Miscellanea

Choosing the type and variety of cosme

Choosing the type and variety of cosme


Messenger of the cosmos - kosmeya

Cosmos flowers, like guests from another planet, swing all summer on thin stems and rock graceful barrels, which are attracted by large, chamomile-like, multi-colored petals.

This summer is just perfect for decorating absolutely any suburban area, and the huge number of varieties that have been created today allow you to choose a plant for literally every taste and color.

Cosmeya has been known in the culture for more than two hundred years. Its pleasant name comes from the associations that arise when looking at a flower. This is a real "kosmeo", because in translation this word means "decoration". Cosmeya is loved almost everywhere, not only Russian gardeners, but also gardeners of many other countries of the world, where she is most often called "beauty", treat her with tenderness and care.


Features and types of cosmos

Cosmos, or cosmos (Cósmos) Is a genus of annual or perennial grasses belonging to the family Asteraceae, which are native to the tropical and subtropical regions of South and North America. Most often these are tall plants that have opposite pinnately dissected leaves and numerous inflorescences-baskets, which diversify their naked peduncles.

Currently, there are more than two dozen species of cosme, but only two of them are used in culture - double-feathered cosme and sulfur-yellow cosme.

Cosmeya double-peeled or otherwise Chinese chamomile (Cosmos bipinnatus) - This is a fairly widespread annual plant in our gardens, which has densely branched erect stems, reaching a height of one and a half meters and having light green leaves and leaves twice pinnately cut into filamentous lobes, which give the entire bush an openwork appearance.

The inflorescences of double-pinned cosmos are rather large and powerful chamomile, reaching a diameter of 12 cm and located in the upper part of the bush in the form of singles or collected in an inflorescence - a rare shield. The main color of the marginal flowers is different, it varies from pure white, pink or crimson to dark burgundy or wine red and purple. The central flowers of double-feathery cosmos are small, yellow and folded into a small disk.

Kosmeya sulfur-yellow (Cosmos sulphureus) - this is a new annual for Russia, which has straight, branched and slightly pubescent shoots reaching a height of 120 cm.This species, when compared with double-pinnate cosmos, has less dissected leaves, and the inflorescences reach a diameter of 4-8 cm and abundantly cover the entire plant that looks extremely impressive.

Despite the official name of the species - "sulfur-yellow", most modern varieties of this species have not only golden yellow, orange and even red reed flowers. The tubular flowers are often small and yellow, with dark anthers and orange tips protruding outward.

Growing cosmos with seeds and seedlings

Plants belonging to both species are very cold-resistant, moderately drought-resistant, undemanding to the soil, although they succeed much better on fertile ones. They tolerate the transplant normally.

These plants bloom very profusely and practically throughout the entire warm season. Plants reproduce well by self-sowing, sometimes you don't even have time to notice when and how the seeds were formed, but in the spring, in the place where the cosmos used to grow, plants appear annually.

As a result, they can occupy large areas of your site, and if this is not included in your plans, then make it a habit to remove inflorescences that are beginning to fade. So you completely eliminate self-seeding, improve the appearance of the plant, and extend the flowering for some more time.

In general, if we have already started a conversation about growing cosmos, then it is worth noting that this can be done in two ways: by sowing seeds in open ground or, which is somewhat more difficult, through seedlings.

Seeds are usually harvested in August or early September, as they ripen. Mature seeds are dark and rather large, there are slightly more than 100 of them in one gram, they are very viable, do not lose germination within 3-4 years.

Now let's go directly to the technology of growing cosmos. Let's start with open ground. Seeds are sown in a permanent place either before winter or in spring. The second option is preferable, since in spring the soil, as a rule, is rich in moisture and well warmed up, which makes it possible to obtain a germination rate of 90%. In the southern regions of Russia, it is advised to start sowing seeds in early April, in more northern regions, as well as in the center, the optimal time for sowing is early May.

Seeds are sown in a previously prepared soil brought to a loose state in small holes, where they are placed in 2-3 pieces. The seeding depth should not be large, 1-1.5 cm is enough, and the optimal distance between the nests usually depends on the growth strength of the variety and is 25-50 cm.In order for the seeds to sprout together and quickly, it is necessary to water them, especially if the soil not damp enough. The area where you sow kosmeya should not be shaded, and the optimum soil temperature should be + 18 ... + 20 ° С.

The first shoots usually appear 8-10 days after sowing. For the normal development of seedlings, a temperature of + 15 ... 18 ° C is required. If there is a risk of recurrent frosts, it is necessary to cover the seedlings with a light covering material. Thinning can be started as soon as the plants form a pair of true leaves. As a rule, one strongest plant is left in each nest, the rest are removed or transplanted to another place.

Kosmeya blooms in the open field, usually in late July or early August. You can speed up this process, for which you must first grow seedlings. How to do it? Read about it below.

So, when growing cosmos through seedlings, seeds are sown not in open ground, but in small boxes or pots, which are placed in a cold greenhouse around the beginning of March in the southern regions or in mid-April - in more northern regions.

Containers with seeds should be placed in a cool but well-lit place and the temperature should be maintained at + 15… + 18 ° С. At a higher temperature, seedlings may appear faster, but the seedlings will be strongly elongated and weakened, they may not bloom earlier, but even later than their counterparts.

Seeds usually germinate after a week or so. Seedlings with the formation of the first pair of leaves must be thinned, leaving a distance of 2 cm between them. 14-16 days after thinning, they must be cut into separate pots or greenhouses. After that, the seedlings are left to grow. When they reach a height of 8-10 cm, they can be moved to a permanent place.

Seedlings are planted in open ground, usually in late May or early June. The plants must be planted one at a time, keeping the distance between them 25-50 cm.


Another option is also possible, when cosme seedlings are planted together - two or three plants each. These groups look more impressive than single ones, but you should not thicken the plantings too much. Too small a feeding area can negatively affect the appearance of the plants. This will manifest itself primarily in the reduction of inflorescences.

As for the landing site, you should choose only the most open and protected from the wind places with an abundance of sunlight, moisture, but without its stagnation. It is advisable to choose nutritious soil for planting, on which the kosmeya grows and blooms much more actively. Even a simple application of wood ash helps to increase the strength of growth and the intensity of flowering, but it is better not to experiment with mineral fertilizers, they can stimulate the active growth of shoots to the detriment of flowering.

Caring for plants after planting is simple, it consists in regular weeding with the removal of all weeds, as well as in the removal of all wilting inflorescences to exclude self-seeding. As for watering, the plants do not particularly need it, they can tolerate a long period of drought, however, the abundance of moisture has a positive effect on the intensity of flowering, so it is better to moisten the soil periodically.

Types and varieties of cosme

All of these recommendations are ideal for both the species of cosmos and the latest varieties of this crop. Currently, the varieties have different colors, vigor and flowering intensity.

The most popular varieties at the moment are: Purity - having a snow-white color of flowers, Soul - with graceful purple-pink petals, Diablo and Beautiful girl - with spectacular fiery red flowers. Bright red young inflorescences belong to the variety Dazzler... It is also interesting that they eventually change color to crimson.

Some varieties of cosme are bicolor, they have color bursts, edges, stripes and even central parts that are located in the pink-red range. The most outstanding of the line of these varieties are: cultivar Pink dreamhaving beautiful snow-white flowers in a pinkish frame, Candy strite, the flowers of which are snow-white and have crimson strokes, Dey-dreamhaving pale pink flowers with a bright pink base.

Of the new varieties that are currently gaining popularity, cultivars should be noted first of all Naughty girl and Youth, the petals of which are painted in a pearlescent white color and have a crimson border, which contrasts well with the beautiful cherry smear at the base of the flower.

Interesting and cultivar Radiance, which has a dark pink stripe around the yellow center, followed by a border of a lighter tone. In addition, the inflorescences are distinguished by closely spaced and even sometimes overlapping ligulate flowers that seem perfectly round.

In addition, varieties with the usual chamomile inflorescences are already slowly replacing graceful semi-double and double varieties, the marginal flowers of which are located in several rows around the central disc, and also possessing anemic inflorescences of an unusual shape with reed flowers fused into rather large tubes.

Blooming shoots of tall varieties of cosme look perfect in vases. They can decorate absolutely any flower arrangement. This plant is also suitable for cutting. Cosmos intended for bouquets are cut at the stage of half-open buds, only in this case they can retain their decorative effect for a long time and stand for more than two weeks in a regular room.

Tall varieties of cosme are successfully used in group plantings. They are in good harmony with decorative deciduous plants, look elegant on lawns, in massifs, and are also used to decorate flower beds and flower beds. These varieties are ideal for the background of the border, for the formation of flowering walls, creating a background that is formed from their finely dissected feathery leaves and numerous inflorescences that look informal.

Cosmees tolerate a haircut quite easily. Therefore, they are used for the formation of annual hedges, as well as curtain plants for decorating resting places and decorating tall, unsightly outbuildings.

In addition to the usual tall varieties of space, undersized forms of double-feathery and sulfur-yellow cosme, which are obtained as a result of a complex hybrid crossing of these species, are quite widespread.

At present, varieties have been obtained and are being freely marketed, the height of which does not exceed half a meter, which are very different from the standard cosme and can hardly be called "provincial".

One of the first cultivars from a whole series of undersized forms was the cultivar Sonata white with snow-white inflorescences. In essence, this is just a stunted form of the variety. Sonata... However, now a whole series of unique undersized cultivars with a varied color range of reed flowers have appeared on sale.

This and a bright raspberry variety Sonata carmine, and pink Sonata pink blush, and yellow Crest Lemon, as well as semi-double with a bush height of no more than 20 cm - grade Bilbo, whose inflorescences are colored orange. In Russia, the Solnechnaya series of varieties has gained popularity. Sunny gold and Sunny red, the flowers of which are semi-double and colored in golden yellow and red shades.

All undersized varieties of cosme are also ideal for arranging bouquets, decorating flower beds, mixborders and beddings, as well as for creating large groups against the backdrop of a green lawn. Having shown a little imagination, with the participation of cosmos, you can make whole flower arrangements, so, for example, multi-level plantings of space look very interesting with high varieties placed in the background and dwarf ones in the foreground. In addition, the forms of compact cosme are ideal for growing in street vases, containers and pots, which can be placed on a balcony or loggia. Or you can simply decorate a gazebo or a resting place in the garden with them.

In addition to the traditional varieties of kosmea, variety mixtures are also in demand, combining plants of various colors. The most popular varieties of cosme mixtures today are Sensation with a plant height of about 100-150 cm and inflorescences colored in pink, red and white; Polydor - 80-100 cm high and inflorescences painted in lemon, bright orange and red tones; Dwar click - this is a group of terry kosmey no more than a meter in height, differing in color, ranging from white to pale pink and red; Iridescent overflows - Plants reach a height of 120 cm and have large double inflorescences of a rich color range, ranging from white and pink to red and dark burgundy; Sea shells - one of the most interesting mixtures of varieties with voluminous and reed flowers grown together into a tube, expanding upward and resembling seashells; Ladybod - the brightest representative of the undersized cosmos, which has golden yellow, bright orange and red flowers that harmonize well with emerald green openwork foliage. These plants reach a height of 25-30 cm and are ideal for garden pots.

Any kosmeya planted on your site will be ideally combined with variegated annual flowers that are close in color. Of these, the most expressive combination can be achieved with verbena, carnation, phlox, chamomile, marigold, as well as dimorphoteka and salvia.

Irina Gurieva,
junior researcher
department of berry crops VNIIS them. I.V. Michurina
Photo by Galina Pugacheva and Olga Rubtsova


1 Spinach history and culture features

Spinach is an annual herb that belongs to the group of the Amaranth family. Its homeland is Ancient Persia, and many Arabs considered it the most useful herb, so only the most noble wealthy families used it as a delicacy.

Spinach was introduced to European countries only in the Middle Ages, and for the first time it was grown by Spanish monks. They cultivated the plant for a long time in their gardens, which made it possible to obtain many species. In the 17th century, juice and bread from this herb became the most popular in the market.

The bread was baked from flour extracted from the seeds, and the juice, due to its rich green color, was widely used in cooking. So, for example, in Spain it was used for coloring pasta and other products - sauces, creams, cream, vegetable or animal oil.

This plant quickly gained popularity among various European countries, and in our country it has been cultivated for about 200 years. It gained great popularity and distribution due to the simplicity of growing, unpretentiousness and lack of difficulty in care.

Garden spinach is used fresh, and no more than 5-6 leaves are used in different dishes.

It pairs well with sorrel and is popular with vegetarians and nutritionists. Today it is also widely distributed in canned and dried form. First and second courses, vegetable salads are made from it, and also used to decorate various culinary masterpieces.

It is thanks to its many beneficial properties that many gardeners are faced with the question of how to grow spinach. For this, seeds are used, which are soaked in water for two days before planting. It grows well at a temperature of about 16-19 degrees, while it is not afraid of frost.

But before growing, it is important to choose a quality seed. It is complicated by the fact that today there are numerous types of spinach that are widespread in our region and differ in taste, harvest time and other qualities.

Video on how to grow Uteusha spinach

Among all varieties, three groups can be distinguished:

  • early maturing
  • mid-season
  • late ripening.

It is optimal to plant all three varieties in the garden, which will allow you to get greens throughout the summer season.


Panicled phlox variety

The most voluminous group actively used by landscape designers to decorate various types of flower beds. Phloxes are unpretentious to growing conditions, quickly acclimatize. The main features of the species:

inflorescences are dense, spherical

flower diameter from 2.5 cm to 4 cm

leaves are lanceolate, 9-15 cm long.

Paniculate phlox is divided into three types: low - up to 60 cm, medium - about 80 cm and high - up to 120 cm.Depending on the variety, the flowering period varies. The group amazes with a variety of palette, very aromatic.

Star of Paris

A frost-resistant, unpretentious cultivar in cultivation. The plant is tall, reaches 1 m in height. Stems are strong, erect. The flowers are blue, with subtle lilac veins. The shade depends on the planting site. In partial shade, it is more saturated, in the sun it is lighter. Burning out, the flowers acquire a pinkish tone. To maintain an attractive appearance, phloxes need to be stopped, watered moderately and loosened the soil.

Europe

A tall variety that grows, depending on the region, up to 70-110 cm. Attractive with delicate, large inflorescences. The petals are white, the center is deep pink. The diameter of the flowers is up to 4.5 cm. The plant develops well on moderately moist, humus-rich soils. Can grow in full sun and partial shade.

Margarita

Medium-sized phlox of domestic selection. Forms powerful bushes up to 75 cm high. Spherical inflorescences are large, dense. The diameter of the flowers is up to 4 cm. The color is rich, crimson-red, darker in the center. The shade remains unchanged even in the open sun, does not deteriorate from rain. Phlox pleases with flowering in the middle of summer.

Laura

Tall plant, reaching 120 cm in height. Bushes are strong, erect. The inflorescences are large, dense, bright. Phlox is suitable for decorating flower beds and for cutting. The diameter of the flowers is up to 3.5 cm. The shade is violet-purple, saturated. The middle is white, contrasting. Laura can be planted near water, it develops well near drains, it can grow in areas with a slope.


4 Late-ripening varieties

The most popular late-ripening varieties:

  • Fatty. A spinach variety that yields a harvest one month after planting. It has an attractive appearance, since it has a compact rosette, the diameter of which reaches 20-28 cm. The leaves are smooth, the taste is rich, the aroma is light.
  • Victoria. The plant acquires leaves suitable for collection 30-35 days after planting the seeds. Possesses good resistance to shooting and powdery mildew. But for proper growth, it requires good moisture and soil feeding.
  • Spokane. A breeding hybrid species that is of Dutch origin. It is notable for its late ripeness, since the crop is harvested only 2 months after planting. Recommended for fresh consumption and for processing - canning.
  • Korenta. A well-known hybrid variety that features a powerful rosette.

    Video plot about the trick of planting spinach

    Another popular but not quite standard spinach is aquatic spinach. It belongs to the genus of flowering plants, which have a huge number of species. Under natural growing conditions, the aquatic variety looks like a liana with rare leaves and beautiful flowers. It is most common in tropical Asian countries, the aquatic species can grow at any height - from 0 to 1500 meters above sea level. But mainly its habitat is rivers, ponds, streams, rice fields, savannahs and landfills. The water variety is quite unpretentious, but it is very difficult to grow it in our climatic conditions.

    There are numerous varieties of spinach - Indian, gigantic, aquatic, differing from each other in appearance, area of ​​growth, taste, as well as harvest time. That is why every gardener from such a variety will be able to choose the right one for himself.


    Coreopsis - the sun in the garden

    Charming bright coreopsis is able to delight with flowering all season - from late spring to early autumn. He has a lot of flowers surprisingly juicy in tone. The stems, despite the external fragility, are elastic and do not need support. The plant is unpretentious.

    Coreopsis, Lenok, or Parisian beauty - as soon as they call coreopsis. A native flower from North America, it has been known in culture for more than two centuries. There are perennial and annual coreopsis. The name Coreopsis comes from two Greek words koris - "bug" and opsis - "fruit". Indeed, the seed pods of the plant resemble a bug.

    Coreopsis (Coreopsis) Is a genus of perennial and annual flowering herbaceous plants of the Astrovye family (Asteraceae).


    Lobelia beautiful and blue

    Blue or Lobelia siphilitica. This is a perennial flower that has blue or purple inflorescences that resemble spikelets. The bush is not very sprawling, rather erect, rather tall.

    Lobelia was previously thought to be capable of treating syphilis and other complex diseases.

    This is not the most decorative variety of lobelia, therefore it is not so popular. But on its basis, many hybrids were bred. After crossing this variety with a shiny and purple lobelia, everyone has a beloved species called Compliment.

    Lobelia is beautiful. This is a perennial flower that grows into beautiful, tall bushes, about a meter high. Flowers - large, bright, grow up to 3 cm in diameter. In the southern territories, the plant is grown as a perennial crop.

    Lobelia bush - video


    Mid-season varieties

    Mid-season varieties ripen mainly 100 - 130 days after planting. Some of these varieties produce high yields and are dense enough to be transported over long distances, making them ideal varieties for commercial production. These varieties are mostly thermophilic, but some of them can be planted in cold regions as well.

    (you need to plant 40-day seedlings)

    See also: Red currant - planting and care

    Broccoli Ironman grows well in open areas, belongs to the high-yielding varieties.

    Broccoli "Gnome" has a high content of phosphorus, calcium and substances that promote the growth, strengthening and healing of bone tissue.

    Fortune is kept fresh for a long time, despite the fact that the structure of the fruits is very juicy.

    Residents of the northern regions should pay attention to the Calabrese cabbage. It tolerates cold weather and frost well both in the open field and in the greenhouse.


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