Principles for the establishment of protected areas

Principles for the establishment of protected areas


Law 394/91 in art. 1 establishes the fundamental principles for the establishment and management of protected natural areas, in order to guarantee and promote the conservation and enhancement of the country's natural heritage.

For the purposes of the law, the physical, geological, geomorphological and biological formations, or groups of them, which have significant naturalistic and environmental value constitute the natural heritage.

These territories are subject to a special protection and management regime, in order to pursue, in particular, the following purposes

  1. conservation of animal or vegetable species, of vegetal or forest associations, of geological singularities, of paleontological formations, of biological communities, of biotopes, of scenic and panoramic values, of natural processes, of hydraulic and hydrogeological balances, of ecological balances;
  2. application of methods of management or environmental restoration suitable for achieving an integration between man and the natural environment, also through the safeguarding of anthropological, archaeological, historical and architectural values ​​and of agro-forestry-pastoral and traditional activities;
  3. promotion of educational, training and scientific research activities, including interdisciplinary ones, as well as compatible recreational activities;
  4. defense and reconstitution of hydraulic and hydrogeological balances.

All the areas that meet the criteria described below are entered in the official list of protected natural areas


1) Subjects entitled to submit an application for registration

The subject entitled to submit the application for registration is the one who established the protected area, or the manager with a specific proxy.

2) Existence of a formal public or private institutive measure

It can be: a state or regional law or equivalent provision; a provision issued by another public body; a contractual act between the owner of the area and the body that manages it in which the purposes of environmental protection are specified.

3) Existence of perimeter

There must be cartographic documentation proving the perimeter of the area.

4) Naturalistic values

Presence of physical, geological, geomorphological, biological formations or groups of them of significant naturalistic and environmental value (Article 1, paragraph 2 of Law 394/91) and / or existence of naturalistic values, as required by art. 2 paragraphs 2 and 3 of the aforementioned law.

5) Consistency with the safeguard rules provided for by law 394/91

This concerns, among other things, the existence of the ban on hunting activities in the area. This means that, in the case of protected areas in part of which the ventaroia activity is exercised, only the part in which the hunting ban is in force can be entered in the List.

6) Management of the area

Management by organizations, consortia or other legal entities must be guaranteed; or the management can be entrusted with a specific deed to a different public or private entity.

7) Existence of budget or financing provision

The existence of a financial management of the area must be proven, even if this is only passive.

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