Walnut: planting and care, pruning, diseases, types and varieties, photo
Fruit and berry plants
Wood walnut (lat.Juglans regia) - a species of the genus Walnut of the Walnut family. Otherwise, this nut is called Volosh, royal or Greek. In the wild, walnuts grow in western Transcaucasia, northern China, the Tien Shan, northern India, Greece and Asia Minor. Individual specimens of the plant are found even in Norway. But the largest natural hazel trees are found in the south of Kyrgyzstan. The homeland of the walnut is believed to be Iran, although it has been speculated that it may be of Chinese, Indian or Japanese origin. The first mentions of walnuts in historical documents date back to the 7th-5th centuries BC: Pliny writes that the Greeks brought this culture from the gardens of Cyrus, king of Persia.
From Greece, the plant came to Rome under the name "walnut", and then spread throughout France, Switzerland, Germany and Bulgaria. The walnut was introduced to the American continent only at the beginning of the 19th century. The nut came to Ukraine from Moldova and Romania under the name "Voloshsky".
Planting and caring for walnuts
- Landing: in areas with a cool climate - in the spring (before the start of sap flow), in the southern regions, autumn planting is preferable.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: any with a pH of 5.5-5.8.
- Watering: regular, in the summer - 2 times a month at a consumption of 3-4 buckets of water for each square meter of the near-trunk circle, from August watering is stopped. In dry autumn, water-charging podzimny watering is carried out.
- Top dressing: nitrogen fertilizers are applied twice: in spring and early summer, under the root, and potash and phosphorus fertilizers - in the fall. For the season, one adult nut needs an average of about 10 kg of superphosphate, 6 kg of ammonium nitrate, 3 kg of potassium salt and 10 kg of ammonium sulfate.
- Cropping: sanitary and formative pruning - in spring, before the start of sap flow, in autumn - sanitary.
- Reproduction: seeds and grafting.
- Pests: American white butterfly, codling moth, nut wart mite, walnut moth and aphids.
- Diseases: bacteriosis, marsoniasis (brown spot), root cancer, fire blight.
Read more about growing walnuts below.
Walnut is a large tree growing up to 25 meters high; the walnut trunk sometimes reaches three and sometimes seven meters in circumference. Walnut bark is gray, branches with leaves form an extensive crown. Walnut leaves, compound, odd-pinnate, consisting of elongated leaves from 4 to 7 cm long, bloom at the same time with small, greenish flowers, pollinated by the wind - in May. On the same tree, both male and female flowers open.
The walnut fruit is a single-seeded drupe with a thick leathery pericarp and a spherical bone with incomplete septa, which can be from two to five. Inside the shell is an edible walnut kernel. The weight of one fruit is from 5 to 17 g.
Greece walnut does not have high frost resistance - it freezes out even at a temperature of -25-28 ºC. The walnut tree lives 300-400 years, its wood, belonging to valuable species, is often used for the manufacture of designer furniture. A dye for textiles is produced from walnut leaves. The main producing countries of the valuable walnut today are China, the USA, Turkey, Iran and Ukraine.
We will tell you how to plant and care for a walnut, how to shape its crown, how to fertilize a walnut so that its yields are stable and consistently high, how to process a walnut from pests and diseases, which varieties of walnuts are best grown in the garden and we will give you a lot of other interesting and useful information.
Planting a walnut
When to plant
Usually, walnut seedlings are planted in spring, but autumn planting is also possible in the southern regions. If there is a good drainage layer, any soil for a walnut will do. Clay soil can be improved by adding peat and compost to it. The place for planting a nut should be sunny, since this tree is photophilous, and the seedling will simply die in the shade. Trees growing apart in the sun have the highest productivity. The nut does not like areas with high groundwater levels, and the optimal pH of the soil for walnuts is pH 5.5-5.8.
Since male and female walnut flowers do not bloom at the same time, it is good if there are a couple of walnut trees of other varieties nearby, and they can even grow in neighboring gardens - pollen is carried by the wind to a distance of 200-300 m.
Before planting, walnut seedlings are inspected: rotten, diseased or dried roots and shoots are removed, after which the roots are dipped into a clay chatterbox with a thick store sour cream. In addition to water, the talker contains 1 part of decomposed manure and 3 parts of clay. You can add a growth stimulant to the talker - Humate or Epin.
How to plant in spring
The walnut pit is prepared in the fall. Since a young tree at first does not have a powerful root system, the main source of nutrition for it will be soil one meter in diameter from the nut, therefore it is so important to create optimal conditions for its growth and development.
The size of the nut hole is determined by the composition of the soil. On fertile soils, a pit with a depth and diameter of 60 cm will be quite enough, on less fertile soils, the depth and diameter of the pit should be greater - within 1 m.Place the fertile soil taken out of the pit from the upper layer to one side, and the infertile soil from the lower layer to the other - you will not need it for planting a walnut. Mix the top layer of soil with peat and humus (or compost) in equal proportions, but in no case use fresh organic matter to enrich the soil.
Add 2.5 kg of superphosphate, 800 g of potassium chloride, 750 g of dolomite flour and one and a half kilograms of wood ash to the soil mixture, thoroughly mix all the ingredients with the soil. This amount of fertilizer, mixed with a fertile soil layer, is enough for the tree for the first 3-5 years of life, during which the walnut will develop a powerful root system that can independently extract nutrients.
Fill the hole with the prepared potting mix to the top and pour one and a half to two buckets of water into it. This completes the autumn preparation of the walnut pit.
During the winter, the soil in the pit will settle and compact, and in the spring, when it is time to plant the nut, remove the soil mixture from the pit, drive a 3 m high support stake into the center of the bottom, pour a hill around it of the same soil mixture so high that the root collar installed on the mound of the seedling was 3-5 cm above the surface of the site. Fill the hole with the remaining soil mixture, tamp the surface and pour 20-30 liters of water under the seedling.
When the water is absorbed, the soil will settle, and the root collar of the seedling will be at the level of the surface of the site, tie the tree to a support and mulch its near-trunk circle with a layer of peat, sawdust or straw 2-3 cm thick.At a distance of 30-50 cm from the trunk, form from humus and land in a ratio of 1: 3 roller 15 cm high to collect rainwater.
Planting in autumn
The autumn planting of walnuts is not much different from the spring planting. The only difference is that the pit is not prepared six months in advance, but two to three weeks before planting. And we remind you: the autumn planting of walnuts is permissible only in the southern regions, where there are no frosty winters.
Spring care conditions
How to grow walnuts in the garden and how to properly care for walnuts? Gardening begins in early spring. In the third decade of March, if the air temperature does not drop below -4-5 ºC, sanitary and formative walnut pruning can be carried out. If weather conditions do not allow pruning within these periods, postpone it to a later time, but you need to have time to prune the nut before the start of sap flow.
Walnut needs moisture in spring. In April, if there was little snow in winter, and spring without rain, water the tree with water charging. Clean its stem and skeletal branches from dead bark, rinse them with a 3% solution of copper sulfate and refresh the whitewash of the walnut stem that has come down over the winter with lime. At the same time, preventive treatment of trees from diseases and pests is carried out and seedlings are planted.
In May, it is time to fertilize. How to feed walnuts? An adult tree needs about 6 kg of ammonium nitrate per year, which is best applied in spring and early summer. This applies to trees older than 3 years - the fertilizers laid in the hole during planting should be enough for the plant for at least three years.
How to care for the summer
In hot, and especially dry summers, the need for watering of walnuts increases. From May to July, inclusive, the tree trunk circle of the nut is moistened twice a month without subsequent loosening of the soil, since the nut does not like this. But it is necessary to fight against weeds. In the summer, walnuts can suffer from fungal diseases and harmful insects, therefore it is very important to inspect the tree daily so as not to miss the onset of the disease or the appearance of pests, and if a danger arises, the walnut should be treated with an appropriate preparation - an insecticide or fungicide.
At the end of July, pinch the tops of those shoots whose growth you want to accelerate - the shoots must have time to ripen before the cold weather begins, otherwise they will die from frostbite in winter. Carry out foliar feeding of the nut with phosphate and potassium fertilizers with the addition of trace elements. Some walnut varieties ripen by the end of August, in which case you should be ready to harvest.
Autumn is the time to harvest walnuts. Depending on the variety, the nuts ripen from late August to late October. When the harvest is over, it is necessary to put things in order in the garden: after leaf fall, carry out sanitary pruning of the walnut, rake off fallen leaves and cut off shoots, treat trees from pests and pathogens that have settled in the walnut bark and in the soil under the tree for the winter, whitewash the stem and the base of the skeletal branches with lime. Seedlings and young trees must be prepared for winter.
In order for the walnut not to be attacked by pests or infecting with diseases, it is necessary to carry out preventive treatment twice a year. When and how to process walnuts? Spring processing is carried out early, on still dormant buds - a walnut and the soil of the trunk circle are sprayed with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate. Autumn processing of walnuts with the same preparations is carried out after leaf fall, when the trees go into a dormant period.
Many gardeners, instead of Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate, use a 7% urea solution for treatment, which is simultaneously a fungicide, insecticide and nitrogen fertilizer. It is better to treat trees with urea in spring, when the nut needs nitrogen.
Growing walnuts requires regular watering. This is a moisture-loving plant, but if it rains from time to time in spring and summer, the nut can be left un-watered. In a hot and dry season, it is necessary from May to the end of July to water the nut twice a month, spending 3-4 buckets of water for each square meter of the trunk circle. From the beginning of August, watering should be stopped. If the autumn will be without rain, carry out a sub-winter water-charging watering of the walnut to make it easier for him to survive the winter.
The nut root system does not like loosening, therefore, mineral fertilizer complexes must be applied with great care. Nitrogen fertilizers are applied only in spring and early summer, since they contribute to the infection of the nut with fungal diseases during the fruiting period. Phosphates and potash fertilizers are well accepted by the crop; it is better to apply them to the soil of the trunk circle in the fall. In total, a fruiting walnut needs 10 kg of superphosphate, 3 kg of potassium salt, 10 kg of ammonium sulfate and 6 kg of ammonium nitrate during the growing season.
As fertilizers, you can also use siderates - lupine, peas, oats or rank, which are sown in the aisles of hazel trees at the end of summer, and in autumn they are plowed into the soil.
Since the nut is a thermophilic culture, some of its varieties can only grow in areas where there are no cold winters. However, there are varieties that can withstand short-term frosts down to -30 ºC. Adult plants hibernate without shelter, but seedlings and one-year-old trees must be wrapped in burlap, and their near-stem circles, retreating 10 cm from the tree trunk, must be mulched with manure for the winter.
When to trim
In the spring, in March or April, when the air in the garden has already warmed up to above-zero temperature, but sap flow has not yet begun, sanitary and formative walnut pruning is carried out. Some gardeners prefer to prune the walnut in the second half of summer because it is difficult to determine in early spring which shoot is too weak or frostbitten. Walnuts are pruned in the fall for sanitary purposes so that the plant does not feed sick, drying and broken branches and shoots in winter.
How to trim
If the crown of the nut is not formed, over time, large defects may appear - breaking forks with sharp corners, branches that are too long with few lateral branches, fruit-bearing shoots dying off due to thickening of the crown, and many other troubles. The formation of the walnut increases the quality and quantity of the fruit and regulates the growth of the tree, which makes it easier to care for it.
To carry out pruning - sanitary or shaping - a sterile and sharp knife or pruner is used, which makes the cuts even, without burrs. The first time the nut is cut when the tree reaches a height of 1.5 m.The stem of the tree should be 80-90 cm, and the crown should be 50-60 cm.Forming the crown, no more than 10 skeletal branches are left on the tree, the shoots are shortened by 20 cm, and the stem is regularly cleaned of overgrowth. In order to lay the skeleton of the crown, you will need three to four years, but as soon as it is formed, you will only have to remove the fattening, competing and thickening shoots.
In the spring, as soon as the weather permits, carry out a sanitary pruning of the nut, removing all frostbite, diseased, dry and improperly growing branches and shoots. Treat slices thicker than 7 mm with garden pitch. Simultaneously with the sanitary, formative pruning of the walnut is carried out.
If the tree has not been properly cared for for a long time, over time, fruiting shifts to the periphery - fruits are formed only in the upper parts of the crown. To fix this, you need to carry out anti-aging walnut pruning.
In early spring, skeletal branches located too high are cut down, after which the crown of the tree is heavily thinned to ensure the penetration of air and light into it. Branches are cut off in the places of the lateral branch in order to direct their development not upwards, but to the sides. The influx of tree sap over time will cause the awakening of the buds, which will give new shoots, from which the crown will form.
Pruning in the fall
During harvesting, a walnut branch sometimes breaks or shoots are accidentally cut off.Some shoots can be affected by disease or pests, therefore, after leaf fall, it is advisable to carry out sanitary pruning of diseased, broken, improperly growing and dying shoots so that the tree does not consume food for them in winter. After pruning, thick sections are treated with garden pitch.
Walnuts are propagated by seeds and vegetatively by grafting. In order to inoculate a varietal cuttings, you have to grow a stock from seeds, so we will describe to you both ways of propagating a walnut.
Growing from seeds
Growing walnuts from seeds is a long-term perspective. It is advisable to harvest seeds from healthy, productive trees growing in your area. Large fruits with an easily extractable kernel are chosen. The maturity of the nucleus is determined by the state of the pericarp - the pericarp. If the pericarp is cracked or can be easily separated by making an incision, then the nucleus is ripe. The nuts are freed from the pericarp, and dried for a week in the sun, and then transferred to a room, where they are dried at a temperature of 18-20 ºC. You can plant nuts in the same fall, or you can plant them next spring, but then they need to be stratified.
Thick-skinned nuts stratify 90-100 days at temperatures from 0 to 7 ºC, and varieties with shells of medium thickness and thin-skinned - a month and a half at a temperature of 15-18 ºC. In order for stratified nuts to germinate faster, they are kept in moist sand at a temperature of 15-18 ºC until they bite, and then sown: those that bite are sown less often, those that did not have time to bite are thicker. Sow walnut fruits when the soil warms up to 10 ºC. The distance between seeds in a row is 10-15 cm, between rows - 50 cm. Nuts of medium size are embedded in the ground to a depth of 8-9 cm, and those that are larger - by 10-11 cm.
Seedlings begin to appear by the end of April. As a rule, 70% of stratified nuts germinate. When the seedlings have two true leaves, they are planted in the school, pinching the tip of the central root. In the school garden, seedlings grow slowly - in order to grow a stock, you will need 2-3 years, and to grow a full-fledged seedling that can be transplanted into the garden, you will have to wait 5-7 years. The process can be accelerated if the seedlings are grown not in the open ground, but in a greenhouse - under a film coating, the rootstock grows in a year, and a seedling in two years.
Grafting of a walnut is carried out by the method of budding, but since the buds of this tree are quite large, a shield cut from the scion cuttings and inserted under the bark of the rootstock should also be large so that it can provide the peephole with water and nutrients.
The problem is that even in ordinary winters, almost all buds that have taken root in autumn die in the cold due to insufficient winter hardiness of the culture, therefore, the cultivated seedlings must be dug out after leaf fall and stored until spring in a basement at a temperature of about 0 ºC. In the spring, when the soil warms up to 10 ºC, the seedlings are planted in the nursery. By the end of the growing season, they can reach 100-150 cm in height, and they can be planted in a permanent place.
The walnut is quite resistant to both diseases and pests, but mistakes in care and failure to follow agricultural techniques can lead to the fact that the tree will get sick. Most often, walnuts are affected by:
Bacteriosis which manifests itself as black spots on the leaves of the plant, because of which they deform and fall off. The fruits damaged by the disease lose their quality and, as a rule, do not ripen and fall. The varieties with thick shells suffer less from bacteriosis. The development of the disease is provoked by rainy weather and nitrogen fertilizers. To cope with the disease, treat the tree before flowering with copper sulfate, Bordeaux liquid or another fungicide in two stages. In the fall, do not forget to rake and remove fallen walnut leaves from the site;
Brown spot or marsoniasis, looks like brownish spots, which, with the development of the disease, spread throughout the leaf. As a result, the affected foliage dries up and falls off prematurely. Fruits affected by spotting, which did not have time to ripen, also fall. The disease progresses in wet weather. Affected leaves and shoots must be removed from the tree until the disease has spread throughout the nut. Reconsider your hydration regime - you may be watering the nut too often.
Walnut treatment for spotting is carried out with Vectra preparations (2-3 ml per 10 liters of water) and Strobi (4 g per 10 liters of water). The first treatment is carried out as soon as the buds begin to bloom on the tree, the second time the nut is sprayed in the summer;
Root cancer affects the root system of the walnut. The causative agent of the disease enters the roots through cracks in the bark and wounds, forming bulging growths. If the disease is in full force, the tree can stop growing and fruiting, and in the most serious cases, the walnut dries and dies. The growths on the tree must be opened, cleaned and treated with a 1% solution of caustic soda, after which it is imperative to rinse the wounds with running water from a hose;
Bacterial burn affects leaves, flowers, buds, catkins and shoots of walnuts. First, the young leaves of the plant appear reddish-brown, and on the shoots - depressed black girdle spots, leading to their death. The leaves and buds of male walnut inflorescences darken and die off. Pericarp also becomes covered with black spots. The most severe outbreaks are caused by prolonged rainfall. The infected parts of the plant must be cut out and burned, and the wounds must be treated with a 1% solution of copper sulfate. The plant is sprayed with copper-containing preparations.
Of the pests, the American white butterfly, apple moth, nut wart mite, walnut moth and aphids can infect the walnut.
American white butterfly - one of the most dangerous insects, damaging almost all fruit crops. During the growing season, it develops in two or three generations: the first generation conducts its destructive activity in July-August, the second in August and September, and the third in September and October. Caterpillars of the American butterfly settle on the leaves and shoots of a walnut and rapidly eat up all of its foliage.
To destroy the pest, it is necessary to burn the places of accumulation of pupae and caterpillars, and then treat the tree with one of the microbiological preparations - Lepidocide (25 g per 10 L of water), Bitoxibacillin (50 g per 10 L of water) or Dendrobacillin (30 g per 10 L of water) ... Consumption of solution is approximately 2-4 liters per tree. But in no case should processing be carried out during the flowering period.
Nut wart mite damages mainly young foliage without touching the fruit, and most often it appears on walnuts during periods of high air humidity. It is possible to determine that the nut is occupied by a tick by the dark brown tubercles appearing on the leaves of the plant. Since the mite is an arachnid insect, you can get rid of it with an acaricide - Aktara, Akarin or Kleschevite, for example.
Yablonnaya, she nut moth eats not the leaves, like other pests, but the fruits of the nut, penetrating inside and eating away the core, which causes the fruits to fall prematurely. During the growing season, it gives two generations: the first damages the nut in May and June, the second in August and September. To prevent the moths from breeding, pheromone traps are fixed on the trees, attracting males of the moth. In addition, be sure to collect fallen nuts and destroy moth nests found on the tree.
Walnut moth lays "mines" in the leaves of the nut - its caterpillars feed on the juicy pulp of the leaves from the inside without damaging the skin. It is possible to determine that a tree is affected by moths by the presence of dark tubercles on the leaves. The nut moth is destroyed by treating the tree with Lepidocide, and in case of total defeat, pyrethroids are used - Decis, Decamethrin.
Aphid ubiquitous, it can harm any plant, but the main danger is that it carries viral diseases for which there is no cure. It makes no sense to use folk remedies on the walnut occupied by aphids, resort immediately to radical measures - processing the tree with Aktellik, Antitlin or Biotlin.
Today, there are many varieties of walnuts that have developed resistance to disease, pests, frost and drought. Many of them are fruitful, and their fruits are of high quality. In terms of ripening, nut varieties are divided into early, ripening in late August or early September, mid-ripening, whose fruits ripen from mid to late September, and late, which are removed in late September or early October. Scientists from different countries are engaged in the selection of walnuts - varieties of Ukrainian, Russian, Moldavian, American and Belarusian selection are known.
We bring to your attention a description of the best varieties, among which you can probably choose a walnut, which will bear fruit in the garden for many decades for you, your children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren.
A winter-hardy and fruitful early variety of Moldovan selection, in years with high air humidity, it is affected by brown spot. Its fruits are large, up to 12 g in weight, ovoid, with a shell of medium thickness and a large kernel, easily separated from the shell.
Productive and winter-hardy late Moldavian variety, resistant to pests and marsoniasis, with large nuts in a thin, almost smooth shell that breaks easily and releases the kernel in whole or in halves.
A frost-resistant and resistant to brown spot Moldavian variety with large oblong-oval nuts with a smooth, thin, easily cracking shell and a kernel completely removed from the shell.
In addition to those described, the famous varieties of walnut of Moldavian selection include Kalarashsky, Korzheutsky, Kostyuzhinsky, Kishinevsky, Peschansky, Rechensky, Kogylnichanu, Kazaku, Brichansky, Faleshtsky, Yargarinsky and others.
Bukovinsky 1 and Bukovinsky 2
Mid-season and late-yielding varieties of Ukrainian selection, resistant to marsoniasis, with a relatively thin, but strong, easily cracking shell and a completely detachable kernel.
Stably productive and relatively resistant to brown spotting is a late variety of Ukrainian selection with a thin but strong shell and a kernel easily separating from it.
Stable high-yielding mid-season Ukrainian variety, characterized by frost resistance and a high degree of resistance to marsoniasis, with round, medium-sized fruits weighing from 11 to 13 g with a thin but strong shell, thin internal partitions that do not prevent the separation of the kernel.
Of the varieties bred in Ukraine, Klyshkivsky, Bukovinsky Bomba, Toporivsky, Chernivtsky 1, Yarivsky and others are also noted for high quality fruits and resistance to adverse conditions.
Of the Californian varieties allocated to a special group, the most famous are:
Black california nut
Variety with very large fruits with an almost black shell, ribbed with convolutions;
Santa Rosa Soft Shell
A high-yielding early maturing Californian variety known in two varieties: the first blooms at the same time with all walnut trees, and the second two weeks later, when the spring frosts are behind. The fruits of this variety are of medium size, enclosed in a thin white rind, the core is also white, of excellent taste.
A high-yielding hybrid between a California black nut and a black nut from the US East, with large fruits in a thick and tough shell containing high-tasting kernels.
It is also a highly productive variety with large fruits in a very thick and strong shell with very tasty kernels.
Breeding work with these varieties has not stopped - scientists continue to try to get hybrids with thinner shells.
Of the Soviet and Russian varieties, the most popular are:
- Dessert - an early productive and drought-resistant variety, recommended for cultivation only in the southern regions, with sweetish, very tasty kernels;
- Elegant - drought-resistant, almost not affected by diseases and pests, a variety with medium frost resistance and nuts of a sweetish taste, medium size, weighing up to 12 g;
- Aurora - a winter-hardy, disease-resistant mid-season and early-maturing variety, the yield of which increases with age. The average fruit weight is 12 g.
In culture, the varieties Urozhainy and Izobilny have also proven themselves well.
Early ripening varieties of walnuts, which are characterized by a small height of trees, early ripening of fruits - in the second half of August or early September, entry into fruiting from the age of three and moderate frost resistance, are allocated to a special category. The most famous of the early-growing varieties are:
- Dawn of the East - a low-growing fruitful tree, successfully grown in the middle lane;
- Breeder - a fruitful and resistant to diseases and pests variety with low frost resistance. Fruits are medium in size, weighing about 7 g.
Famous early-growing walnut varieties also include Pyatiletka, Lyubimy Petrosyan, Baikonur, Pinsky, Pelan, Sovkhozny and Pamyat Minova.
The best and most commonly grown varieties are:
- Ideal - highly frost-resistant, the most productive of all walnut varieties, since it bears fruit twice in one growing season. Its fruits reach in mass from 10 to 15 g. The kernels are distinguished by a pleasant sweetish taste. This variety reproduces only generatively, but its seeds inherit all parental characteristics;
- Giant Is a highly productive variety with regular fruiting. The fruits in their mass reach no more than 10 g, but the advantage of the variety is that it can be grown practically throughout the territory of Russia.
Walnut properties - harm and benefit
All parts of the plant contain biologically active substances. For example, the bark contains triterpenoids, alkaloids, steroids, tannins, quinones and vitamin C. Walnut leaves contain aldehydes, alkaloids, carotene, tannins, coumarins, flavonoids, anthocyanins, quinones, high aromatic hydrocarbons, phenol carboxylic acids, vitamins C , PP and essential oil. And the tissues of the pericarp include vitamin C, carotene, tannins, coumarins, quinones, phenolcarboxylic and organic acids.
Vitamins C, B1, B2, PP, carotene and quinones are found in green fruits, and in mature fruits the same set of vitamins, sitosterols, quinones, tannins and fatty oil, including linoleic, linolenic, oleic, palmitic acids, fiber, cobalt salts and iron.
The shell of walnuts contains phenol carboxylic acids, coumarins, tannins, and the thin brown skin covering the fruit - pellicula - contains steroids, coumarins, tannins and phenol carboxylic acids.
The amount of vitamin C in the leaves of the plant increases throughout the season and reaches its maximum in July. But the main value of walnut leaves is a large amount of carotene and vitamin B1, as well as the dye juglone, which also has a bactericidal effect, and tannins.
Ripe walnut fruits are not only a high-calorie food product, but also a highly active agent. Their caloric content is twice that of premium wheat bread. They are recommended for use for the prevention of atherosclerosis and with a lack of vitamins and iron and cobalt salts in the body.The oil and fiber in the fruit makes it a great remedy for constipation.
The wound-healing effect of a decoction of walnut leaves is used to treat scrofula and rickets in children. And the infusion of the leaves is used to rinse the mouth with bleeding gums and inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity.
Walnut preparations have tonic, astringent, anti-sclerotic, antihelminthic, hypoglycemic, hemostatic, anti-inflammatory, laxative and epithelial effects.
The most valuable of all preparations is walnut oil, which has a high nutritional value and valuable taste. It is prescribed to patients in the recovery period after severe illnesses and surgical operations. It contains unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, macro- and microelements, biologically active substances. The record amount of vitamin E contained in the oil has a beneficial effect on the elderly, especially those suffering from hypertension, coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, chronic hepatitis, increased gastric acidity, and hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. In addition, walnut oil protects the human body from carcinogens, increases the body's resistance to radiation and removes radionuclides.
With the help of walnut oil, tuberculosis, inflammatory diseases of the skin and mucous membranes, cracks, long-term non-healing ulcers, eczema, psoriasis, varicose veins and furunculosis have long been treated.
Scientists at the University of California have shown empirically that after patients ate walnut oil for a month, the cholesterol content in their blood stopped growing and remained at the same level for several months. Walnut oil is prescribed for chronic arthritis, burns, ulcers, chronic colitis with constipation, diseases of the stomach and intestines. It is recommended for pregnant and lactating mothers.
The use of walnut and preparations from it is contraindicated for people with individual intolerance to the product. Patients with psoriasis, neurodermatitis and eczema should use walnuts or preparations from it under the supervision of a doctor, since the product can exacerbate the disease in them. People with diseases of the pancreas and intestines, as well as those with increased blood clotting, eating walnuts is contraindicated. Overeating of the product can cause throat swelling, severe headaches and inflammation of the tonsils. The daily norm of walnuts for a healthy person is 100 g per day.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Walnut
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Information about Fruit Crops
Sections: Fruit and berry plants Fruit trees Plants on G Nuts
Walnut: cultivation and care
Do you like walnuts and regularly go to the market to restock? Why not grow your own walnut tree in your backyard? Of course, the process of growing a walnut is associated with some difficulties, but with a competent approach, it will be possible to harvest the first harvest in 4–5 years, and a sprawling tree with large leaves will become an unusual decoration of the garden. By the way, the fruits from it, to taste and other consumer characteristics, are in no way inferior to the market ones.
How to properly reproduce a walnut?
To get a young plant of the king's nut on the site, it is recommended to propagate it with seeds (nuts) or vaccinate.
Propagation of walnuts using seeds (fruits). This process will be quite lengthy, it is recommended to use the fruits harvested only from healthy trees that bring a good harvest, growing in the places of intended cultivation. The nut is selected large, the nucleolus of which can be reached without effort. You can understand that the fetus is fully ripe by its pericarp. Either it is covered with cracks, or by cutting its core it can be easily removed. The nut is taken out and left for a week in a sunny place outside to dry. After that, the nuts are brought into the room, where the heat readings are 18–20 degrees for further drying.
Planting can be done in the autumn, or you can wait for the arrival of spring. However, in the latter case, with a thick shell, stratification will be required for 3–3.5 months, at a temperature of 0–7 degrees. This place can be the vegetable compartment in the refrigerator. If the shell is medium or thin, stratification is recommended for 1–2.5 months at a temperature of 15–18 degrees.
After stratification, for the fastest germination of nuts, they are placed in sand, which is thoroughly sprayed with water. The temperature is maintained in the range of 15-18 degrees until walnut sprouts emerge from the nuts. Even then, "seedlings" can be planted in the ground, laid in seedling boxes. The substrate is nutritious, it can be peat-sandy.
If the planting material does not have sprouts, then it is placed at a great distance, and the gap between the hatched nuts is left smaller. Planting such material can be carried out only when the soil temperature reaches 10 degrees Celsius. When planting nuts in rows, the distance between the rows is maintained at 0.5 m, leaving 10–15 cm between the nuts. If the size of the nuts is medium, then the depth of the embedding should be 8–9 cm, for larger sizes - within 10–11 cm. When April will come, you can see the first germinated seedlings of walnuts.
After a pair of real leaves unfold on the seedlings, the seedlings are transplanted into the school (the bed where the seedlings are grown in the first year). In this case, it is recommended to pinch the central root at the tip. But in a school, walnut seedlings will grow for quite a long time. Only after 2-3 years will such a plant turn into a good stock, and after 5-7 years it will become a seedling suitable for transplanting into open ground on the site.
In order for the growth rate of the seedling to become higher, greenhouses are used for its cultivation. The stock can then be obtained in a year, and a finished seedling in two.
Propagation of walnuts by grafting. It is recommended to use budding here. It is important to remember that the plant has rather large buds, so the size of the shield will also be large. The scutellum will be cut from the scion cuttings and inserted under the bark on the rootstock. The function of the flap is to provide the eye with moisture and the necessary substances. However, when vaccinated in places with a mild winter climate, the buds that have already taken root in the fall may freeze in winter, since the walnut does not have frost resistance.
To avoid this, experienced gardeners recommend that in the fall, when all the foliage has fallen, the grafted seedlings should be removed from the ground and moved to the basement, where the heat indicators will be maintained at zero. Until spring, walnut seedlings do not change their location, and already when the substrate warms up to 10 degrees, planting in a nursery is recommended. The height of such plants by the end of this growing season can be 1–1.5 m and then they are transplanted immediately to a permanent growing site.
If you prepared the soil according to all the rules and planted a walnut, growing in the Moscow region in the future will not cause any problems. Despite the fertility of the soil, the culture must be fed annually, follow the watering rules, and periodically cut it off.
- In the first year, apply a complex fertilizer consisting of potassium salt, nitrate, superphosphate
- In the second year, lime or dolomite flour is introduced (no more than 300 g), for the ripening of wood, it is introduced in the second year
- Every year in the spring, it is required to feed with nitrogen, and in the summer (in mid-July) - phosphorus-potassium.
If the soil is saturated with minerals, nitrogen is not necessary, but phosphorus and potassium are necessary.
At the beginning and middle of summer, the crown and root system of the tree are actively developing, and therefore the plant requires a lot of water. Lack of sufficient moisture will negatively affect the leaves and the yield.
Also, poor watering of a young tree can lead to freezing of the root system in winter. Remember to mulch the soil after watering to avoid rapid evaporation of moisture.
Pruning is essential for crown formation and disease prevention. It is performed in the spring, after the last frost, or in the fall, before preparing the nut for winter.
Pruning begins by removing damaged, frozen, and diseased branches. The remaining branches are shortened using one of the crown formation schemes:
- improved longline.
A timely pruning procedure will allow you to extend the fruiting period of the tree and increase the yield.
How to properly care for hazelnuts in the garden
Caring for the plant provides for regular loosening of the top layer of soil 15 cm thick. At the same time, weeds are removed, the space around the shrub is mulched with sawdust, grass or peat. Also, one should not forget about watering and feeding the plant, pruning it and protecting it from parasites.
Watering. To ensure high yields, it is important to observe the crop watering regime, especially at the beginning of summer. To do this, in dry times, a bucket of water should be poured under each bush.
Top dressing. Hazelnuts are not often fed. Once every 2 or 3 years, 5 kg of compost mixture or humus (organic matter) should be applied for each copy. Hazelnuts react well to the introduction of nitrogen compounds (urea, ammonium nitrate) into the soil. They are brought in no more than 100 g per specimen in the spring and with the onset of summer. Twice a season, it is important to provide the nut crop with minerals through top dressing. The simplest option is OMU fertilizer (universal), it is organomineral. Top dressing is applied after watering or during a rainy period. Fertilizers are a prerequisite for a good harvest of nuts.
Pruning. The crown is formed at the very end of autumn. This is important because correct pruning provides light access to the fruit so that it ripens well. The bush is formed before the crop begins to bear fruit (up to 4 years). From 8 to 10 trunks are chosen as a basis. Excess shoots in the middle of the crown are cut off, and the side shoots are simply taken to the sides and fixed with wire to provide ventilation and sufficient illumination.
To obtain the desired result, the nesting method of planting hazelnuts is also used.
Harvest. The ripening time of nuts depends on the variety of hazelnuts, most often the crop bears fruit from August to September. In this case, the wrappers on the nut change color to yellow, then brown. Nuts are simply shaken off the branches, the strongest are cut off. Dry the fruits in the sun or in a well-ventilated area, scattering them in one layer. Then it is cleaned of the remnants of the wrappers and finally dried. In this state, hazel fruits are suitable for several years.
Common pecan ripens in September-October. Ripe fruits fall to the ground. The harvest is formed annually. When grown from seed, fruiting begins at 9 years old. In the case of grafting, the tree gives a harvest for 4 years. A young plant brings up to 5 kg of nuts, an adult - about 15 kg. The maximum yield is 200 kg.
Nuts are eaten raw, dried and fried. In the shell, pecans are stored for no more than a year at a temperature of 10 - 14 ° C. The peeled kernels are kept in the refrigerator for 6 months, in room conditions - no more than 3 - 4 weeks.
Application and beneficial properties of walnuts
Walnut is a large tall tree that grows up to 20-30 meters, and the trunk girth reaches 3-7 meters. Its trunk is covered with grayish bark, and thick branches form a wide shady crown with a diameter of about 20 meters. The leaves of walnut are complex, consist of several pairs of elongated leaves 5-7 centimeters long. Leaves bloom with bright green flowers. The stamens form dangling catkins that grow in small groups.
The fruits are large and round, with a thick green skin and a ball-like stone with several septa. As soon as the fruits are ripe, the peel cracks and flakes off. Inside the hard shell are edible and very healthy kernels.
Description and habitat
The flowering of hazel is not like the flowering of other fruit trees, because its buds are heterosexual: the male ones resemble a cone, and the female ones are small columns. Flowers of different sexes do not bloom at the same time. First, male buds fade, and only after them comes the turn of female buds.
Walnut blooms in late spring. This is a frost-resistant and unpretentious tree, therefore it is massively planted in parks, in summer cottages and in their local plots. Growing a nut does not require much effort or expense. However, the best harvest can be obtained if the tree is grown in warm climates.
Nowadays, quite a few varieties that are resistant to frost have been bred, so the cultivation of walnut has become possible even in northern latitudes. Walnut has a unique ability - self-healing: instead of frozen or dead shoots, new and young ones grow in it.
Walnut trees grow in the south, in the Crimea, in Central Asia, in the Caucasus, in the southwestern part of Ukraine. Asian countries can also boast of growing their thermophilic varieties and export these fruits to Egypt, Iran, India and Turkey.
See also: Use and beneficial properties of breadfruit
Gallery: walnut tree (25 photos)
The largest nut is the fruit of the Bomba and Giant varieties. Their kernels can weigh up to 18–20 grams. Fruiting of trees begins in September, and the yield from one tree can be up to 100 kilograms. Other popular varieties:
- Abundant - A short, high-yielding tree that grows in warm areas. Fruits grow in the form of clusters of 3-5 pieces, have high nutritional and taste qualities.
- Graceful - a tall tree up to 5 meters, it is frost and drought resistant. Nuts have a sweet taste and are not susceptible to diseases and pests.
- Ideal is the most popular hazel variety because it can grow and bear fruit in northern latitudes. These trees have super high yields and good palatability.
- Aurora is a vigorous, early-growing nut, the yield of which only increases over time. This variety is winter-hardy and strong.
- Yielding - a tall tree of about 7 meters, winter-hardy, not susceptible to disease. The fruit harvest is abundant, with excellent taste.
- Giant - has a wide branched crown, bears fruit regularly and abundantly. Giant and Ideal are considered the best walnuts.
- The breeder is a tree of medium winter hardiness, its peculiarity is the fruits with a thin shell, which grow on the crown of the crown.
- Zarya Vostoka is a low winter-hardy tree with constant fruiting. It is considered the best variety for growing in mid-latitudes.
- Five-year-old tree is a tall five-meter tree, resistant to diseases, bears fruit regularly, fruits grow on the top and side branches.
- English - the fruits of this variety have excellent taste, thin shell and small size.
- Black - the fruits are distinguished by a very thick shell and a pronounced nutty aroma.
- White - rarely found in our latitudes, this species is considered endangered, it differs from other walnut trees in an oily sweet taste.
- Japanese - grows very quickly and rapidly, reaches a height of up to 9 meters, bears fruit with delicious sweetish fruits. Due to its small crown, it is suitable for planting in garden plots next to other trees.
- Dessert - medium height with an extensive shady crown. The fruits ripen early and taste sweet. This nut grows only in areas with mild and warm climates.
- Kalashik - an early flowering tree bears fruit with tasty round ribbed nuts.
- Memory of Minov is a very popular variety. The tree grows quickly, has a powerful trunk, fruits with a thin grayish shell.
- Turkish nut - grows in Asian countries, it is also called a bear nut. The fruits have a high nutritional value and calorie content, have a thin shell compared to other varieties of nuts.
See also: Types of indoor palms and the main features of caring for them
A colossal number of different types of walnuts have been bred in the world:
- butterflies - the core is divided into two halves
- eight - the core is divided into small pieces
- quarter - half of a butterfly
- small pieces
- mix of eights and quarters
- crumb - parts of the nucleolus less than 3 mm.
Walnut is very picky about the composition of the soil; it is preferable to plant it in loose sandy-stony soil with a high level of moisture and admixtures of limestone. Walnut does not like swampy soil. Since the crown of an adult tree is large and wide, it will shade the space around it, so the seedling should be planted at the edge of the garden, where there is a lot of sunlight.
Caring for hazel does not require special attention, pruning of branches often does not need to be done - dried branches can only be pruned in summer. Watering is necessary only in severe drought. Trees are fertilized twice a year - in early spring and late autumn. They begin to collect the fruits after they have begun to crack a little, then they must be peeled and dried in the sun.
See also: Popular types and varieties of willow
Early-growing species can produce crops 2-3 years after planting. Medium-fruited will delight with the first harvest no earlier than 6 years later. And when planting late-fruited varieties, you need to be patient - the first fruits will appear no earlier than 10 years later.
The time when the walnut tree begins to bear fruit is considered the beginning of yield. Since these trees live for several tens or hundreds of years, they need to be provided with sufficient care. Few representatives of the flora are long-livers, especially in our time.
Application and useful properties
In addition to eating nuts, they have unique beneficial properties. The nuclei of the fruit contain whole complexes of nutrients that have a positive effect on the brain, heart muscle, liver and stomach. Healing medical tinctures are also made from the kernels. At home, both kernels and shells are used. They are insisted on vodka or alcohol for two weeks, and then take a teaspoon several times a day. This alcoholic tincture helps with problems of the gastrointestinal tract, reduces pain in the heart, cleanses the blood vessels of the brain.
In pharmacology, tinctures and decoctions from the shell and leaves of the walnut tree are actively used. They have anti-inflammatory, healing and bactericidal properties. The ripe kernels of the best varieties of walnuts are used for food.