the title of Queen of climbing plants.
In 1984, Raymond Avison (England) founded the International Clematis Society, which is engaged in the introduction and selection of clematis. R. Evison is known as the author of almost 70 varieties and hybrids of clematis, articles and books about this culture, and most importantly - as the founder of the most famous specialized clematis nursery on the island of Guernsey in the English Channel.
About 200 species and varieties of clematis are grown in the nursery, 5 million plants per year are sold to 20 countries of the world. The varieties coming from this nursery have the code prefix Evi - this is how you can recognize them in the catalogs.
Clematis Jacqueman and phlox
Large-flowered clematis were selected in the 19th century mainly in England and France. In the XX century, such work was carried out in the USA, Holland, Poland, Sweden, Japan, but for us these varieties are almost unknown and not tested. Domestic breeding of clematis was carried out mainly in botanical gardens. New varieties resistant to wilt and adapted to Russian realities were bred in the Nikitsky Botanical Garden by M. A. Beskaravaynaya and A. N. Volosenko-Valenis. In Kiev, in the Botanical Garden, MI Orlov worked on this topic, in Leningrad - VM Reinvald. Specialists and amateurs in the Baltic countries have also done a lot for the study, distribution and breeding of clematis.
One of the best books on culture is Clematis (V. Riekstina, I. Riekstins, 1990). In the Moscow region, MF Sharonova, the author of many undersized and abundantly flowering varieties, began breeding at the age of 70 and achieved great success, completing her creative and life path at the 103rd year of life! This suggests that it is never too late to devote yourself to what you love and to beautify your life. It is a sad fact and at the same time joyful - the varieties of our breeders are multiplied by foreign nurseries and they are sold to us. As for the domestic industrial floriculture, its fate is still sad ...
Interest in clematis, like other ornamental plants, has had its ups and downs. In times of peace, gardeners exchanged planting material, botanical gardens and individual amateurs created collections, engaged in selection. The First and Second World Wars greatly undermined the work on the introduction of clematis in our country until the 50s. They were especially fond of clematis in the Baltic States, where interesting and rich collections were created. The spread of the culture was also delayed by the fact that varieties unstable to wilt gave large attacks.
It is interesting that in 1873 the journal "Bulletin of the Russian Society of Gardening" wrote that clematis in our Petersburg climate can only be grown in greenhouses. (The same opinion was also about tree peonies, which for the first time remained to winter in the ground in the fall of 1941, when there was simply no one to transfer them to the greenhouse).
From this it follows that clematis are thermophilic, photophilous, do not tolerate soaking and severe frosts, alternating with large thaws. Particularly vulnerable is the upper underground part of the plants, where regeneration buds are formed. And, nevertheless, our northern gardens are increasingly decorated with openwork supports with garlands of bright flowers on cascades of clematis greenery.
Types of clematis
Clematis Fargeziodes and maiden grapes
At the beginning of the 19th century, there was a period of introduction of wild species into botanical gardens and amateur collections: Clematis erecta, Clematis integrifolia, Clematis virginiana, Clematis vitalba, Clematis viticella and many others. All these species grow successfully in our climate. They are distinguished by medium-sized, but very graceful, often star-shaped flowers and carved leaves. In gardens, species clematis are the most stable and unpretentious, at the same time, very decorative.
They grow at supports even in the shade, bloom small, up to 5 cm in diameter, flowers of white, cream, lilac, yellow. They are propagated by seeds, layering, dividing the bushes. One of the most decorative varieties close to the species forms is Clematis Fargezioides, which develops powerful shoots up to 3 m high, which covers the wall and roof of the garden house.
At the same time, the green mass of openwork greenery is literally strewn with creamy white star-shaped flowers. The spectacle is unforgettable, and it lasts 10-15 years in one place. But for insurance, it is necessary from time to time to lay layering, green cuttings in July in order to have young plants near arches, arbors, terraces, and other supports in the form of openwork steles, pyramids. Unfortunately, this cultivar hardly sets seeds. It has been known for a long time, but is not widely used.
Of the species clematis with rather large flowers, we can grow clematis violet (Clematis viticella) with purple, blue, pink-purple four-petal flowers with a diameter of about 5 cm.There are garden forms and varieties with white, pink and double flowers.
Whole-leaf clematis (C. integrifolia)
I must say that the regularity of the correspondence between the sophistication of the flower and its exactingness to the growing conditions is best expressed in this culture, especially in large-flowered hybrid varieties. Large-flowered varietal clematis needs a specially protected, sunny place, nutritious soil with excess water drainage; no weeds and light shading of the soil in the root zone.
But it is the large-flowered hybrids and varieties that attract the most attention of gardeners with the unusual flowers, the diameter of which reaches 20 cm, and the color can be white, pink, blue-violet, blue, lilac, purple. Terry flowers are amazingly beautiful, but they are not so large. It is even more surprising that in fact these are not flowers, but huge colored sepals (or bracts, number 4-8, with the exception of terry varieties), often they have a pleasant smell.
There may be no petals at all, or they are very small, but there are many brightly colored stamens and pistils, and this especially adorns the plant. Bracts are located on the lateral axes of the first order, most often forming a double or triple brush. Fruits are single-seeded nuts, which are collected in compound fruits - multi-nuts.
Landing site of clematis
As a rule, it is chosen near the house, but at the same time it is extremely important not to bring the plants closer than 50 cm to the walls, and most importantly, to prevent drops from the roof to clematis, because waterlogging is a direct path to the death of these magnificent vines. At the same time, they need sufficient moisture, nutrition and do not tolerate weed competition. An important feature of this "tamed" forest liana is the need to shade the foot of the plants with good illumination of the upper part of the bushes. Usually, some kind of ground cover or undersized plants are planted in the root zone.
The filamentous roots of clematis go down to 1 m, so the standing of the groundwater must be very low, or the plants are planted on a hill. Drainage in the case of clematis has its literal meaning - "drainage". It is necessary to find places for plants from which water will certainly leave, and not just pour broken brick and crushed stone into the planting pit. There is information from collectors that in relatively dry years, clematis "on bricks" die, because their roots are in the air voids between the stones.
Soil for clematis
Clematis Fargezioides and panicle hydrangea
It should be permeable, loose and light, or of medium density, fertile, slightly alkaline or neutral. If the soils of your site are very different from the recommended ones, you need to prepare the desired mixture of humus, coarse sand, peat and garden soil with the addition of 1 tbsp. l. granules of complex fertilizer long-acting AVA. When planting in spring, a rather large planting hole with a depth of about 80 cm is filled with it, in which the roots of clematis are spread on a cone of earth.
When planting container seedlings, the clod of earth is not disturbed, only the tips of the roots are carefully straightened. The combination of organic and AVA will provide plants with nutrition for the next 2-3 years without additional feeding, which is very important for ease of work and cost savings. One of the secrets of this culture is a somewhat recessed planting, since new roots and renewal shoots are formed from the lower part of the stems, covered by the ground.
When planting young 1-2-year-old seedlings in spring, the root collar is deepened by 1-2 cm. As the stems grow and are strong, by autumn they are spudded by 5-7 cm with a mixture of sand and peat, which warm up faster in spring, which is important for germinating young shoots ... At the same time, as is known from other crops, on peat bogs, sandy loam and sandy soils
Preparing clematis for winter
Hilling for the winter with heavy loam can lead to damping of the stems in winter and oxygen starvation in the spring. Therefore, before winter, it is recommended to pour about a bucket of sand with ash (250 g per bucket) on the clematis bush. This "powder" will provide protection from frost and excess moisture in the autumn-winter period. With the onset of stable frosts, an inverted flower pot of large diameter or a box is placed upside down on top of this cone, covered with a film or roofing material, securing them so that the ends of the shelter are ventilated during the thaw.
Closer to spring, the deep dormancy of plants ends, their frost resistance decreases. Therefore, with the onset of warm weather, winter shelters are removed gradually: first, a film or roofing material, then the hilling layer is reduced, leaving 5-6 cm of peat above the tillering node, as well as spruce branches. The padded foot protects the kidneys from sunburn. It is known that frosts stronger than -5 ° C damage young shoots, therefore, if there is a threat of frost, it is better to again cover the bushes with lutrasil, a film.
Read the next part. Reproduction, vaccination and care of clematis →
Elena Olegovna (Marasanova) Kuzmina
photo of the author
• Clematis - planting and varieties
• Cultivation of clematis near St. Petersburg
Have you ever seen the effect of verbena on vampires ?! Not? So I'll tell you in all the details. Firstly, if you make an injection, then the ghoul simply turns off. But if you moisten a piece of matter with it, and then squeeze it between your teeth, then the substance will corrode the flesh, and its vapors will burn the airways when inhaled. And a simple touch of flowers brings pain.
By the way, in one literary source it was mentioned that the tincture of this representative of the flora, mixed in equal parts with the infusion of sage, leaves small scars on the parts of the body of bloodsuckers. In addition, it is the herb of lovers and mothers. Interesting fact, in my opinion. By the way, verbena is used in medicine. She and clean vessels - friends do not spill water.
In practice, verbena is, of course, a harmless plant. So caring for it is simple, although there are certainly certain features. This is a long-term type who came to us from distant America.
Growing macadamia nuts
Due to the rather long (from a commercial point of view) period of the tree's entry into fruiting - sometimes 7-10 years - varieties are often propagated by grafting. At home, this method of reproduction of this fruit tree is practically impracticable.
A convenient and effective way to get your macadamia plant is to germinate from seed.
After soaking whole nuts, they should be placed in a special moisture-retaining mixture in a container about 30 cm deep. The mixture can consist of peat and perlite / vermiculite or of peat, sand and turf. Nuts should not be buried deeply (they should receive daylight), and their seam should be unfolded in a horizontal plane. The moisture content of the mixture should be constantly monitored so that it does not fall - but do not accidentally overmoisten it! The temperature should be in the range from 18 to 30 ° C - the requirements of the varieties vary. Macadamia can only germinate in this state after a few weeks (from 3 weeks to several months) - you need to be patient. To facilitate this process, the sturdy shell is sometimes lightly scarified with a file. 15-centimeter sprouts can already be transplanted into a larger container with slightly acidic soil and provide the maximum possible sunlight at the same temperature.
In addition, an existing plant can be propagated, if not by grafting, then by cuttings. They need to be rooted at the same temperature, replanting in parallel as they grow.
Potatoes - general information
Without which today it is impossible to imagine any vegetable garden, it is without potatoes. Each owner or hostess on the site has given her the most honorable place, rarely less than half of the garden, and someone does not grow anything else besides her. Why be surprised? Of all the vegetables on our tables, potatoes are the most frequent and welcome guest.Even if it does not serve as one of the main dishes that day (and there are so many of them that you cannot count), it is almost certain that a few potatoes will be found at least in the soup. More often we only use onions and carrots, but we need very few of them. So it turns out that in terms of quantity in our diet, potatoes from garden vegetables are in first place, and if we take all vegetable products in general, then in second, slightly inferior to flour products, which include bread, pasta and many others.
The use of potatoes in food
In the kitchen, potatoes are the most versatile vegetable. It can be used to make both the first and the second, and even a dessert, including sweet potato cakes, it can be boiled, fried, stewed, mixed with any other products. The result will always be excellent - both satisfying and tasty. In total, according to the most conservative estimates, more than 500 different dishes can be prepared from potatoes.
The calorie content of potatoes is three times higher than other vegetables, because it contains a lot of carbohydrates, especially starch (by the way, it is usually made from potatoes). There is a lot of it in tubers - from 10 to 20%, if you count in raw form, and even more in dry form. According to the amount of starch in the tubers, varieties are divided into table, technical and fodder. In industrial varieties of starch, most of all - from 18% and more, and the tubers of these varieties are mainly used for processing. In fodder varieties, on the contrary, there is less starch, but there is much more protein - potatoes of these varieties are nutritious, but not tasty enough. But potatoes of table varieties, that is, the one that we most often eat, is, as it were, average in starch content, but the most delicious.
Useful properties of potatoes
In addition to starch, potatoes contain proteins, valuable mineral salts and other trace elements, vitamin C and vitamins of group B. It is no coincidence that potatoes are not only eaten, but also used as a medicine, especially in their raw form. It is useful for many diseases, including arrhythmias, edema and stomach ulcers, improves digestion, liver and kidney function, and neutralizes substances hazardous to health..
True, if you look into our traditional folk "herbalists", you will hardly find information about potatoes in them (except perhaps in the most modern ones). Although we are so used to it that we can no longer imagine how to do without it, in fact this plant is by no means local, its homeland is America. Before Peter I, they did not know anything about the existence of potatoes in Russia, moreover, when it was first brought in, many for a long time stubbornly refused to even try it. Resentment that the tsar was forcing them to grow a new vegetable even escalated into riots. And only when Peter I stopped ordering and, on the contrary, announced potatoes as food for the elite, the attitude towards him began to change. When the tubers were tasted, less than half a century had passed before the potato bushes turned green in almost all the gardens.
The most important thing in potatoes is the tubers.... And not only because for the sake of them we grow it. This is his main characteristic as a plant. In terms of the appearance of the tuber and the fact that it grows underground, it is easy to mistake it for some special kind of root, but in fact it is a modified shoot, and in terms of its meaning for a plant it is something like a "baby", a special organ that helps potatoes reproduce when for some reason it is impossible with the help of seeds. The tops of potatoes are relatively fragile, they can easily be destroyed by drought and cold (in most varieties, the bushes die at temperatures close to zero, only a few can withstand -1 ° C), and too much heat, and the tuber can withstand much more severe conditions. In addition, many nutrients and useful substances accumulate in it - they allow a new plant to emerge even on not too rich soil.
Although at first glance, the tuber seems completely homogeneous inside, its pulp contains everything necessary for the development of a new bush: from the already mentioned "pantry with nutrition" (moreover, most of the nutrients and nutrients are located closer to the peel, where they are needed by the kidneys) to invisible to the human eye of special clusters of cells, from which full-fledged buds are then formed, and then roots, stems and leaves. Outside, in freshly harvested tubers, the buds-eyes look like small depressions, often differing in a darker color than the rest of the peel, later they become more noticeable. Most of the eyes are located on the side of the tuber, which, while it was growing in the ground, was upper, least of all - in the lower, where the tuber was previously attached to the underground shoot - the stolon. By the accumulation of eyes, it is easy to determine where the tuber is on top and where is on the bottom (this is important, since tubers planted "upside down" germinate worse and develop more slowly). How many eyes a tuber has depends on the variety: some varieties have a lot of them, others have very few. It must be remembered that if you cut a tuber before planting, do it so that at least 2-3 buds-eyes remain on each part of it.
As soon as the tuber feels that there is enough warmth and moisture around it, sprouts will appear on it, even if it is not in the soil, but lies in the cellar. This usually happens at a temperature of +5. 10 ° C. If the tuber is in the ground, then from part of these shoots (thicker, with buds) stems with leaves will grow, and from part (thin) - roots.
Features of care for iglice
The flowers on the branches do not exceed 1 cm in diameter, they are greenish, with six petals, six stamens and a single pistil. It is unlikely that they themselves are capable of causing delight. It is noteworthy that flowers appear exactly in the middle of flattened leaf-shaped branches, and in some species from above from the "leaf", and in others - from below.
The berries are really smart. They are large, bright, orange-red and persist for a long time on the branches. Moreover, on one plant, you can find both ripening fruits and flowers at the same time. Butcher is undemanding to soils: you can provide it with leafy soil with the addition of sand and heavy clay soil in a ratio of 3: 1: 1. Butters reproduce by dividing the bush. It is necessary that the share must have its roots and a section of rhizome with a bud.
Butchers have only one growing season: early spring. It is then that young shoots break out of the soil. The entire shoot is already fully formed in the underground bud, only the size of the shoot depends on careful care, but not the number of branches on it.
It is highly undesirable to damage the young shoot: a new one can grow only in the next season. It is best to divide the bushes shortly before the growth period.
Butchers are adapted to summer drought, but they must be well watered in autumn and winter. Butcher's broom is the most stable. Species with wide photosynthetic twigs need more moisture in summer. It is useful to dry the soil between waterings only slightly. If you want to feed butchery, do it during the regrowth of shoots using complex mineral fertilizers.
At the end of the growth, butcher's broomsticks are not sensitive to feeding. Each shoot serves for quite a long time for decorative purposes (from 3 to 6 years), and then becomes straw yellow and dries up. It is better to remove such shoots in time. Unlike asparagus, butcher's broomsticks do not sprinkle on twigs, and there is much less debris from them.
Large branches of butcher's broom are used as ornamental foliage for bouquets. If butcher's broom is able to decorate only a composition of dried flowers, then branches with berries of larger species can be added to fashionable bouquets. However, remember that no more than 30% of the shoots can be cut in a year without damaging the plant.
Irises. Planting and leaving
The tall, beautiful irises, named after the Greek goddess of the rainbow, come in a variety of magical colors. Every gardener wants to own this perennial flower. Despite being divine, it is hardy, reliable and easy to grow. The plant also attracts butterflies and hummingbirds and provides wonderful bouquets.
There are about 300 species in the genus of irises. The most common flowers are tall (at least 70 cm) bearded irises. The characteristic flowers have three large outer petals and three inner vertical petals. The outer ones may have a "beard" or combs. The bearded iris is so named because it has soft hairs along the center of the outer petals. In some plants, the hairs form a furrow or ridge.
Most irises bloom in early summer. Some, mostly bearded hybrids, are remontant, that is, they bloom again later in the summer.
Carnations in landscape design
Variegated Chinese and Turkish carnations go well with other flowers in neutral monochrome shades.
Some helpful tips for a flower neighborhood:
- Roses inhibit the growth of carnations, so flowers are not planted nearby. Only compose them in cut form.
- It is not recommended to plant carnations next to tulips as the plants are prone to the same diseases.
- Stagnation of moisture in the soil is contraindicated for culture. Avoid planting carnations in lowlands or wetlands.
- If you are looking for a stunted species, stop on a grass or sandy one. Low-growing bushes during the flowering period do not exceed 25 cm.
- In a sunny area, the flower will bloom more abundantly and develop faster than in a shaded flower bed.
- For the design of a rock garden or rockery, plant perennial feathery varieties.
A skillfully selected variety will harmonize well with any type of plant
Bright varieties of Turkish carnations look good next to tall shrubs without fear of shading.
Useful properties of the plant
Carnation flower - description, types and varieties, methods of growing and reproduction, planting and care (60+ Photos & Videos)
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