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Growing grapes according to technology for an excellent harvest

 Growing grapes according to technology for an excellent harvest


Growing grapes is not as difficult as it is commonly believed. Large clusters with juicy fruits will brighten up your vineyard if you follow the basic rules carefully, taking into account the advice of experienced growers.

What should you consider before growing grapes?

Vineyard photo

Why does not every gardener manage to grow good grapes on their plot so that they do not freeze over the winter, do not rot in the summer and bring a bountiful harvest of decent quality? The fact is that the cultivation of this culture must be taken seriously.

First of all, you should choose a suitable grape variety that will feel comfortable in your area. For instance, growing grapes in the middle lane gives good results only when using winter-hardy varieties with early ripening. Among the new varieties, you will find many excellent options that are resistant to fungal diseases, pests and severe frosts, with high yields and the ability to ripen even in a cloudy short summer.

Video about growing grapes

Black varieties tend to require more sunlight and warmth than light grapes, although there are some hardy black varieties.

Pay special attention to the appearance of the seedling when buying. Look for mechanical damage, signs of drying or strange spots on the plant? Healthy grape seedlings should have at least three well-developed roots and a shoot about half a meter high. In order not to doubt the quality of planting material, buy seedlings in the nursery, and preferably in a container - this way the plant will take root better.

It will be easier for a novice gardener to plant a ready-made grape seedling, especially if you want to create a vineyard from scratch. Experienced growers can easily cope with cuttings, but those who are not afraid to experiment can try growing grapes from seed.

In the photo grape seedlings

Step-by-step technology for growing grapes

When starting to create a vineyard, it is important to take into account the climatic features: if the region is characterized by little snowy winters and severe frosts, it would be preferable to plant grapes in trenches or holes, but if there is enough snow in winter, but the summer is too short and cold, it is better to plant seedlings in bulk ridges. In the pits, the root system will be reliably protected from freezing, and in the ridges, the roots will receive more heat during the summer months.

You can plant grapes both in spring and in autumn, depending on which planting material you have chosen. Consider the most common and simplest option - the autumn planting of grapes with seedlings in planting holes.

In the photo, planting grapes

Stages of planting a grape seedling:

  • choose for planting well-lit by the sun, a flat place where there are no drafts and excess moisture;
  • dig a planting hole according to the size of the root system, with a depth of 0.2 to 0.5 m (less for clay soil, deeper for sandy);
  • mix the soil from the pit with organic and complex mineral fertilizers;
  • put a layer of gravel on the bottom of the hole, and put branches or planks on top;
  • install a pipe with a diameter of 10 cm or more in order to water the grapes and fertilize the soil through it;
  • form a small mound of the prepared earth on top of the layer of gravel and branches;
  • before planting, dip the roots of a grape seedling in a solution of clay and rotted mullein (clay is twice as much as a mullein);
  • cut the shoots into a couple of buds and dip them in melted paraffin;
  • place the seedling in the hole, spreading its roots;
  • fill the hole with the remaining soil and tamp it carefully;
  • pour warm water over the grapes;
  • cover the hole with compost or rotted manure.

Photo of watering grapes

If you are going to plant several bushes of grapes, leave at least one and a half meters between them. In this case, it is recommended to arrange plants from the south to the north.

How to properly grow and care for grapes?

For the correct formation of the vines, it is necessary to install a solid trellis. The simplest construction consists of two metal or wooden posts with several rows of wire between them. As the vines grow, they are neatly tied to a wire, giving them the desired direction.

In the photo grapes

In the first three years, pay particular attention to planting: carefully loosen the ground two days after rain or watering, do not allow leaves to wither and dry out the soil from lack of moisture, destroy weeds. From the fourth year on, it is sufficient to water the vineyard three to four times per season during the most important phases of development.

Periodically, the vines should be fed through drainage pipes and along the leaves, and treated with suitable fungicides against pests and diseases. Inspect the plants more often in order to start the fight against dangerous enemies of grapes in time and prevent the death of the entire vineyard!

Video about the technology of growing grapes

Spend every fall after the fall pruning grapes... With the onset of the first night frost, remove the vines from the supports, pin them with brackets to the ground, treat with a solution of copper sulfate and cover with plastic wrap. In spring, do not rush to open the grapes until frosts and sudden changes in temperature stop.

By following the grape growing technology outlined in this article, you can create your own vineyard and enjoy delicious, juicy fruits every year.

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Growing grapes - step by step instructions - garden and vegetable garden

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Step 2. Decrease the acidity level

There are many ways to determine the acidity level of a soil. However, gardeners know without definition that clay soil most often has high acidity. This is another reason why vegetables refuse to produce good yields on such soil.

There are several ways to reduce the acidity of clay and loamy soils.

Lime... For deoxidation, slaked lime (fluff) is used, which is brought under digging at the rate of 300-400 g per 1 sq.m. However, when applying lime, you need to be very careful, because it interferes with the absorption of phosphorus by plants. For this reason, lime is used only in autumn, moreover, not more often than once every 3 years.

Dolomite flour... This is a safer deoxidizer, so it can be applied both in spring and autumn. In addition, dolomite flour also improves the structure of heavy soil, making it looser. Application rate - 400 g per 1 sq.m.

Ash... Wood ash plays a double role: it reduces the acidity of the soil and at the same time is an excellent fertilizer. However, for this you need to add at least 1-1.5 liters of ash per 1 square meter of soil. For summer residents, finding such a number is quite problematic.


Caring for grapes after harvest

After harvesting, you need to help the vineyard prepare for the winter. If the autumn is dry, it is necessary to carry out water-charging irrigation, since the drying out of the soil during the autumn cold snap will negatively affect the state of the root system of the grapes.

After the frost, when the leaves fall off, they begin the autumn pruning: they remove the fertile vines, annual shoots that will not be needed next year. The necessary vines are shortened, leaving 10-12 eyes on each.

Pruned shoots and foliage should be harvested and burned to prevent the spread of infections. And the vineyard, trellises, soil must be treated with a 3% solution of ferrous sulfate. Remember to wash and disinfect all tools you use to work in the vineyard.

After the onset of frost, you can begin to shelter the grapes. However, before doing this, you should make sure that no warming is expected. If the temperature rises under the shelter, a greenhouse effect may occur, since the soil has not yet frozen and moisture from it will accumulate inside the sheltered space. And these are ideal conditions for the reproduction of bacteria that penetrate through the vines and sleeves inside. Therefore, if warming is coming, it is better to postpone the shelter.

Experienced growers do not recommend using the straw and foliage of trees as shelter. The leaves quickly become damp and rot along with the vine. And straw is the best bait for mice, which can damage the vineyard.

It's no secret that any plant diseases are easier to prevent than to cure. Therefore, only the right agricultural technology can be the key to a healthy vineyard that you can be proud of.


When is the best time to prune grapes - in spring or autumn?

The pruning time of the grapes depends on the climatic conditions. So, if winters are harsh in your area, prune in the spring. In regions with a moderately cold winter, the vines are pruned in the fall - about 20 days after the leaves fall. First of all, frost-resistant grape varieties are pruned, and more thermophilic and less cold-resistant varieties (as well as young bushes) are pruned in the spring. It is necessary to start the spring pruning of grapes before the sap flow begins, otherwise the flowing sap will interfere with the healing of wounds. If you missed this moment, we recommend cutting off only dried up old shoots and unnecessary young ones, and shaping the bush by blinding (plucking) the extra vine eyes.

Spring pruning of grapes requires the utmost care, as improper execution of this procedure can destroy the plant. The blades of trimming tools must be well sharpened and disinfected with alcohol.

To check how well the blade is sharpened, take a piece of paper and run the edge over the tip of the tool. If the paper was difficult to cut, the blade needs to be sharpened.

With the onset of the first warm days, when the air temperature reaches 5 ° C, prepare the necessary tools and start renewing the grapes. The main tool is a pruner, but you will need a garden saw to work with older, thicker branches. The cut should be as even and smooth as possible, free from splits, cracks and burrs.


Green Spring

A variety of triangular maiden grapes.

Deciduous. Scourges reach 15-20 m in length. It grows rapidly, the annual growth is 0.5-2 m.

Grows on any soil, unpretentious. Shade tolerant, drought tolerant, tolerates urban air pollution well. Anti-aging pruning should be done once a year.

Differs in very large shiny alternately arranged trifoliate leaves with large coarse teeth, red when blooming, dark green in summer and red-purple in autumn.

Blooms in June-July, forms black decorative fruit-berries.

Used as a groundcover and for vertical landscaping, feels great as a container plant.

Be sure to start this exceptionally spectacular and unpretentious plant at your summer cottage to the delight of your family.


Watch the video: How to Grow Grapes, Complete Growing Guide