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Chestnut diseases and how to treat them

Chestnut diseases and how to treat them


Chestnut is a very beautiful and powerful tree, which also bears healthy fruits. Various diseases are considered one of the main problems of its cultivation. and pests. Let's see why in the summer the chestnut leaves are covered with rust and how to deal with it.

Combating chestnut diseases

One of the most important rules for caring for a tree is its protection from diseases and pests. In no case should you skip preventive procedures.because it is much easier to prevent the disease than to cure it.

But if the tree does get sick, treatment should be started immediately to avoid complications. In addition, some diseases and pests can lead to death or the wilting of the chestnut.

Leaf spot: why leaves turn brown in summer

Diseases that appear on the foliage of a tree can be found quite often. Recently, regardless of the type of chestnut (ordinary, horse, etc.), the leaves begin to turn yellow in the middle of summer, and then completely become rusty. Usually, treatment started on time gives good results.

Hole spotInitially, small punctures appear on the chestnut leaves, which gradually develop into large brown spots, if you do not immediately start treating the tree, then after a week the disease will spread throughout the crown. With the advanced form of perforated spotting, ulcers and swelling form on the bark.There are many methods for getting rid of spotting, they are very easy to use and are available to every gardener.:
  1. First, you need to find out the cause of the onset of the disease and eliminate it. For example, feed the chestnut, stop abundant watering, or build a small shelter of pegs and film around the tree. These actions will help stop the spread of the disease;
  2. Every 10 days before flowering and 1 time after it, the crown of the tree is treated with a weak solution of Bordeaux liquid, you can also use its substitutes, such as Azophos, Skor or Bayleton;
  3. The next method is more complicated, during the blooming of the buds and after flowering, the tree is sprayed with Bordeaux liquid, if the disease has grown, then such procedures will have to be repeated once a month throughout the season. For the best fixing of the effect, when preparing the tree for winter, the crown is treated with a 5 percent solution of urea (5 grams per 1 liter of water), and the soil around it with a 7 percent solution (7 grams per 1 liter of water).
Black spotExperts identify 2 reasons why such a disease appears:
  • excess moisture caused by too frequent watering or heavy rainfall;
  • lack of potassium in the soil.

If a black spot forms on the tree, then the leaves begin to blacken and fall off, a general weakening of the chestnut, slow growth and a decrease in the number of flowers are also observed.

Reddish brown spottingAt too high temperatures, dark red spots can form on the leaves, which gradually grow, begin to brown and cover most of the leaf. The disease may appear due to an excess of moisture or a sharp temperature drop (hot during the day, cold at night).
Brown spotBrown spot differs from reddish brown only in the shade of spots and in the fact that they appear on both sides of the leaf.

In order to get rid of the spotting once and for all, it is first of all necessary to remove and burn all the affected foliage, dig up the near-trunk circle and carry out sanitary pruning.

Powdery mildew

The appearance of parasitic fungi on plants can cause the appearance of powdery mildew. The provoking factors are very different from each other.:

  • hot weather, sudden changes in temperature and humidity have a positive effect on the reproduction of fungal spores;
  • also the reason may be excess nitrogen fertilizers or lack of potassium and phosphorus supplements.

Powdery mildew coats the leaf surface and looks like a gray-white bloom, which is the mycelium. Also characterized by the presence of dark brown balls (mushroom spores)... Over time, the plaque only becomes thicker and, as a result, the leaf turns brown and falls off.

Powdery mildew spreads by air, and infection is also possible through water or through direct contact of two trees. Therefore, it is very important to protect healthy plants from infection.

The fight against powdery mildew should begin by removing the affected leaves and burning them. It is also necessary to timely feed the chestnut with phosphorus and potash fertilizers. Then the tree is treated with the following means:

  1. Fugnicides Bayleton, Topaz, But, Topsin, Fundazol, Skor, etc .;
  2. Biofugnicides Fitosporin-m, Gamair, Planriz, etc .;
  3. Also effective is a product made from 500 grams of ash, filled with a liter of water. The mixture is infused for 2 days, then 5 grams of laundry soap diluted in water is added and processing is carried out, the procedure is repeated after a week;
  4. Experienced gardeners recommend sprinkling the chestnut with an infusion of weed and water, which is prepared in a ratio of 1k2.

All treatments should be carried out only in the evening to avoid sunburn.

Necrosis

Necrosis occurs when a tree is burned, which can be caused by both the scorching rays of the sun and severe frosts... Mechanical damage can also be the cause.

Stem necrosisIt can appear both on the branches and on the trunk of a tree, while the bark begins to crack and over time, cancerous wounds and small seals (2-3 millimeters in diameter) appear, the color of which can range from pale pink to dark brown.It is worth remembering that necrosis is not terrible for an adult plant and after several procedures the disease disappears. But a young chestnut can die from such a disease.

For the fastest recovery, it is necessary to clean the damaged area with a sharp garden knife, treat it with a disinfectant and cover the wound with garden varnish. You can also spray the chestnut with Bordeaux liquid or fugicides.

Phomopsis necrosisSuch necrosis is dangerous because it is very difficult to recognize it in the initial stages. The course of the disease begins with the fact that harmful fungi settle under the bark, then the bark cracks and under it you can see many small black tubercles.
Septomyx necrosisThe color of the bark becomes gray-white, and in its splits one can see black tubercles, which indicate the presence of a harmful fungus.

To avoid necrosis on chestnuts you need to adhere to one simple rule, namely, whitewash the tree in early spring and late autumn. Such a remedy will protect the bark from both frost and heat.

Rot

Another problem of chestnut trees is rot, which affects various parts of the plant.

Root rotThe disease is dangerous because if you do not take measures to treat the tree in time, it can dry out and die. The cause of decay of the root system can be soil pollution, a large amount of precipitation and the proximity of groundwater. In addition to roots, such rot can rise to the trunk of a tree (to a height of no more than 2 meters).If rot has formed on the trunk or roots of a tree, then it is no longer possible to get rid of it. Damaged chestnuts are cut down, stumps are uprooted and all wood is completely burned.

As a preventive measure, it is necessary to lime the soil and treat it with fugicides (Bayleton, copper sulfate, etc.).

White stem rotA white bloom with black stripes appears on the tree trunk, the height of the spread of the disease is 3 meters from the beginning of the root system. Aging trees most often suffer from white rot.
Yellow stem rotThe lower part of the trunk acquires a yellow, sometimes swampy hue, the presence of plaque is characteristic.
Brown stem rotUsually found on tree stumps. The bark becomes dense, colored brown, and cracks are observed.

Rot strongly weakens the tree, it becomes sluggish and stunted and can no longer fully cope with severe climatic conditions such as wind, frost, heat, etc.

Pests, what to do and how to fight?

Chestnut is often attacked by various pests, scientists have more than 30 species of such insects, some of which are extremely rare.

Pests are usually divided into the following groups:

  1. Root - the brightest representative is the May beetle, whose larvae reproduce in the root system, and adult insects feed on foliage;
  2. Sucking - pests of this group feed on the sap of leaves, flowers and young shoots. Such insects include thrips, scale insects, aphids and mealy worms;
  3. Leaf miners Are one of the most common and dangerous pests that multiply very quickly and move to healthy trees. The larvae of the chestnut moth feed on the foliage of the plant;
  4. Foliage gnawing pests - elm leaf beetle and elm beetle feed on the pulp of the leaf, leaving holes in it;
  5. Stem - such pests can be found extremely rarely, their larvae feed on the core of the tree trunk, and adults gnaw through the bark. These insects include bark beetles, longhorn beetles, etc.

Miner moth

The miner moth is the most dangerous pest of the chestnut. The main problem is that these insects have not been fully studied, and experts have not developed a formula for a drug that gives 100 percent results. An adult chestnut aphid is a butterfly, 4 millimeters in size with folded wings... The insect larvae carry the threat, they settle in the foliage, gradually eating it. Such actions lead to early leaf fall.

Treatment should begin with the removal and disposal of damaged leaves and branches of the tree, it is also worth remembering that larvae can withstand temperatures up to -25 degrees, therefore, you need to process chestnuts for at least 2 seasons.

To get rid of insects, use the following drugs:

  1. Special injectionseg Carbosudfan or Imidachloroprid. Injections should be made with a special pistol along the entire diameter of the tree trunk so that the drug is evenly distributed. Such drugs are quite expensive, but they are highly effective;

Such injections pose a danger to human health, it is not recommended to give injections in populated areas and in no case should the fruits of the "poisoned" tree be used for food.

  1. You can also spray the chestnut hormonal drug Insegar.

Disease prevention than wood processing

If the chestnut leaves begin to turn yellow and dry, this is the first sign of tree disease. To prevent the occurrence of diseases and pests, you need to do the following:

  1. Regularly examine the chestnut in order to detect all changes in time;
  2. Carefully care for young trees, and feed regularlyand;
  3. Carry out sanitary pruning of the crown and burn all damaged leaves and branches;
  4. The resulting wounds need to be treated and grease with garden pitch;
  5. In the presence of chronic diseases, during the vegetative period chestnut is treated with fugnicides (drugs are selected in accordance with the diseases);
  6. Also preparations should be used to treat the mulch, which is left under the tree so that the insect larvae cannot overwinter there.

To maintain a healthy and strong chestnut, it is necessary to carry out preventive treatments in a timely manner and treat diseases and eliminate pests.


Horse chestnut diseases

Horse chestnut fits perfectly into the urban landscape; without it, some cities are simply impossible to imagine. The chestnut looks especially good in spring, during flowering, when its white-yellow-pink candles bloom in honor of the victory over the winter cold. But, unfortunately, this handsome man is susceptible to diseases that spoil both his appearance and the appearance of the city. To know how to treat a tree, it is important to make a correct diagnosis, and even better - to take preventive measures, that is, to be proactive.


Vein treatment: where to start?

Most people who are faced with the manifestations of varicose veins of the legs do not take seriously the "bells" that have arisen. Cosmetic flaw, no more. Or just fatigue, which will go away by itself after a good night's rest. Perhaps, even with cellulite, ladies are fighting more actively than, for example, with crawling "spiders" of veins. Medical statistics assert: in our country, only 18% of those suffering from varicose veins know that this is a disease, and only 8% are somehow trying to fight it [1]. Meanwhile, if nothing is done, varicose veins smoothly flows into chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), which, in turn, entails serious problems:

  • trophic ulcers
  • acute venous thrombosis and thrombophlebitis.

Despite the fact that the predisposition to varicose veins is genetically laid down (if both parents in a family suffer from this disease, the probability of its occurrence in offspring reaches 90% [2]), the disease develops under the influence of external factors that increase the pressure inside the vein. Among them:

  • Static loads - work sitting or standing. Walking, on the other hand, triggers a "muscle pump" that stimulates blood flow through the veins.
  • Excess weight - violation of lipid metabolism provokes a number of vascular diseases, including varicose veins.
  • Pregnancy and childbirth - all vital systems of the female body, including the cardiovascular system, work with increased stress during pregnancy and childbirth.
  • High-heeled shoes - limits the work of the gastrocnemius muscle, therefore, reduces the activity of the muscle pump.
  • Chronic constipation - increase intra-abdominal pressure, and hence the pressure in the veins of the lower extremities.

First of all, the venous valves cannot withstand a high load, which normally should provide blood flow in only one direction - from bottom to top. The valve begins to pass blood in the opposite direction (from top to bottom), and in the area limited by it, the pressure inside the vein increases significantly: the vessel expands, a varicose node appears. The valves in this area finally cease to perform their function, the venous pressure becomes even higher - the vicious circle closes, and the changes begin to spread to neighboring areas.

Sooner or later, chronic venous insufficiency develops - a condition caused by constant stagnation of blood in altered veins.

Chronic inflammation occurs in the walls of blood vessels. The venous wall becomes more permeable and the contents of the vein, including blood cells, are released into the surrounding space, causing edema. Red blood cells, when destroyed, leave hemoglobin under the skin, causing hyperpigmentation. And macrophages - cells that are created in order to remove foreign proteins and damaged tissues from the body - literally begin to devour everything around them, forming a trophic ulcer (or, in modern terminology, varicose ulcers), since the tissues surrounding the vein are also damaged by inflammation ...

However, phlebologists believe that the varicose disease itself is not so terrible as the venous thrombosis that appears against its background. Chronic inflammation, combined with impaired blood flow, increases blood clotting.Thrombophlebitis may develop - inflammation of the vein wall with the formation of a blood clot in it. From 30 to 60% of sudden deaths caused by deep vein thrombosis occurred against the background of untreated thrombophlebitis, complicating varicose vein disease [5]. The vein becomes painful and dense, turning into a swollen, reddened cord. The affected limb itself swells and turns blue. This condition is deadly and requires immediate treatment.

If the process involves not only subcutaneous, but also deep veins, post-thrombophlebitic syndrome may occur after the postponed thrombosis. The thrombus that blocked the vein gradually recanalizes - it partially dissolves, opening the blood flow, but since the lumen is not fully restored, the signs of impaired blood circulation - pain, swelling, cyanosis of the extremities, the appearance of trophic ulcers - persist.

In a word, neglected varicose veins are not only ugly legs, but also serious problems. But the most unpleasant thing is that after the vein has expanded, there is no effective way to return it to its previous state. You can only remove the entire vessel or clog it in one way or another - by introducing a sclerosing substance or using a laser beam.

That is why it is necessary to start treatment of the veins of the lower extremities at the very first symptoms - the harbingers of varicose veins, and these are:

  • heaviness in the legs that appears towards the end of the day
  • pain at the end of the day that disappears after a walk or if you hold your legs up
  • swelling in the evening
  • paresthesia - a feeling of goose bumps, discomfort, impaired sensitivity
  • burning sensation in the muscles
  • restless legs syndrome - discomfort in the legs makes it difficult to fall asleep, forcing to fidget in search of a comfortable position
  • night cramps.

It is at this stage, when there seem to be no serious external manifestations, that one should immediately contact a specialist - a phlebologist.

Diagnostics

First of all, the doctor will ask about the complaints and carefully examine the patient. Sometimes the examination ends at this - if the diagnosis is not in doubt, and surgical treatment is not planned. Or instrumental studies can be assigned.

Duplex scanning (ultrasound angioscanning) allows you to visualize the vessel and examine the state of blood flow and valve function, to determine reflux (reverse blood flow). This is the main method for diagnosing varicose veins of the lower extremities, and usually it is enough for an accurate diagnosis. In modern medical practice, ultrasound of veins is carried out by the phlebologist himself, who in the future will coordinate the treatment, and not by ultrasound specialists.

If there is a suspicion of obstruction of superficial or deep veins and surgical treatment is planned, use radiopaque phlebography, in which a special substance that is impervious to X-rays (contrast) is preliminarily injected into the bloodstream.

In the same case, we use computed tomography with contrast or magnetic resonance imaging.

The tendency to increased thrombosis is determined using a special complex of blood tests:

  • complete blood count with cell count
  • coagulogram
  • plasma homocysteine
  • factor V gene polymorphism (Leiden mutation)
  • polymorphism 20210 in the prothrombin gene
  • resistance to activated protein C (APS-resistance)
  • protein C activity
  • level of free antigen to protein S

  • protein S activity
  • antithrombin III activity
  • anti-cardiolipin antibodies IgG and IgM
  • antibodies to β2
  • antibodies to glycoprotein-1 IgG and IgM
  • lupus anticoagulant
  • activity of factors VIII, IX, XI.

Only a doctor can recommend the whole complex in whole or selectively, as well as interpret the results. Based on the results of the examination, they are prescribed treatment.

Therapy of venous pathologies

Treatment methods will depend on how far the process has gone.

  1. Venotonics (phleboprotectors). These are medicinal substances for oral administration (in the form of tablets) or administered topically (in the form of ointments and gels). They are especially effective in the initial stages of the process (when visible changes in the venous wall have not yet appeared), since they help prevent the development of the disease. Products based on purified bioflavonoids (plant extracts) and horse chestnut extract have proven efficacy in the treatment of varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency [6]. Drug therapy with drugs based on these active ingredients is the most important component in the treatment of varicose veins. Oral preparations are intended to treat the cause of varicose veins - to restore the functioning of the valves and increase the tone of the vascular wall. Topical preparations are needed to quickly alleviate the symptoms of the disease: as a rule, they have a soothing and refreshing effect. Moreover, according to the basic standards for the treatment of varicose veins [7], the appointment of venotonic drugs must necessarily be accompanied by the appointment of antiplatelet agents: to improve blood circulation, reduce blood viscosity and prevent blood clots. Therefore, it will be optimal to choose a single venotonic, which has the entire complex of actions necessary for the treatment of varicose veins: venotonic, angioprotective and antiplatelet.
  2. Compression therapy. This is a special medical jersey with varying degrees of compression and is sold by prescription. It is selected by the doctor, based on how much the venous wall is changed and whether there is a reverse blood flow. If you start wearing such tights, stockings or knee-highs in a timely manner and do it constantly (in combination with drug therapy), you can prevent the development of varicose veins.
  3. There is only one way to completely cure varicose veins in the late stages - eliminating the changed vein. It can be a surgical intervention - phlebectomy, or minimally invasive operations - sclerotherapy, endovasal laser coagulation of veins (EVLO, EVLK)... Unfortunately, none of these methods guarantees that varicose veins will not appear on other saphenous veins of the legs (the so-called false relapse, since in the same place, due to the absence of veins, varicose veins cannot reappear).

As for such unpleasant consequences of varicose veins as venous trophic ulcers, they are treated and locally, using special dressings for dressing, and systemicallyby prescribing antibiotics, antihistamines and anti-inflammatory drugs. Surgical intervention, including minimally invasive, is also considered to be a method with recognized effectiveness, since it allows you to block the blood flow in the altered vein, i.e. eliminate the root cause of its appearance.

And, of course, it is necessary to eliminate the factors provoking the development of varicose veins: if the work is sedentary, add at least an hour's walk to the daily routine, abandon mind-blowing heels or absolutely flat soles, and also, if possible, reduce weight.

Varicose veins is a constantly progressive disease, the complications of which can be life-threatening, since the "rhythm" of blood flow throughout the circulatory system changes. Treatment of veins without surgery is possible, but it should be started at the earliest stages, as soon as the precursors of varicose veins appear - fatigue and pain, swelling in the evenings, rapid fatigue of the legs. Only then the means that increase the venous tone and strengthen the blood vessels will be effective and will help to preserve the beauty and health of the legs for a long time.

What medicine is better to use for the treatment of varicose veins and CVI?

Clinical recommendations for the treatment of chronic venous diseases indicate that the drugs used in the treatment of this pathology should not only improve the tone of the venous wall, but also affect the rheological properties of blood - reducing its viscosity and, accordingly, the tendency to thrombosis. With this in mind, on the basis of the All-Russian Research Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (VILAR), the composition of the drug "Angionorm" was developed. The preparation contains the most active angioprotectors - sources of flavonoids (extracts of hawthorn and rose hips, licorice root), escin (horse chestnut seed extract) and vitamin C (rosehip extract).

Due to the special composition of the active ingredient of the drug "Angionorm", in particular - the content of horse chestnut extract escina, the remedy has a powerful venotonic effect, and also helps to improve blood circulation, contributing to:

  • increasing the tone of the venous wall
  • a decrease in blood viscosity and the risk of blood clots
  • improving microcirculation of blood in the legs and excretion of fluid.

In addition to the pronounced antiaggregatory and antiplatelet activity, as well as angioprotective and anti-inflammatory properties, the drug "Angionorm" has a moderate analgesic effect, increases physical performance and exhibits stress-protective activity. In particular, this complex of actions is achieved due to the presence in the active component flavonoids and due to the fact that the preparation includes rosehip extract, which contains vitamin C... It takes part in the synthesis of connective tissue proteins (collagen and elastin), which are a building material, a kind of bricks for strengthening and protecting the walls of blood vessels, reducing their fragility and permeability.

The preparation also contains auxiliary substances - lactose and sucrose.

The list of contraindications for the drug is small: individual intolerance to certain active and auxiliary components, severe chronic diseases of internal organs, age up to 18 years, pregnancy and lactation.

For the course of treatment, 1 package of 100 tablets is enough, which makes the cost of a course of taking the drug extremely affordable. The drug is usually taken 1 tablet 3 times a day.


Distribution and ecology [edit | edit code]

The horse chestnut grows in a small area in the mountains of the Balkans (in the north of Greece, Albania, the Republic of Macedonia, Serbia and Bulgaria) [7] in deciduous forests along with alder, ash, maple, hornbeam, linden, beech and other tree species, rising in the mountains up to an altitude of 1,000-1,200 m above sea level. Found in the mountainous regions of Iran and in the foothills of the Himalayas. It is widely cultivated in the temperate zone, distributed in plantings in many regions of the European part of Russia.

It is durable (under favorable conditions it reaches the age of 200-300 years). It tolerates transplantation well in adulthood.

Shade-tolerant, grows well on deep loose soils - clay or sandy loam, sufficiently moist, but without excessive moisture. It tolerates rather dry chernozem soils in the steppe zone; it does not tolerate saline soils. Sensitive to dry winds, which is why the leaves are often severely burned in summer and fall prematurely.

Winter-hardy in culture in the middle zone of the European part of Russia (up to Moscow). At the latitude of Moscow, in very harsh winters, young trees freeze freeze in St. Petersburg, but in protected places they grow into large, abundantly flowering trees.

Diseases [edit | edit code]

Among horse chestnut diseases, fungal diseases are the most common.

Chestnuts with leaf rust disease (leaf spot) are not uncommon. There are several types of this fungal disease, most often three main ones:

  • Reddish-brown spot - appears as a burgundy spot on the leaves
  • Brown spot - the leaves dry out, starting from the edge, while acquiring a reddish color
  • Black spot - usually appears already on diseased or dry leaves in the form of black or dark gray blotches.

As a result of this disease, the appearance of the leaves deteriorates and little chlorophyll is produced during photosynthesis. Such leaves fall ahead of time - in the second half of summer. The disease manifests itself due to unfavorable conditions, in particular due to unsuitable soil for them (most often due to its increased acidity), due to which the tree weakens and is more susceptible to this disease. Due to this disease, the development of the tree slows down, even its death is possible [8] [9].

Also, young chestnuts often suffer from powdery mildew. Powdery mildew is a fungal disease in which the leaves become covered with a white coating and after a while, as with rust on the leaves, they turn black and fall off prematurely.

Many horse chestnuts suffer from the fungus tinder fungus attack on the trunk, which destroys the wood of the tree, causing wood to rot, disrupts metabolism and weakens it. Gradually, the tinder fungus spreads further, affecting more and more areas of the wood and, as a result, the tree most often dies. Basically, chestnuts are affected by flat, real, branched and other types of these mushrooms. It is also possible that the roots of the tree are affected by summer and autumn honeydew [10].


"Rust"

It has several types, mainly "stem" and "leaf". The causative agent is a mushroom from the genus Puccinia. The disease has several "intermediate" hosts, such as pines, barberries, hawthorns, where the disease occurs in the spring, logically they should be treated first. I will hasten to calm down the lawnmakers, rust does not cause severe damage to the lawn, rather it affects the decorativeness of the lawn during the period of illness. Rust is one of the few diseases of the lawn, certain stages of which (uredostadia) proceed better with a lack of nitrogen. Hence the first recipe for fighting - a small nitrogen fertilization. Not more than 250-300 g / weaving of urea, or foliar top dressing with 1% solution of the same urea. In addition, the bulk of the so-called. "Uredopustul" (orange pads with spores) are in the upper third of the leaf, and a little stimulation of growth will allow them to be mowed. The main period when the disease manifests itself is autumn, August, "Indian summer", when the differences between night and day temperatures are large enough, although there are exceptions to each rule. In the past, 2015, rust was observed at the end of May. All chemical treatments against rust, as well as against other diseases, must be "preventive" in nature. At that moment when the disease manifested itself to treat the affected areas it is too late, you can, of course, try to work with "contact" drugs, but the effect will be extremely doubtful, unless it stops the further development of the disease. The term of the "preventive" treatment is the end of July, according to the "popular" calendar "on Prokla". How to process? Basically, treatments are carried out with drugs from the DMI class, various "nasols" (propiconazole, triticonazole, tebuconazole), preferably in combination with azoxystorobin, tridemephon and various "contact agents" chlorothalonil, mancozeb, copper hydroxide, etc. For summer residents there is on sale the drug "Forecast" with propiconazole. The only thing to remember is that the risk of "resistance" addiction to the drug, and as a consequence, a decrease in its effectiveness, when working with strobilurins (azoxystrobin, trifloxystrobin, fluoxastrobin) is very high, and, accordingly, observe safety rules and regulations for use.

Another of the diseases that is just as easy to diagnose. It occurs mainly on bluegrass in low light conditions.


Diseases of grapes - classification and danger

Infectious diseases quickly attack a whole bush of grapes, especially if conditions contribute to this: weather, precipitation or external pathogens. If this is not dealt with in time, the consequences may not be the most pleasant: loss of quality and quantity of the crop.Interestingly, spores and bacteria are not only transmitted through the soil or closely planted other plants, they infect the vine bush through gardening tools, wind or animals. Let's look at the most common grape diseases and find out how to treat it.

Powdery mildew (mildew)... This disease is one of the most common among summer residents. The reason may be an unfavorable climate during the growing season. The disease completely affects the plant, berries and leaves. The infection is found in fallen leaves or soil, and is transferred to grapes by wind or rain spray.

Powdery mildew (mildew)

The saddest thing is that the fungus multiplies quickly and can only be stopped by a low drop in temperature. How to deal with mildew? We suggest using the following tips:

  • The vine must be thinned out, it is not necessary to allow a strong close proximity of branches.
  • Watch the length of the vine and do not let it sink to the very soil. There must be a ventilation gap.
  • Clear the area immediately of weeds or fallen branches. It is best to burn it on a fire rather than letting it rot on the compost heap.
  • In the spring, immediately spray the grape bush with a solution of Bordeaux liquid, but only after the appearance of small shoots.
  • Watch out for berries and leaves. If you notice the appearance of a disease, take action, do not wait for the fungus to spread to the rest of the bushes.

I would like to note that the treatment of powdery mildew is ineffective and does not give any results, therefore it is best to take certain preventive measures in order to prevent the development of this disease.

Bacterial cancer - the most dangerous disease not only for humans, but also for plants. Bacteria very quickly penetrate into the very core, disrupting metabolic processes and causing growths, which subsequently block the entry of nutrients to every cell of the plant.

Bacterial cancer

While specialists have not yet developed specific treatments, it is recommended only to prevent the occurrence of bacterial cancer. How to do it?

  • Before planting, carefully inspect each seedling for lumpy tumors. You should not think that this will pass, it is better to immediately eliminate such planting material.
  • If you find infected grapes, immediately uproot the plant and burn it in a fire. The infection can gradually spread to the rest of the bushes, so it's best not to risk it.
  • When pruning the plant in the fall, decontaminate the tools after each use.

How does bacterial cancer arise? This could be due to contaminated soil, a seedling, or a tool. It is not always so easy to notice the disease, so it is recommended to carefully examine each vine. Irregularities and swellings appear at high humidity and high temperatures.

Oidium - a very common disease that is periodically present at every summer cottage. It is expressed in the presence of an ash-gray bloom on the berries of the plant. Although it is easy to wash off or wipe off, the plaque has a rather peculiar rotten fish smell. Once on the inflorescence, the fungus paralyzes the further development of grapes and berries. The skin of the latter becomes hard, exposing the seeds.

Oidium

Where does oidium appear most often? Its main habitat is in unventilated vineyards, where the branches are strongly intertwined with each other. The fungus thrives in humid, musty places, especially when the air temperature is high. How to get rid of oidium? It is necessary to perform the following actions:

  • Usually, powdery mildew appears after powdery mildew, so spraying with drugs that will prevent the spread of the disease further is recommended, for example: Vectra or Topaz.
  • In the spring, remove all affected bushes, carefully thin out the branches and watch out for a moderate amount of moisture.

As you can see, diseases in grapes are present and require immediate intervention. We hope that our tips will help you prevent fungal growth and get a healthy, high-quality harvest.


Coniferous diseases - we recognize and treat

Conifers do not lose their attractiveness and decorativeness throughout the year, and, as a rule, live longer than many deciduous species. They are an excellent material for creating compositions due to the various shape of the crown and the color of the needles. The most widely used in professional and amateur gardening are such coniferous shrubs as junipers, yew, arboreal thuja - pine, larch, spruce. Therefore, information about their main diseases is relevant. The issue of treating conifers is especially acute in the spring, when you have to deal with burning, winter desiccation and infectious diseases on plants weakened after winter.

First of all it should be mentioned non-communicable diseases, caused by the negative impact on the growth and development of conifers of unfavorable environmental conditions. Although conifers are demanding on high soil and air humidity, excessive moisture associated with natural waterlogging, rising groundwater levels, spring floods and heavy autumn precipitation leads to yellowing and necrotization of the needles. The same symptoms very often appear due to a lack of moisture in the soil and low air humidity.

Thuja, spruce, yews are very sensitive to drying out of the roots, therefore, immediately after planting, it is recommended to mulch their trunks with peat and grass cut from lawns, if possible, maintain mulching during the entire period of their growth, and water regularly. The most drought-resistant are pines, thuja and junipers. In the first year after planting, it is advisable to spray young plants with water in the evening and shade them in the hot period. The overwhelming majority of conifers are shade-tolerant; when grown in open sunny places, they may stagnate, their needles may turn yellow and even die off. On the other hand, many of them do not tolerate strong shading, especially light-loving pines and larch trees. To protect the bark from sunburn, it can be whitewashed with lime or special whitewashing in early spring or late autumn.

The condition and appearance of plants largely depend on the supply of nutrients and the balance of their ratios. The lack of iron in the soil leads to yellowing and even whitening of the needles on individual shoots with a lack of phosphorus, the young needles acquire a red-violet hue with a deficiency of nitrogen, the plants grow noticeably worse, become chlorotic. The best growth and development of plants occurs on well-drained and well-cultivated soils, provided with nutrients. Slightly acidic or neutral soil is preferred. It is recommended to carry out top dressing with special fertilizers intended for conifers. In summer cottages, conifers can suffer from frequent visits by dogs and cats, which cause an excessive concentration of salts in the soil. In such cases, shoots with red needles appear on thuja and juniper, which subsequently dry out.

Low temperatures in winter and spring frosts cause freezing of the crown and roots, while the needles become dry, acquire a reddish color, die off, and the bark cracks. The most winter-hardy are spruces, pines, fir, thuja, junipers. Branches of coniferous plants can break off from the gullet and snow break in the winter.

Many conifers are sensitive to air pollution from harmful industrial and automotive gases. This is manifested, first of all, by yellowing, starting from the ends of the needles and their falling off (dying off).

Conifers are rarely severely affected. infectious diseases, although in some cases they can suffer greatly from them. Young plants are generally less resistant to a complex of non-infectious and infectious diseases; their resistance increases with age.

Types of soil-dwelling fungi of the genera Pytium (pitium) and Rhizoctonia (rhizoctonia) lead roots of seedlings to decay and withering awayoften cause significant losses of young plants in schools and containers.

The causative agents of tracheomycotic wilting are most often anamorphic fungi. Fusarium oxysporum, which are classified as soil pathogens. The affected roots turn brown, the mycelium penetrates into the vascular system and fills it with its biomass, which stops the supply of nutrients, and the affected plants, starting from the upper shoots, wither. The needles turn yellow, turn red and fall off, and the plants themselves gradually dry out. Seedlings and young plants are most affected. The infection persists in plants, plant debris and spreads with infected planting material or with infected soil. The development of the disease is facilitated by: stagnant water in low areas, lack of sunlight.

Use healthy planting material as protective measures. Timely remove all dried plants with roots, as well as affected plant debris. For preventive purposes, short-term soaking of young plants with an open root system is carried out in a solution of one of the drugs: Baktofit, Vitaros, Maxim. At the first symptoms, the soil is spilled with a solution of one of the biological products: Fitosporin-M, Alirin-B, Gamair. For prevention purposes, the soil is spilled with Fundazol.

Gray mold (rot) affects the aerial parts of young plants, especially in unventilated areas with strong thickening of plantings and insufficient lighting. Affected shoots turn gray-brown, as if covered with a layer of dust.

In addition to these diseases, which are widespread in deciduous trees, there are diseases that are characteristic only of conifers. First of all, they include shute, the causative agents of which are some types of ascomycete fungi.

Real shute, the causative agent of which is a mushroom Lophodermium seditiosum - one of the main reasons for premature falling of pine needles. Young plants are mainly affected, incl. in the open ground of nurseries, and weakened trees, which can lead to their death due to strong falling of needles. During spring and early summer, the needles become brown and fall off. In autumn, small yellowish dots are noticeable on the needles, gradually growing and turning brown, later on the dead, crumbling needles, dotted black fruit bodies are formed - apothecia, by which the fungus persists.

Common pine shutethat has similar symptoms and a developmental cycle causes Lophodermium pinastri. In the fall or more often in the spring of next year, the needles turn yellow or become reddish-brown and die off. Then, the fruiting bodies of the fungus are formed on it in the form of small black strokes or dots, blackening and increasing by autumn. Thin dark transverse lines appear on the needles. Dispersion of spores and infection of needles is facilitated by moderately warm weather, drizzling rains and dew. Weakened plants in nurseries and crops up to 3 years of age and self-seeding of pine are more often affected and killed.

Snow Shute caused by a fungus Phlacidium infestans, which mainly affects pine species. It is especially harmful in areas with many snows, where it sometimes completely destroys the renewal of Scots pine.

It develops under snow cover and develops relatively quickly even at temperatures around 0 degrees. The mycelium grows from needles to needles and often further to neighboring plants. After the snow melts, the dead needles and often shoots turn brown and die off. Diseased plants are covered with grayish, rapidly disappearing mycelium films. During the summer, the needles die off, become reddish-red, later light gray. It crumbles, but hardly falls off. Twisted pine (Pinus contorta) the dead needles are more reddish than those of Scots pine. By autumn, apothecia become visible, like small dark dots scattered over the needles. Ascospores from them are spread by air currents on living pine needles just before they are usually covered with snow. The development of the fungus is favored by drizzling rains, falling and melting snow in autumn, mild snowy winters, and prolonged spring.

Brown shute, or brown snow mold of conifers affects pines, fir, spruce, cedars, junipers, caused by a fungus Herpotrichia nigra... It is found more often in nurseries, young stands, self-seeding and young undergrowth. This disease manifests itself in early spring after the snow melts, and the primary infection of needles with ascospores occurs in the fall. The disease develops under snow at temperatures not lower than 0.5 ° C. The defeat is detected after the snow melts: on the brown dead needles, a black-gray cobweb bloom of mycelium is noticeable, and then the pinpoint fruiting bodies of the pathogen fungus. The needles do not fall off for a long time, thin branches die off. The development of the disease is facilitated by high humidity, the presence of depressions in the cultivated areas, and the thickening of plants.

Signs of defeat juniper schütte (causative agent - mushroom Lophodermium juniperinum) appear at the beginning of summer on last year's needles, which acquire a dirty yellow or brown color and do not crumble for a long time. From the end of summer on the surface of the needles, round fruit bodies, black up to 1.5 mm, are noticeable, in which marsupial sporulation of the fungus remains in winter. The disease develops intensively on weakened plants, in humid conditions, and can lead to death of plants.

Protective measures against shute include the selection of planting material that is sustainable in origin, giving the plants as much resistance as possible, timely thinning, and the use of fungicidal spraying. Shaded plants are most susceptible to disease. The harmfulness of shute increases with high snow cover and prolonged melting. In forests and parks, instead of natural regeneration, planting of plants of the necessary origin is recommended. The planted plants are more evenly distributed over the area, making it difficult for mycelium to infest one plant from another, in addition, they quickly reach a height above the critical level. In those areas where Schütte damages Scots pine, twisted pine or European spruce can be used, which is extremely rare. Only healthy planting material should be used. It is recommended to remove fallen diseased needles in a timely manner to cut off dried branches.

Fungicidal treatments must be used in nurseries. Spraying with copper-containing and sulfuric preparations (for example, Bordeaux mixture, Abiga-Peak or HOM, lime-sulfur broth) in early spring and autumn effectively reduces the development of diseases. When the disease manifests itself to a strong degree in the summer, the spraying is repeated.

Of particular importance for conifers are rust diseasescaused by fungi of the Basidiomycot division, class Uredinomycetes, affecting the needles and bark of shoots, in fact all of their pathogens are of different households, and pass from conifers to other plants, causing their defeat. Here is a description of some of them.

Cones rust, spruce wither... On the inside of the spruce scales, which is the intermediate host of the rust fungus Puccinia strumareolatum, rounded, dusty dark brown eciopustules appear. The cones are wide open, hanging for several years. The seeds are not germinating. Sometimes shoots are bent, the disease in this form is called spruce wither. The main host is bird cherry, on the leaves of which small round light purple uredinio, then black teliopustules appear.

Pine wither causes rust fungus Melampsora pinitorqua... The ecial stage develops on the pine, as a result of which its shoots bend in an S-shape, the top of the shoot dies off. Aspen is the main host.In summer, small yellow urediniopustules form on the underside of the leaves, the spores of which cause massive infection of the leaves. Then, by autumn, black teliopustules are formed, in the form of which the fungus overwinters on plant debris.

Rust of pine needles cause several species of the genus Coleosporium. Affects mainly double-doubled species of the genus Pinus, is found everywhere in their ranges, mainly in nurseries and young growth. Etsiostadia of the fungus develops in the spring on pine needles. Yellow vesicle-like eciopustules are located in disarray on both sides of the needles, uredo- and teliospores are formed on coltsfoot, wild rose, sow thistle, bellflower and other herbaceous plants. With a strong spread of the disease, the needles turn yellow and fall off prematurely, and the plants lose their decorative effect.

Miscellaneous mushroom Cronartium ribicola causes pine whirligig (five-coniferous pines), or columnar currant rust. First, the needles become infected, gradually the fungus spreads into the bark and wood of branches and trunks. In places of lesion, resin is released and eciopustulae in the form of yellow-orange vesicles appear from ruptures of the cortex. Under the influence of the mycelium, a thickening is formed, which eventually turns into open wounds, the overlying part of the shoot dries up or bends. The intermediate host is the currant; gooseberries can rarely be affected, numerous pustules in the form of small columns, orange, then brown, are formed on the underside of their leaves.

Mushrooms of the genus Gymnosporangium (G. comfusum, G. juniperinu, G. sabinae), pathogens juniper rust infect cotoneaster, hawthorn, apple, pear, quince, which are intermediate hosts. In the spring, the disease develops on their foliage, causing the formation of yellowish outgrowths (pustules) on the underside of the leaves, and round orange spots with black dots are visible on the upper side (ecial stage). From the end of summer, the disease passes to the main host plant - juniper (teliostadia). From autumn and early spring, yellow-orange gelatinous masses of sporulation of the pathogen fungus appear on its needles and branches. Fusiform thickenings appear on the affected parts of the branches, and the death of individual skeletal branches begins. On the trunks, often on the root collar, swellings and sagging are formed, on which the bark dries out and shallow wounds open. Over time, the affected branches dry out, the needles turn brown and crumble. The infection persists in the affected juniper bark. The disease is chronic, almost incurable.

Rust of birch, larch - Melampsoridium betulinum. Small yellow pustules appear on the underside of birch and alder leaves in spring, yellowing, the growth of shoots decreases. Larch, which is the main host, turns yellow needles in summer.

As protective measures against rust diseases it is possible to recommend spatial isolation from affected plants that have a common causative agent of the disease. So, you should not grow poplar and aspen next to pines, five-coniferous pines should be isolated from planting black currants. Cutting out affected shoots, increasing resistance through the use of micronutrient fertilizers and immunostimulants will reduce the harmfulness of rust.

Causative agents desiccation of juniper branches there may be several mushrooms: Cytospora pini, Diplodia juniperi, Hendersonia notha, Phoma juniperi, Phomopsis juniperovora, Rhabdospora sabinae... Drying of the bark and the formation of numerous brown and black fruit bodies on it are observed. The needles turn yellow and fall off, the branches of the bushes dry out. The infection persists in the bark of affected branches and unharvested plant debris. Thickened planting of plants and the use of contaminated planting material contribute to the spread.

Tui can often also appear shrinking, drying of shoots and branches, caused more often by the same fungal pathogens. Typical manifestations are yellowing and dropping of leaves from the ends of the shoot, browning of young growth of branches in humid conditions on the affected parts, sporulation of fungi is noticeable.

Thuja pestalocious wilting, the causative agent of which is a mushroom Pestalotiopsis funerea causes a necrotic disease of the bark of the branches and the browning of the needles. On the affected tissues, an olive-black sporulation of the fungus is formed in the form of individual pads. With a strong drying of the branches in hot weather, the pads dry out and take the form of scabs. With an abundance of moisture, a grayish-black mycelium develops on the affected needles and bark of the stems. Affected branches and needles turn yellow and dry out. The infection persists in the affected plant debris and in the bark of drying branches.

Sometimes on juniper plants appears biorella cancer... Its causative agent is a mushroom Biatorella difformis, is the conidial stage of the marsupial fungus Biatoridina pinastri... With mechanical damage to the branches, over time, pathogenic microorganisms begin to develop in the bark and wood, causing bark necrosis. The fungus spreads in the tissues of the bark, the bark turns brown, dries up, cracks. The wood gradually dies off and longitudinal ulcers form. Over time, rounded fruiting bodies are formed. The defeat and dying off of the bark leads to the fact that the needles turn yellow and dry out. The infection persists in the bark of the affected branches.

Causative agent nectria juniper cancer is a marsupial mushroom Nectria cucurbitula, with conidial stage Zythia cucurbitula... On the surface of the affected bark, numerous brick-red sporulation pads up to 2 mm in diameter are formed, over time they darken and dry out. The development of the fungus causes the death of the bark and bast of individual branches. The needles turn yellow and fall off, affected branches and whole bushes dry up. The infection persists in the bark of affected branches and plant debris. The spread of infection is facilitated by thickened plantings and the use of contaminated planting material.

Biotorella Juniper Cancer

In recent years, in many cultures, incl. conifers, mushrooms of the genus Alternaria. Causative agent Alternaria juniper is a mushroom Alternaria tenuis... On the needles affected by it, which becomes brown, and on the branches, a velvety bloom of black appears. The disease manifests itself when the plantings are thickened on the branches of the lower tier. The infection persists in the affected needles and bark of branches and in plant debris.

To combat drying out and alternaria, you can use preventive spraying of plants in spring and autumn with Bordeaux mixture, Abiga-Peak, copper chloride. If necessary, in the summer, spraying is repeated every 2 weeks. The use of healthy planting material, timely pruning of affected branches, disinfection of individual wounds and all sections with a solution of copper sulfate and smearing with oil paint on natural drying oil significantly reduce the prevalence of diseases.

Larch cancer causes a marsupial mushroom Lachnellula willkommii... Its mycelium spreads in the bark and wood of larch branches during its spring and autumn growth dormancy. The next summer, new bark and wood are built up around the wound. As preventive protective measures, it is recommended to plant resistant species of larch, grow them in favorable conditions, do not thicken, and avoid frost damage.

Some types of mushrooms can settle on the stems of conifers. tinder fungi, forming on the bark rather large fruiting bodies, annuals and perennials, causing cracking of the bark, as well as rot of roots and wood. For example, pine wood affected by a root sponge is first purple, then white spots appear on it, which turn into voids. The wood becomes cellular, sieve.

Thuja stem rot is often caused by tinder fungi: pine sponge Porodaedalea pini, causing a variegated red rot of the trunk and the tinder fungus Sveinitsa - Phaeolus schweinitzii, which is the causative agent of brown central fissured root rot. In both cases, the fruit bodies of the fungus are formed on the rot of the wood. In the first case, they are perennial, woody, the upper part is dark brown, up to 17 cm in diameter; in the second mushroom, the fruit bodies are annual in the form of flat caps, often on legs, arranged in groups. Affected plants gradually die, and unharvested dried plants and their parts are a source of infection.

It is necessary to cut out sick, damaged, dried branches in a timely manner, cut off the fruiting bodies of tinder fungi. Wound injuries are cleaned and treated with putty or varnish-based paint. Use healthy planting material. You can carry out preventive spraying of plants in spring and autumn with Bordeaux mixture or its substitutes. Grubbing the stumps is obligatory.


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