Bee venom: use in medicine, mechanism of action
Useful properties of bee venom
Chemists believe that histamine (1%), magnesium phosphate (0.4% by weight of the dried poison) and a high content of acetylcholine have a certain therapeutic function. Enzymes (hyaluronidase and phospholipase A), copper, calcium, sulfur, phosphorus, volatile oils and protein substances also play an important role in the effectiveness of bee venom. In particular, bee venom contains a protein compound, melittin, which is about 50% in dry matter (it has 26 amino acids and is characterized by increased surface activity).
The venom's volatile oils cause a burning sensation and soreness when stinging a bee. Bee venom dries quickly even at normal room temperature, losing two-thirds of its weight.
Scientists have found that, like snake venom, bee venom is one of the most powerful antibiotic compounds, especially against gram-positive microbes. An aqueous solution of bee venom, for example, they determined, is sterile (i.e., does not contain microorganisms) even at a dilution of 1: 50,000. American military doctors injected a saline solution with bee venom into laboratory mice before their subsequent powerful radiation exposure. After completing the experiment, these specialists obtained up to 80% of the surviving rodents after using bee venom.
The honey bee leaving the cell has no poison yet, but already on the second day of its life it has about 0.04 mg of liquid poison. Every day its quantity in a bee increases; The poisonous glands reach their greatest development at the age of 12-18 days. After all, a mature worker bee must not only collect pollen, but also perform guard functions to protect its nest. An adult bee is capable of giving from 0.4 to 0.8 mg of venom. About 0.1 mg of poison is taken from one bee. Bee venom is massively obtained from the colony with the help of special devices - by acting on the bees with an electric current. If the poison is taken from the bees with its help in a gentle mode (every 12-14 days), then this operation of "crushing" the poisonous glands of these insects does not negatively affect the productivity of the colony and the amount of brood raised. Thanks to these techniques, more than 2 g can be obtained in the spring-summer period without causing any particular harm to the bee colony. Experts try to remove the poison from bees as little as possible in the spring, when the colonies are still weak, and in the fall, when the bees go into winter.
For medical purposes, bee sting or poison obtained by specially developed methods is used. Its quantity and composition depend on the age of the bee, the season and food. The highest biological activity is possessed by the poison collected during the period of the greatest honey harvest, for its "production" pollen is needed. It has been determined that the first spring generations of bees have the largest amount of venom, by autumn it decreases, and in winter it is quite stable. Small doses of poison do not have a significant effect on the human body. The therapeutic effect of such its norms is associated mainly with its ability to activate the content of special compounds in the blood, due to which the body's resistance increases. But when receiving large doses of bee venom, a person develops swelling, redness of the skin, dizziness, and sometimes shock and suffocation.
Currently, pharmacology has established a widespread production of preparations from bee venom in an industrial way. Medicine offers bee venom and its preparations in the form of various dosage forms (oil and water sterile solutions in ampoules, ointments) For example, they can be rubbed into the skin in the form of ointments, by inhalation and electrophoresis, subcutaneous injections, taken in the form of tablets. Some experts consider the electrophoresis method the most acceptable and effective, explaining that in this way the drug is deposited in the subcutaneous tissue, from where it slowly passes into the blood, lengthening the time of the drug's effect. But still, in practice, it has been proven that the introduction of poison into the human body by direct stinging of a bee has the greatest effect than the use of factory preparations.
For this reason, the method of direct stinging of bees is still used by the tried and tested "old-fashioned" medicine - in the area of joints, lower back and along the nerves. For this purpose, a certain part of the body is washed with warm water, then, holding the bee by the back with special tweezers, gently apply it with its abdomen to the skin. After stinging, the sting is removed from the skin after 10 minutes, then the wound is disinfected with boric petroleum jelly or other recommended ointment. After such a procedure, the patient lies for 20-30 minutes.
The penetration of bee venom into the human body after a sting leads to a local or general reaction. The nature of the manifestation of this effect is influenced by the dose and biological activity of the insect poison, the state of health and the place of the sting of a person. As a rule, a person is able to painlessly perceive up to 5-10 stings applied at the same time (but under the supervision of a doctor), 200-300 cause severe poisoning of the body, and 500 are considered a lethal dose for an adult. A transparent drop of poison has medicinal and toxic properties, depending on the dose, providing a quick effect on the body. There is a huge difference between therapeutic, toxic (toxic) and lethal doses. The toxic dose of bee venom is tens of times, and the lethal dose is hundreds of times greater than the therapeutic one. The sensitivity (intolerance) of bee venom is seriously affected by age, gender, health and body resistance. It was found that men are less susceptible to bee venom than children, women and the elderly.
Continue reading: Useful properties and contraindications of bee venom →
candidate of biological sciences
Physiological properties of bee venom and its application
Bee venom, or apitoxin, is a poisonous secret secreted by special glands, that is, modified accessory gonads of worker bees. Worker bees are females incapable of reproduction. Their ovipositor has been modified into a stinging apparatus, and the gonads have been transformed into poisonous ones. Full-fledged females in a bee family are queens. They are also able to secrete a poisonous secret that they use in competitive battles with other queens.
A poisonous secret in young bees begins to be produced immediately after leaving the cell, however, during this period its amount is small and gradually increases, reaching a maximum by 20 days of age. At this time, the young bee moves from working inside the hive to protecting the bee's nest, and then becomes a forager. The biological role of bee venom differs little from the purpose of the poisonous secrets of other poisonous animals. In the order of Hymenoptera insects, poisonous secretions perform various functions: from trophic (in hunting predatory wasps and wasps) to protective and signaling (in bees and ants).
The stinging apparatus of bees has special devices that facilitate its separation. After the sting, together with the poisonous glands, is separated from the body of the bee, the automatic injection of the poisonous secretion into the body of the enemy continues. This ensures the most effective protection of the bee colony against invertebrates, birds and mammals. Bee venom is intended not so much to kill invertebrates (as is the case with wasps and wasps), but rather for vertebrates. Even insignificant amounts of poisonous secretions can dramatically change the most important functional processes in the human or animal body.
Bees have been used in folk medicine from different countries and peoples. However, only in the XX century. bee venom has truly entered the arsenal of scientific medicine, and apitherapy has received a reliable physiological basis (BN Orlov, Sh.M. Omarov, 2006).
Currently, bee venom among beekeeping products is considered the most studied in terms of chemical composition and pharmacodynamics.
The analysis of physiological effects and changes in body functions upon the introduction of bee venom or its fractions into the bloodstream is significantly difficult, since the researcher is faced not only with the manifestation of changes caused in tissues and organs by the test substance, but also with the body's defensive reactions to these changes.
The regularities of cell life established in recent decades, including the study of the functions of cell membranes, the role of "secondary messengers", as well as the discovery of the role of nucleic acids, the mechanisms of energy processes, the phenomena of enzymatic catalysis, constitute the fundamental basis of new approaches to understanding the mechanisms of biological activity of bees. poison and its physiologically active principles.
Of greatest interest are the processes caused by bee venom of the lowest concentrations, since it is they that reveal specific effects, while in large doses, bee venom has a cytotoxic effect and gross violations of the structure and functions of the cell.
The mechanisms of action of bee venom on cells are primarily associated with its membrane-active properties. The components of bee venom are capable of producing several different effects on cell membranes and, above all, modifying the lipid matrix of the membrane. This is especially inherent in melittin.
Mechanism of action phospholipase A2 on the lipid structures of the membrane is associated with the formation of surface-active products of hydrolysis of phospholipids: lysophospholipids and free fatty acids. A feature of the effects of the effect of purified phospholipase on cells and lipid substrates is stability and long-term preservation of functional properties, despite a significant degree of lipid hydrolysis in the bilayer structure.
Hyaluronidase - an enzyme that, like phospholipase A2, is present in most of the poisonous secrets of insects, snakes and other animals. It is believed that hyaluronidase is a factor in the invasion of bee venom.
The action of bee venom in low concentrations changes the functions of not only the lipid matrix, but also the integral proteins of the membrane.
Apamin - low molecular weight bee venom peptide capable of actively modifying the ion channels of the cell membrane with characteristic changes in the functional state of cells and organs.
The specific effect of apamine at the cellular level is the selective blocking of calcium-dependent potassium channels. The discovery of the peculiarities of the mechanism of action of apamine on the cell caused a number of studies of the molecular-cellular organization of individual functional structures, cells and tissues of animals: hepatocytes, skeletal muscles, erythrocytes, intestinal smooth muscles and blood vessels.
MCD-peptide (a peptide that degranulates mast cells) is a less toxic ingredient in bee venom that has special biologically active properties. It is capable of releasing histamine from mast cells and basophils in unusually low concentrations, causing the process of degranulation.
Summarizing the materials characterizing the effect of bee venom and its biologically active components on cellular processes, we can summarize that they affect both membrane receptors and lipid structure, indirectly causing a complex of interrelated phenomena.
Found in bee venom minor peptides (tertiapine, sekapine, proamine) - a group of toxins named because of their unusually low content (less than 1% in dry matter of bee venom). The molecular structure of these components is highly specific, and they also have a targeted effect on cellular processes.
Indications for the use of bee venom are the treatment of diseases of the musculoskeletal system (deforming spondyloarthrosis, nonspecific infectious polyarthritis, gout, rheumatism and rheumatoid arthritis) of the nervous system (radiculitis, neurosis, neuritis and neuropathy, depression, neurotic syndromes, diseases of the autonomic nervous system, , parkinsonism, epilepsy, etc.) surgical diseases (varicose veins, thrombophlebitis, trophic ulcers, obliterating endoarteritis). In hematology, they are used to treat anemia, radiation sickness in urology - prostatitis, prostate adenoma in pulmonology - bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis in endocrinology - obesity, diabetes mellitus, autoimmune thyroiditis, etc.
academician MAH, professor
Z.Sh. MAGOMEDOVA, Z.M. OMAROVA
professors of RAE, candidates of medical sciences
Dagestan State Medical Academy
housing estate "Beekeeping" No. 7, 2013
8. PREPARATION AND PROCESSING OF WOOD CHEMICAL RAW MATERIALS
The main questions of the topic: Types of wood-chemical raw materials. Procurement rules. The economic value of the bark of woody plants. Procurement terms, quality requirements. Processing technologies. The main types of finished products.
Raw materials for obtaining tannins. Harvesting of willow bark and bark of other tree species. The content of tannins in the bark of the main forest-forming species. Birch bark - features of harvesting, use as ornamental material and raw material for the production of tar.
Linden bark - obtaining bast, use for wicker products, harvesting methods. Aspen bark - feed additives and composts.
Recommended reading: [1-4, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 28, 29, 34, 36, 38, 39, 48, 50, 68, 69, 76, 84, 101].
Technical raw materials. This is resin, bark is a raw material for obtaining tannins, woody greens.
Minor forest resources. These are stumps, birch bark (used for crafts), bark (used for weaving), branch fodder, brushwood and other materials.
8.1. Harvesting and processing of woody greenery Woody greenery is the covered (leafy) part of the branch. The main raw material for processing - coniferous foot. Coniferous foot, and in some cases leafy shoots of deciduous trees, serves as raw material for obtaining a variety of products: essential oils, feed vitamin flour, sodium chlorophyllin, etc.
Harvesting of tree greenery is carried out all year round at logging areas and on growing trees outside of felling areas. The most valuable raw material is a fir foot. Fir legs are harvested in ripe plantings by pruning branches in the lower part of the crown (no more than 30% of its length).
Harvesting of pine and spruce legs is permitted from felled trees in any type of felling area. In addition, the preparation of the paws of these species is also possible during thinning and sanitary felling.
With a shortage of coniferous paws for chemical processing, deciduous tree greens can also be harvested. Harvesting of hardwood branches is carried out at the main felling areas and during thinning.
The cost of harvesting a coniferous foot depends on many factors, first of all, these are the characteristics of the stand, the concentration of raw materials in the cutting area, the distance of haulage, and the equipment used. In the conditions of the Lisino training and experimental forestry, an average of 1167 rubles is spent on harvesting 1 ton of greenery. (average for 2003). The price, taking into account the pledged profit, is 1283 rubles. 73 kopecks. 20% of this amount is value added tax, therefore, harvesting 1 ton of greenery costs 1,540 rubles. 44 kopecks
8.2. Harvesting of birch bark Birch bark is an outer corky layer of bark without bast. It serves as a raw material for producing birch tar. Birch bark is harvested both from growing trees in felling areas, and from assortments, windblows, deadwood, etc.From trees intended for obtaining plywood raw materials or special assortments, the harvesting of birch bark is prohibited by the rules.
Birch bark is removed from growing trees in spring or autumn to half the height of the trunk. The main condition for harvesting birch bark is the preservation of the bast. The birch bark is cut with a sharpened knife, and removed with special plates or a spatula.
Birch bark harvested from growing trees is called sap, and from a windblow, dead wood, etc. - skinning. In addition, a third type of birch bark is distinguished - thin, which is removed from thin branches and the apical part of the trunks. Depending on the place of harvesting and the type of birch bark, it is subdivided into three grades: higher, first and second. From 1 hectare of birch stand, you can get 1-2 tons of birch bark juice, and when harvesting birch bark simultaneously with felling of the stand, up to 8 tons.
The harvesting of birch bark from dead trees and dead wood can be carried out all year round, both on the territory of felling areas and outside of felling areas. It can also be carried out in the lower warehouses of timber processing enterprises, where conditions for harvesting are more favorable.
8.3. Bark Harvesting Corier is bark taken from the trunks. Korye serves as a raw material for the production of tannins. Currently on spruce, larch and willow bark is being harvested on the territory of our country.
Spruce and larch bark can be harvested throughout the year from felled trees. Outside felling areas, the harvesting of bark of these species is prohibited. The harvesting of willow bark is carried out only in the spring-summer period, before the end of sap flow. During this period, the bark is easily separated from the wood. Places of harvesting willow bark must be indicated in the felling ticket. The harvesting of willow bark from growing trees is prohibited by the Rules.
The St. Petersburg Forestry Academy has developed a technology for obtaining a vitamin concentrate from aspen bark. Its essence lies in the fact that the crushed aspen bark is extracted with a non-polar solvent (gasoline) at the boiling point. The process is carried out in a batch or continuous apparatus. The end product is a vitamin concentrate.
Vitamin concentrate (aspen fat) is a dark green solid product with a specific green smell.
The drug dissolves well in liquid fats and organic solvents. Vitamin concentrate contains a large amount of biologically active substances: chlorophyll, carotenoids (up to 0.18 mg / 100 g), vitamin E (6-7 mg / 100 g), unsaturated fatty acids (62-66%), phytosterols (3.0- 3.5%), including 8-sitosterol and other substances.
Aspen fat can be used as a biologically active additive in feed for farm animals. According to I.A. Bolotnikov, the use of aspen fat in the diets of chickens at the rate of 0.02-0.2 g per 100 g of feed and in the diet of chickens at a dose of 0.1 g per 1 kg of weight contributed to an increase in growth. Egg production increased by 15%.
VA Berestov tested aspen fat on minks and rabbits. The concentrate was added to the feed mixture in an oil solution (1: 5) at a dose of 0.1 g per 1 kg of live weight for 4.5 months. The animals of the control group were given the same amount of vegetable oil. Feeding with aspen concentrate stimulated hematopoiesis in minks. During the experimental period, the number of erythrocytes in experimental animals increased by 61%, the concentration of hemoglobin by 39% compared with the initial level in animals of the control group, respectively, by 36 and 21%.
Feeding a vitamin concentrate from aspen bark to young white giant rabbits at a dose of 0.1 g per 1 kg of live weight stimulated the functions of hematopoietic organs, and mainly in females.
The use of vitamin concentrate from aspen bark in the diets of rabbits can be one of the reserves for increasing the economic efficiency of rabbit farms. Due to the additional increase from each rabbit, a net profit of 0.45 rubles can be obtained. (prices in 2003).
Vitamin concentrate from aspen bark is included in the diet of young rabbits at a dose of 0.05 g per 1 kg of live weight per day for 1 month or more. Before use, the drug is dissolved in pre-warmed fish oil or vegetable oil in a ratio of 1: 3 to 1: 5. After that, the oil solution is mixed in a small amount of compound feed, achieving its uniform distribution, then added to the daily feed rate.
Bee venom: use in medicine, mechanism of action - garden and vegetable garden
Based on historical sources, it is known that in Russia already in the XI century. this culture was grown in the monastery gardens of the Novgorod and Pskov regions. For the first time, information about it as a medical culture is found in therapists and herbalists of the 15th-16th centuries. The history of Russian gardens in the Moscow State is closely connected with the cultivation of black currant. Its wild thickets were found in abundance along the banks of the Moskva River. By the way, according to some oral folk legends, the most ancient name for the Moskva River was Smorodinovka. Numerous historical documents report that already at the beginning and middle of the 17th century. in the gardens near Moscow, a large place was occupied by plantations of black currant.
Black currant (lat.Ríbes nígrum) is a deciduous shrub, a species of the genus Currant (Ribes) of the monotypic Gooseberry family (Grossulariaceae).
Black currant is one of the most beloved berries. In addition to its great taste, black currant is very beneficial for the health of the body. Due to its medicinal properties, black currant is often used in folk medicine for medicinal and prophylactic purposes.
Black currant is a relatively young crop. She was not known to the ancient Greeks and Romans.
Currently, this crop is allocated the largest land area in the gardens.
Black currant fruits are characterized by a valuable chemical composition - they are rich in vitamins, microelements and other biologically active compounds, sugars, organic acids, pectin, tannins, dyes.
The acidity of fruits of various varieties of black currant varies within very significant limits - from 1.8 to 4.36%. The lowest acidity is characteristic of the berries of the varieties Cantata 50, Pilot Alexander Mamkin, Belorusskaya Sladkaya and Minai Shmyrev. The same varieties, as a rule, have a higher sugar content, which leads to a pleasant taste of the fruit.
Organic acids are mainly represented by citric, malic, oxalic (very little), and paracumaric acids. Sugars contain more fructose, less glucose and sucrose. Berries contain up to 3% fiber. When berries ripen, the total content of pectin substances decreases and sugar content increases. There are very few carotenoids in currant berries. The content of the most active B-carotene (provitamin A) is 0.08-0.11 mg / 100 g of wet weight of black currant fruits.
The fruits are rich in vitamin E (0.72 mg / 100 g), surpassing almost all fruits and berries, with the exception of sea buckthorn, cloudberries, rose hips and chokeberry. 100 g of fresh berries contain 0.86 mg of vitamin K.
Fruits and leaves of black currant are a valuable source of vitamin C. The content of ascorbic acid in berries varies and depends on many factors: varieties, weather conditions of the growing season, age of plants, degree of fruit ripeness, agricultural techniques and a number of others.
Green fruits are the richest in vitamin C; as they ripen, the C-vitamin activity decreases and drops especially sharply when berries are overripe. Cloudy, cool summer with a lot of precipitation, especially at the end of June and the first half of July, negatively affects the content of ascorbic acid in berries.
Young leaves, collected after flowering, contain up to 400 mg / 100 g of vitamin C, as the fruits form and ripen, the C-vitamin activity of the leaves sharply decreases. After picking the berries, only 1 / 9-1 / 16 of the initial amount of vitamin C is found in the leaves. Phenolic compounds of black currant berries are mainly represented by anthocyanins, flavonols, leukoanthocyanins and catechins (with a significant prevalence of the first two groups).
Fruits also contain small amounts of other vitamins - B1, B2, PP, B6, folic acid, pantothenic acid, etc. It should be emphasized that only pantothenic acid is found in quantities that may have some practical value in the human vitamin balance (0, 4 mg / 100 g). According to this indicator, black currant significantly surpasses strawberries, raspberries, sea buckthorn, red currants, apples, pears, oranges, lemons, grapes, peaches and a number of other fruits and berries.
Black currant berries are one of the most valuable sources of biologically active phenolic substances, capillary-strengthening, anti-sclerotic, anti-inflammatory, vasodilating (antispasmodic) action.
The leaves are even richer in the indicated compounds. It was found that 100 g of fresh leaves contain the following amounts of phenolic compounds (in mg): flavonols - 980-2700, catechins - 574-3320, leukoanthocyanins - 504-1320. It is known that black currant leaves are often a component of recipes for pickling and soaking vegetables and fruits. They not only contribute to the preservation of the natural color of raw materials, but also enrich the products with phenolic compounds and vitamin C.
Currant bushes are sold both in pots and with bare roots.
Planting holes with a depth of 40-45 cm are prepared several weeks before planting so that the soil has time to settle well. A bucket of humus mixed with earth and 100 g of superphosphate is placed at the bottom of the pit.
In central Russia, currants are best planted in the fall, from the second half of September to early October. Spring planting is also possible. In order not to expose the plant to unnecessary stress during transplanting, it is necessary to plant as early as possible in the spring, as soon as the soil allows and until the buds of the plant have blossomed. It is most optimal that the distance between the bushes is 1.8 m. The planting hole should be of sufficient diameter to freely accommodate the roots of the plant.
When planting black currants, ensure that the plant is properly buried. The root collar of the seedling is deepened by 5 cm. From this, the plant forms additional roots, and the bush becomes thicker. After planting, the soil is carefully compacted, watered abundantly and mulched with humus.
After planting, all the shoots of the seedling are cut off, leaving only 2 buds above the ground. This may seem like a radical pruning, but it helps to develop a strong root system and a well-branched bush.
The main care measures for currants are watering, weed control and pruning. Watering is especially important during dry periods. Currants also consume a lot of moisture during the beginning of the formation of berries and their ripening. So that weeds do not take moisture from the currants, they must be destroyed.
With the onset of fruiting, currants should be regularly fed with fertilizers. In the fall, 100-120 g of superphosphate and 30-40 g of potassium chloride are introduced under each bush. In early spring, 40-50 g of nitrogen fertilizers are applied. This is followed by annual mulching with a mixture of rotted manure and peat. This mulching not only fertilizes, but also helps to retain moisture and inhibits the growth of weeds.
Pruning of a fruiting bush is carried out annually, as a rule, in late autumn or early spring. About 20% of the shoots are removed from the middle of the bush to keep it clear and not thickened. Then, about 15% of older shoots are removed, as well as all diseased and pest-affected branches.
Reproduction of black currant
Black currants are propagated by layering, lignified and green cuttings.
One of the most common breeding methods is layering. The method of propagation by horizontal layers is considered the simplest and it is used most often.
If there is a high-yielding variety in the garden, then using this method of propagation, in one year you can get powerful seedlings with a well-developed root system. For rooting, shallow grooves are dug out in advance near the bushes. In early spring, before the start of sap flow, annual shoots are shortened by 1/5 of their length in order to activate bud germination. Shoots with trimmed tops are laid on the bottom of the grooves, pinned to the ground with wooden or metal hooks and are not covered until the green shoots that have grown from the buds reach a height of 8-10 cm.
To keep the branch well in the hole in the desired position, in the center of the hole it is fixed with a wire hook. Then the hole is covered with soil and watered regularly during the summer. A prerequisite for the successful rooting of cuttings, which begins in July and actively proceeds from the end of August, is a moist soil condition.
By autumn, the branch takes root well and you get a full-fledged seedling with a powerful root system and 2-3 thick branches. In the same autumn, the rooted cut with a pruner is cut off from the mother bush and transplanted to a permanent place.
The method of propagation of shrubs by horizontal layering allows you to get a large number of seedlings, because 5-7 shoots can be taken from a healthy strong bush.
Reproduction by lignified cuttings is also not difficult and is available to every amateur gardener.
In this case, use healthy, undamaged annual shoots as thick as a pencil. Shoots are usually cut in December, although they can be harvested throughout the winter. The prepared cuttings are stored in different ways. They can be dug in wet peat with sawdust and the boxes can be placed in a cool room, where it is necessary to maintain a temperature of 0— + 5 ° C and ventilate. In another method of storage, the cuttings, after cutting, are dipped in water with their ends for a short time, and then placed in a plastic bag. The bags are kept in the refrigerator.
Some gardeners do it even easier: in a raw potato they make several holes along the diameter of the cuttings, insert them, tie the ends together, wrap them with a damp cloth and then paper.
In the spring, cuttings are planted in the garden as early as possible on specially prepared beds with 20 cm spacing and a row spacing of 15 cm, and immediately after planting they put labels with the name of the variety. Labels are best made from food grade aluminum foil.
You can easily write on them with a ballpoint pen, squeezing out letters (you get a rotting, indelible, non-wetting and not fading in the sun "eternal" label).
From mid-June to mid-August, berry bushes can be propagated by green cuttings, but June cuttings root better. For green cuttings, lateral shoots are used, which have completed their growth and formed an apical bud.
Cuttings in the garden can be planted both in autumn and early spring. For planting in spring, cuttings 18-20 cm long are harvested in October November, i.e. at the beginning of winter, before the onset of severe frosts, which can destroy the buds of the currant. They are taken from annual shoots growing from the root or grown on two to three year old branches. It is better to take cuttings from the middle of the shoot. Their thickness should be 8-10 mm. Immediately after cutting, both ends of the cutting are dipped in melted garden varnish or paraffin. With this treatment, they do not lose moisture during storage. Then the cuttings are tied in bundles according to varieties, labels are carefully tied, wrapped first in slightly damp paper, then in plastic wrap, buried and stored deep in the snow until planting. You can also store it in your home refrigerator on a shelf under the freezer.
In the spring of next year, young plants, obtained by propagation with lignified and green cuttings, are transplanted to a garden bed. Planting of plants can be carried out with the onset of warm days, in mid-April.A later transplant is best done in cloudy weather. Plants are placed according to a 40 x 50 cm scheme, watered abundantly, and in sunny weather they are shaded.
Many amateur gardeners, when growing black currants in private farms, not only use the technology of already known methods of propagating this culture, experiment with new developments of scientists, but also use their own. Read them, try to master them, and when you see the results, remember with a kind word those who shared their experience.
A variety of medium ripening, universal. The bush is medium-sized, medium-spreading. The berries are round-oval, black, with a medium skin, sweet and sour, with an average weight of 1.4 g. The variety is frost-resistant, disease susceptibility and pest damage is low.
Medium ripening, universal use. The bush is vigorous. The berries are round, with an average weight of 1.7 g, black, shiny, with a skin of medium density, sweet and sour taste. The variety is winter hardy.
Medium late ripening. The bush is medium-sized, slightly spreading. The berries are round, black, with an average weight of 0.95 g, with a medium skin density. The variety is winter hardy. It was damaged by diseases and pests to a weak degree.
Universal purpose, early ripening. The bush is medium-sized, compressed. The berries are round, almost black, with a thin skin, sweet and sour, with aroma, with a delicate taste, with an average weight of 1.8 g. Frost-resistant, slightly affected by diseases and damaged by pests.
Medium ripening, universal use. The bush is medium-sized, slightly spreading. The berries are round in shape, with an average weight of 1.9 g, almost black in color with a thin skin, sweet and sour taste. The variety is resistant to low temperatures, relatively resistant to diseases and pests.
Medium late ripening, universal use. The bush is medium-sized, slightly spreading. Berries with an average weight of 1.2 g, round, almost black, with a skin of medium thickness, sweet and sour taste. The variety is resistant to diseases and pests, including columnar rust.
Medium ripening, universal use. The bush is medium-sized, slightly spreading. Berries with an average weight of 1.9 g, round-oval, black. The taste is sweet and sour, with aroma. The variety is resistant to fungal diseases, relatively winter hardy.
Medium late ripening, universal use. The bush is vigorous, medium spreading. The berries are round, black, not pubescent, with a skin of medium thickness, sweet and sour, with an average weight of 1.3 g. Medium resistant to anthracnose pathogens, powdery mildew, kidney mites and moths.
Medium ripening, universal use. The bush is medium-sized, medium-spreading. The berries are round, black, with a thin skin, sweet-sour taste, with a delicate delicate aroma, with an average weight of 1.3 g. The variety is resistant to freezing, highly drought-resistant. It was not affected by diseases and was not damaged by pests.
Universal purpose, medium late ripening. The bush is medium-sized, slightly spreading. The berries are round, almost black, with weak pubescence, sweet and sour, with an average weight of 1.4 g. The variety is frost-resistant, slightly affected by diseases, damaged by pests.
New varieties of black currant
The main advantages of new varieties of black currant are a convenient bush shape, large fruit size, good berry taste and resistance to pests and diseases.
Selechinskaya 2 - winter-hardy and drought-resistant. Resistant to fungal diseases, retains leaves until late autumn. Productivity 4-5 kg per bush. The bush is vigorous, erect. The berries are very large (2.9–5.5 g).
Medium black currant varieties
Dubrovskaya is a winter-hardy variety, relatively resistant to kidney mites, moderately resistant to anthracnose, immune to terry. Productivity is 3 kg per bush. The bush is undersized, compact. Berries of medium size.
Dobrynya is resistant to drought and spring frosts. It is immune to powdery mildew, moderately resistant to anthracnose and kidney mites. The bush is weak, erect. The berries are very large.
Perun - resistant to drought, frost, moderately resistant to powdery mildew, anthracnose, kidney mite, slightly affected by aphids. Productivity 3-4 kg per bush. The bush is medium-sized, semi-spreading. The berries are large, with a strong aroma.
Mid-late black currant varieties
Vologda is winter-hardy, resistant to powdery mildew, relatively resistant to kidney mites, susceptible to rust. Productivity 3-4 kg per bush. The bush is vigorous, the berries are large, they do not ripen at the same time.
Katyusha is winter-hardy, resistant to anthracnose, relatively resistant to powdery mildew, susceptible to kidney mites. The bush is vigorous, slightly spreading. The berries are large, with a very dense skin.
Mermaid - early fruiting. Winter-hardy. Resistant to powdery mildew and kidney mites, moderately resistant to septoria, weakly affected by anthracnose. Productivity 2.4-3.5 kg per bush. The bush is vigorous, medium spreading. The berries are very large.
Vigorous - high winter hardiness. Relatively resistant to powdery mildew, rust, kidney mites, moderately resistant to anthracnose. Productivity 3-4 kg per bush. The bush is medium-sized, semi-spreading. The largest of the late varieties (berries weigh up to 7.8 g), but in the middle lane the berries are not so large.
Pests and diseases
Currant kidney mite
Damages mainly to the kidneys of black currant. Females hibernate inside the buds. Affected kidneys can be found in the fall in a rounded and slightly enlarged shape. In early spring, during the period of swelling of the buds, oviposition begins, which continues for a month. After its end, the overwintering females die. After 1-2 weeks, larvae hatch from the eggs, which also feed inside the kidneys, 2-3 weeks after hatching, the larvae turn into females.
Control measures. If the plants are poorly populated with a tick, the bushes are inspected 2-3 times before the buds begin to bloom, removing and destroying infected buds or shoots. The best time to fight a kidney mite is the period of their migration, from the beginning of budding to the end of flowering. At this time, spraying is carried out at least 2 times with 10% karbofos (75 g per 10 l of water), colloidal sulfur (50-100 g per 10 l of water), if the air temperature is above 20o. Can be sprayed with infusions of walnut peel, tobacco, dandelion, garlic.
Gooseberry shoot aphid
Damages black and white currants. Eggs overwinter at the base of the buds. In the spring, during the period of swelling of the buds, larvae hatch from the eggs, which crawl to the top of the bud and begin to feed on the leaves that have not yet blossomed. At the beginning of shoot growth, the larvae feed on young shoots, leaf stalks and on the leaves themselves. In the spring, aphids give 3-4 generations. Affected shoots are bent and grow poorly or stop growing altogether.
Instead of a normal shoot, a lump of twisted leaves with aphid colonies is formed. At an early stage of damage, the presence of aphids can be detected by the presence of ants on the shoots, which feed on the excrement of the pest. In summer, aphids migrate to weeds, and in autumn they return to currants and lay eggs.
Control measures. When the first leaves appear, the bushes are sprayed with infusion of tobacco, garlic, orange peels, nutshells. The treatments are repeated after 10 days. The curly tops of the shoots with aphid colonies are cut and burned.
Damages currant berries wherever this crop grows. Pupae overwinter in a cobweb cocoon in the surface layer of soil, at a depth of 3-6 cm, under currant bushes. Most of them are located within a radius of 30-35 cm from the base of the bush. In the spring, before flowering, pupae move closer to the soil surface, turn into butterflies, which fly out and begin to lay eggs at the beginning of flowering. The female lays eggs first in buds, then in currant flowers and later on young ovaries and leaves. A few days later, caterpillars hatch from the eggs, take root in young ovaries, eating up seeds and partially pulp within a month. Damaged berries are entangled in cobwebs, color ahead of time, rot, dry out and remain hanging on the branch until the end of the harvest. The feeding caterpillar descends along the cobweb to the base of the bush, penetrates into the soil, pupates and remains in the form of a pupa until the spring of next year. The moth gives only one generation per season.
Control measures. High agricultural technology. In the fall, digging the soil under the bushes. Mulching the soil under the bushes with peat, humus, earth (with a layer of 6-8 cm high). After flowering, you can rake the mulch. During the formation and growth of the ovary, collect the berries braided with cobwebs together with the caterpillars and destroy.
Blackcurrant berry sawfly
Mainly damages black currants. Caterpillars overwinter in cocoons in the soil under bushes. During the period of mass flowering, adults fly out. Females lay eggs one at a time at the bases of the largest ovaries. The hatched caterpillars feed on seeds inside the ovaries, filling the berries with excrement. Damaged berries have a ribbed shape and turn black ahead of time. The caterpillar eats for 25-30 days. Before harvesting, it gnaws a round hole at the base of the berry, leaves it and goes into the soil. The berry falls off. The pest gives one generation per season.
Control measures are the same as for gooseberry moth.
Common spider mite
An omnivorous sucking pest. It damages not only cultivated plants, but also weeds, often accumulates on them. Particularly damaging to black currants.
Females overwinter in groups, mainly under fallen leaves, in a funnel formed by bush branches, under lumps of soil and under fallen leaves. Ticks can withstand very low temperatures - up to -34o, and since this temperature does not happen under the cover of snow, the females survive completely. In the last decade of April, on warm days, ticks move to currant branches and weeds.
They live, feed and reproduce on the underside of predominantly mature leaves, and only with a large accumulation of them do they also damage young leaves.
A spider mite can be detected by the presence of a cobweb on the underside of the leaf; on its upper side, light dots form in places of damage. With severe damage, the leaves acquire a chlorotic appearance, partially lighten, then turn brown, dry and fall off. Hot, dry weather contributes to the active reproduction of the pest. At the same time, the leaves fall off very early, by mid-July the bushes are bare, the axillary buds start to grow, which leads to freezing of the shoots and the loss of the next year's harvest.
Control measures. Requires high agricultural technology, the destruction of weeds. Autumn digging of soil under the bushes with the incorporation of fallen leaves. Collecting leaves in the fall after they have fallen and picking them especially carefully from the funnel at the base of the bush. Mulching the soil under the bushes within a radius of at least 50 cm with peat, humus or just soil with a layer of 6-8 cm. The mulching is carried out only after the end of flowering.
Leaf gall aphid (red gall)
It mainly damages red and white currants, less often black currants. <
Bee venom: use in medicine, mechanism of action - garden and vegetable garden
Its homeland is considered to be Central Asia, where it was cultivated as early as 4000 BC. Onions in the wild are unknown. Among the Romans, he was credited with the ability to excite strength and energy, as a result of which he was introduced into the daily diet of Roman soldiers. In Russia onion it was widely used, starting from the XII-XIII centuries, mainly by the poor strata of the population, and especially during fasting, when it was eaten with bread and vegetable oil, washed down with water or kvass. In Belarus onion has long been grown in large quantities, it was supplied even to Russia and Poland.
A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF
Bulb onions is a herbaceous plant of the onion family, cultivated in one-, two- and perennial crops. The bulb is a shortened stem (bottom) on which, in an alternating order, leaves are located, in the axils of which generative or vegetative buds are buried. When planted in the soil, flower arrows develop from the former, and bulbs from the latter. The leaves are attached to the bottom with the help of leafy sheaths (succulent scales), which form the body of the bulb and are the main storage organs. The color of these scales (from white to purple) is a varietal trait.
In Belarus, 13 varieties of onions have been zoned: Strigunovsky local, Yantarny, Vetraz, Stuttgarter rizen, Kryvschu ruzhovy, Volski, Sokhachevsky, Chernyakhovsky, Geandina, Durko, Jumbo, Supra and Dyament.
By taste, there are sharp, semi-sharp and sweet varieties. The former include the early ripening Strigunovsky local, Yantarny, Vetraz, Dyyament (selection of the Institute of Vegetable Growing of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus), Durko (Holland), Jumbo (Sweden), Sochachevsky and early ripening Volsky (Poland), the second - early ripening Stuttgarter rizen, Kryv1tsyu ruzhovy Chernyakhovsky, mid-late Supra. Sweet varieties (Spanish ones prevail among them) are rarely grown here.
NUTRITIONAL AND HEALING VALUE
The dry matter contains sugars, proteins, fat, essential oils, 1 sulfur salts. In total, 18 elements of the periodic table were found in the onion. It is also rich in vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B6, B9, C, E, PP), contains the essential amino acids for the body.
The inhabitants of the East said: "Onions, in your arms every disease passes." Let's remember our proverb: onions from seven ailments. Even the smell of onions protects against many diseases. This is due to the presence of phytoncides.
Of Luke prepare drugs used in gynecology, for atherosclerosis, for the normal functioning of the heart, increasing the tone and secretion of the gastrointestinal tract, and lowering the level of cholesterol in the blood. Onions are a powerful sexual stimulant.
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROWTH CONDITIONS
The plant is cold-resistant. Seeds begin to germinate even at temperatures of 5-7 ° C. At 14-15 ° C, seedlings may appear in two weeks, and at 20-22 ° C - in 6-8 days. They easily tolerate spring cold snaps and light frosts (down to -3 ° C). Sharp varieties are more frost-resistant.
The best temperature for the growth and development of onions is 22-25 ° C.
It grows well at low air humidity (60-70%), but requires high soil moisture, responds well to irrigation in the first two-thirds of the growing season. Furrow irrigation is better than sprinkler irrigation, because when sprinkling, onions are more affected by peronosporosis.
In the second half of growth, the lack of moisture favors the ripening of the bulbs. The most complete bulbs of varieties zoned in Belarus are formed with a long day and good illumination.
Onion it is distinguished by an increased demand for soil fertility. This is due to the small suction surface of its root system. The best are loamy and sandy loam soils rich in humus, as well as non-floating chernozems. Optimum acidity should range between pH 6-7.
AGROTECHNICS OF GROWING
The best precursors for onions are crops for which increased doses of organic fertilizers were applied - cucumbers, early white cabbage and cauliflower, early potatoes. It is also a good precursor for many vegetables. If there are perennial onions on the site, then the crops of onions should be removed from them as far as possible. Onions are returned to their original place no earlier than after 3-4 years. The soil of areas with high acidity must be limed by placing onions 2-3 years after the introduction of lime materials. Before plowing or digging, organic fertilizers and 2/3 doses of mineral fertilizers are applied. In addition to humus and composts, you can use chicken manure (1-2 kg / m 2), wood ash (0.5-1 kg / m 2).About 20 g of double superphosphate and 10-15 g of potassium chloride per 1 m 2 are usually added to the autumn dressing. When growing onions on peat soils, the dose of phosphorus is increased by 1.5 times, and nitrogen is excluded altogether.
In the conditions of Belarus bulb onions can be grown in annual, biennial and perennial crops.
Annual culture is carried out in two ways - by sowing seeds in the ground and planting pre-grown seedlings. To do this, use early ripening varieties that are capable of ripening in a short growing season.
A two-year culture allows you to get marketable onions in the second year. In the first year, seedlings are grown from seeds in thickened crops, which is then used as planting material.
Perennial culture is carried out vegetatively, i.e. by planting a sample or uterine bulbs.
2-3 weeks before planting, the sets are sorted out and sorted. Healthy bulbs 10-15 days before planting are warmed up for 8 hours at a temperature of 40-42 ° C or 10-12 hours in a stream of warm air at a temperature of 45-47 ° C, which reduces shooting and reduces the incidence of downy mildew and neck rot.
Soaking the seedlings in a solution of trace elements (potassium permanganate, etc.) and slurry (1: 5-6) for 12-24 hours accelerates the emergence of seedlings and increases productivity.
Sevok is planted in well-warmed soil. Optimal landing dates: in the southern zone of the Republic of Belarus - until April 20, in the central and northern zones - from April 25 to May 10. Planting too early causes shooing, a later planting reduces the yield, impairs the ripening and preservation of the bulbs.
On a ridge 1 m wide, onion sets are planted in 3-5 lines with a distance of 15-20 cm between them.A small-nest varieties and small ones are planted at a distance of 4-6 cm between plants in rows, multi-nest varieties - at a distance of 8-10 cm. For 1 m 2 beds, 400-800 g of planting material is required. Planting depth 3-5 cm (from the soil surface to the bulb shoulder). Shallow embedding is unacceptable.
The loosening depth should be no more than 4-5 cm so as not to damage the root system. It must be remembered that on dense soil, the plant dramatically reduces the yield and forms small bulbs. At the beginning of leaf regrowth (2 weeks after planting), the onions are fed with mineral fertilizers (10 g of ammonium nitrate, potassium chloride and superphosphate per 1 m 2). After 15-20 days - the second feeding (2-3 g of ammonium nitrate, 4-5 g of superphosphate and potassium chloride). In wet soil, fertilizers can be applied dry under loosening, if there is not enough moisture, they are dissolved in water (10-15 liters per 1 m 2). After liquid top dressing, the dried soil must be loosened.
At the beginning of the formation of bulbs, you need feeding 10-15 g of potassium chloride, 15-20 g of superphosphate. In dry weather onion watered 3-4 times at the rate of 15-20 liters per 1 m 2 with mandatory subsequent loosening.
The bulbs are dug in, shaken off the soil, without hitting each other. When picking the onion without digging in, the bottom of it is injured, which affects the keeping quality. In good weather, the bulbs are laid out on the ridge to dry for 3-7 days; in damp weather, ripening is carried out under a canopy or in a well-ventilated room. Even slightly frozen onions are poorly stored.
FOR HOME PHARMACY
In folk medicine bow use as an anti-scurvy, diuretic, anti-cold and wound healing agent.
An aqueous or alcoholic infusion of dry onion scales is a P-vitamin concentrate. This infusion improves the functioning of the heart, removes toxins from the body. The dye of dry scales (quercetin) strengthens blood vessels, making them more elastic and permeable.
Onion juice is able to remove sand and kidney stones. Doctors recommend baked onion soup to patients with diabetes (it helps to reduce the amount of sugar in the blood). Onions baked or boiled in milk are applied to abscesses, and freshly grated bulbs are applied to bruises.
TO YOUR TABLE
Spicy and semi-sharp varieties are an irreplaceable spice-flavored seasoning: goes to salads, vinaigrettes, first and second courses, as well as minced meat, fillings, sauces, marinades. Bulbs can be perfectly preserved along with garlic, zucchini, tomatoes, cauliflower.
In Mari El, experts in traditional medicine from dead bees are preparing an effective medicine to prevent the development of atherosclerosis, thrombophlebitis and many other diseases (4 PHOTOS)
In the arsenal of traditional medicine of the inhabitants of Mari El, a very important place is occupied by a variety of beekeeping products. There are very popular ones, but there are also those that are used by a narrow circle of people dedicated to the secrets of apitherapy, for example, bee podmore.
An experienced beekeeper, deputy chairman of the republican society of beekeepers Yuri Gryazin, in particular, prepares preparations from beesworm. Strictly speaking, dead bees are dead. But you need to know that not every podmor is suitable for treatment, but only fresh, well-dried, without any decomposition and mold. It is usually harvested in the spring after wintering. After that, the raw material must be sifted through a mesh in order to separate the garbage, and then dry it. The finished product is perfectly stored in linen bags.
The composition is so useful
Podmore bee in folk medicine has found a fairly widespread use. The body of a bee includes almost all components of honey, pollen, royal jelly, propolis, wax, which have medicinal properties. The chitinous cover contains valuable chemicals: heparin and heparinoids, which suppress inflammation, stabilize blood pressure, and have a healing effect on the state of blood vessels. This is a more powerful biologically active substance than crustacean chitosan.
Its positive role in the regulation of all types of metabolism has already been proven - a general strengthening, anti-inflammatory, tonic effect, as well as the ability to regulate the functions of the endocrine and nervous systems. The bee venom contained in the sea is softer than fresh. This allows allergy sufferers to use it, and heat resistance makes it possible to prepare medicinal decoctions from the dead.
Melanin in the submarine removes metal salts and radioactive isotopes. Heparin is effective against inflammation, stabilizes blood pressure, improves hematopoiesis and the condition of the vessels of the extremities with varicose veins and thrombophlebitis.
Dead bees are able to remove excess cholesterol and fats from the body, therefore it is useful for losing weight. It also prevents the development of atherosclerosis and diabetes, significantly reduces the load on the liver and reduces the likelihood of lamblia. It is used during treatment for mastitis, joint pain, prostate adenoma, sexual dysfunctions.
In folk medicine, there are several methods of preparing preparations from bee dead:
Broth. To prepare the broth, a tablespoon of podmore is poured into 0.5 liters of water and boiled for two hours over low heat. Then they insist and filter for the same amount of time. Take 100 grams 1-2 times a day for a month. Then you can take a break for 10 days and repeat the course again.
Raspar. To prepare the stew, you will need 100 grams of submarine It is steamed in hot water for 15 minutes, then wrung out. The bee mass, wrapped in gauze, is applied to sore spots in the form of a compress, fixed with a bandage and covered with cellophane on top. Leave to cool completely.
Powder. Podmore is fried in vegetable oil for five minutes (50 grams of vegetable oil per teaspoon). Then the mixture is cooled and crushed, taken in a teaspoon before meals, it is better to drink it with goat's milk. The course of treatment is 1-2 months.
Liniment or ointment. To prepare liniment, knead a tablespoon of podmore into powder and pour a glass of hot vegetable oil, you can use petroleum jelly. Store liniment in the refrigerator.
Alcohol tincture. This is perhaps the most popular way to use podmore. It is prepared most often like this: take a tablespoon of finely ground bees and pour 100 ml of vodka or alcohol. You need to keep the tincture in a tightly sealed dark glass container. It must be shaken for the first week every day, and then every 3 days. Before use, it is advisable to conduct a course of cleansing the body, which increases the efficiency of the drug.
Treatment with bee death:
We strengthen the immune system
As already mentioned, podmor perfectly supports the immunity of the human body, copes with the prevention of numerous diseases. To strengthen the immune system and cleanse the body, it is worth periodically taking an alcoholic tincture of podmore. As for the dose, the calculation here is simple - you need to take as many drops as a person is full years old. Of course, the tincture must be diluted with water, taken twice: in the morning and in the evening, preferably after meals. Treatment course for a month, twice a year.
Let's clean the body
If you want to cleanse the liver from lamblia, you need to drink the tincture for a month (three times a day, 20-30 drops per dose). For blood purification, same recipe as above. Only crushed eucalyptus leaves should be added to the tincture, they should make up 10% of the weight of the podmore. This mixture is perfect for external use as well.
To normalize blood pressure and avoid most diseases of the kidneys and liver, cardiovascular, thyroid gland, you should take the tincture for 1-2 months every day after meals, an average of 20 drops per dose.
If there are problems in the sexual sphere, it is advisable to drink a warm decoction from the dead. To do this, take a tablespoon twice every day, washed down with warm water with the addition of honey (a teaspoon for half a glass). Duration - a month. The course is repeated 2-3 times with a two-week break between them.
Help from outside
When lumbar and joint pains are concerned, the recipe is as follows: a tablespoon of podmore is poured with a glass of boiling water and infused well (20 minutes). From this infusion, you need to make baths for the hands and feet, starting with a 5-minute session duration and bringing it up to 15 minutes.
For diseases of the joints and thrombophlebitis, you can use an ointment with sublimation. It is done like this: the beesworm is rubbed into powder and combined with hot vegetable (preferably olive) oil (spoon per glass). Before use, the ointment is slightly heated and rubbed into problem areas. The product is stored in a dark glass container in a cold place.
Not all medicine
The danger of dead bees is that it is a strong allergen. Moreover, it is capable of causing allergic reactions not only in those who cannot tolerate beekeeping products, but also in people suffering from allergies to dust and chitin. Also, it should be abandoned in the presence of blood diseases, acute forms of thrombosis, cardiac arrhythmias, heart aneurysms, acute mental illnesses. Since heparin slows down blood clotting, contraindications apply to people suffering from leukemia, all types of bleeding and increased vascular permeability.
Before use, consult talk to your doctor!
Action and properties of bee venom
Of all beekeeping products, insect venom has the most pronounced effect on the body. Apimin strengthens the immune system, fights against colds, blocks the spread of atypical bacteria and rejuvenates the skin.
Bee venom is valued in medicine for its composition. The product is a powerful natural analgesic. Its effect is hundreds of times more powerful than that of pain relievers. This is due to the presence of adopine, which enters the body along with bee venom. In addition to adopine, apimin contains:
- cardiopeptides. The substance thins biological fluid and improves blood circulation
- peptide. Endowed with strong antibacterial properties
- apamim. Normalizes the work of the central nervous system
- amino acids. Improves brain activity and stimulates the production of serotonin.
Positive the action of bee venom made it possible to use it in the treatment of:
- sleep and central nervous system disorders
Apitherapy courses promote vasodilation and resorption of the formed blood clots.
Bee venom harm
Bee venom treatments can be harmful. To exclude the development of side effects, a person needs to undergo a medical examination. The use of apimin is contraindicated if:
- individual intolerance to one of the elements in the composition of bee venom
- the presence of sexually transmitted diseases
- mental disorder
- pathology, kidney, liver and pancreas in the acute stage
- heart failure
- period of bearing a child
- the onset of menstruation.
After a bee sting, an activation of blood flow is observed and the process of cell renewal is started. In addition, the ingestion of apimin into the body helps to neutralize harmful microbes.
In other cases, treatment with bee venom will be beneficial. But remember, a beekeeping product is not a panacea. Especially if the pathology is at an advanced stage.
First aid for a bee sting
Single bee stings are not dangerous to humans. But only if there is no risk of an allergic reaction. However, if several individuals attacked at the same time, first aid must be provided. The following steps help neutralize the destructive effect of the poison:
- remove the sting carefully, without pressing on the bag of poison. Use tweezers or make a loop of thread
- the bite site is treated with ammonia or Suprastin solution
- apply ice or grated fresh parsley.
The victim needs to drink any antihistamine and drink plenty of fluids.