Nephrolepis: growing from spores, reproduction, transplantation, species, photo
Nephrolepis (lat.Nephrolepis) - fern, which belongs to the family of Nephrolepis plants. Representatives of the genus, of which there are 40 species, are terrestrial or epiphytic plants. In nature, they are found in the tropics of the African, American, Australian continents and in the southeast of Asia. The plant got its name from "hophros" and "lepis", which translated from Greek means kidney and scales, respectively.
Nephrolepis is considered not only a beautiful, but also a very useful plant that cleans the indoor air from formaldehydes, toluene and xylene, which is one of the reasons for the widespread use of these ferns in kindergartens. Some types of nephrolepis are used to treat cuts, and they also believe that it cleans the air of germs, so it is easier to breathe in a room with a plant.
Home nephrolepis is not difficult to care for. It is better to grow it as a single plant. Another notable feature is breeding methods. The first is with spores that are located on the leaves. The other is vegetative, with the help of tubers or shoots that form on the roots of the fern. In this way, you can get more than a hundred new plants within one year.
Briefly about growing
- Bloom: the plant is grown as an ornamental deciduous plant.
- Lighting: bright diffused light. In winter, nephrolepis may need artificial lighting for 16 hours daily.
- Temperature: in spring and summer - 22-24 ºC, in winter - 15-16 ºC.
- Watering: in summer and spring - abundant, as soon as the top layer of the substrate dries. In winter, you can water when the substrate is one-fourth dry.
- Air humidity: high. Nephrolepis should be placed on a pallet with wet expanded clay and sprayed at least once a day every day.
- Top dressing: during the period of active growth - every week, but the solution of complex mineral fertilizer should be 4 times weaker than indicated in the instructions. From mid-autumn to the end of winter, fertilization is contraindicated.
- Rest period: from October to February.
- Transfer: in spring, up to three years - annually, and then - once every 2-3 years. The root collar is left above the surface.
- Substrate: four parts of leafy earth, one part each of peat and sand, and some charcoal.
- Reproduction: spores, shoots, tubers or rhizome division.
- Pests: scale insects, mealybugs, spider mites and whiteflies.
- Diseases: the plant can suffer and lose its decorative qualities from dry air, direct sunlight, top dressing in winter, or due to improperly composed substrate.
Read more about the cultivation of nephrolepis below.
Photo of nephrolepis
Home care for nephrolepis
For nephrolepis, it is necessary to provide bright diffused light, but direct rays should not be allowed to hit the leaves. Therefore, nephrolepis grows best at home on the western and eastern windows, where direct rays are weak and hit the plant for only a couple of hours a day. On the south side, you need to put the plant away from the window, or hang tulle curtains on the windows so that they scatter the light. In winter, the plant may not have enough light, so fluorescent lamps may be needed. These lamps can replace natural lighting completely if you keep indoor nephrolepis under them for 16 hours a day.
In summer and spring, nephrolepis is kept at a temperature of about 22 ° C, and if the temperature in the room rises above 25 ° C, then a mandatory increase in air humidity is necessary. In winter, the temperature is reduced to 16 ° C - this is the best option. If the temperature drops by another 3-4 ° C, then you need to slightly reduce watering. In summer, the plant should be taken out to the balcony or terrace, but do not allow precipitation to fall on the home nephrolepis and do not place it in a draft.
In watering nephrolepis, the main golden mean is that the substrate should not dry out, but the stagnation of moisture in the soil is very harmful to the plant. Therefore, in the summer and spring, they water it after the topsoil dries up - it is worth touching the soil with your finger. In winter, it is watered a couple of days after the soil surface is dry. If you bring the earthen lump to complete drying, the fern frond can dry out, so watering should be taken seriously.
For nephrolepis, it is necessary to provide high air humidity. For this, two methods are suitable, which it is desirable to combine. First, it needs to be sprayed at least once a day, especially if the room temperature is high. It is optimal to spray both in the morning and in the evening. Water is taken standing or boiled. Secondly, it is advisable to place a pot with nephrolepis fern on a container with wet pebbles or expanded clay, but so that the pot is not immersed in water. There is also a third option, which is worth resorting to periodically - a summer shower. Remember to cover the substrate with a bag to keep water out of the pot.
It is important to know that you need to feed the nephrolepis plant only in spring and summer, i.e. during the period of active growth. It is categorically impossible to apply fertilizers from mid-autumn to the end of winter - it can lead to serious diseases. Fertilizers are applied often, but not concentrated - weekly, but a quarter of the concentrations indicated on the package. Fertilizers for ornamental deciduous plants are suitable for Nephrolepis.
Nephrolepis up to 3 years of age are transplanted annually, and after that - every 2-3 years, if necessary, into a slightly larger pot. The plant is transplanted in the spring. The pot is taken shallow and wide, since the root system of ferns is superficial. Pebbles or expanded clay are poured at the bottom of the pot to ensure the waste of excess water, because acidification or prolonged waterlogging of the soil leads to nephrolepis flower disease. The soil mixture is made up of peat, sand and leafy soil (1: 1: 4). You can shift in equal parts high-moor peat, greenhouse and coniferous soil and add 1 gram of bone meal per 200 substrate. The addition of charcoal to the substrate will increase the plant's resistance to root rot. When planting nephrolepis in room conditions, you need to leave the neck of the rhizome above the soil level. After the plant has moved to a new pot, the substrate should be abundantly moistened for the first two weeks.
Reproduction by spores
The houseplant nephrolepis is propagated by spores that are scraped off the underside of the leaf plate. They take a shallow container, pour a drainage layer, then peat, moisten the soil and sow the collected seeds. The container with seeds is placed in a dark place with a temperature of 21-22 ° C. The glass is removed daily, airing the bowl with seeds, and moisten the soil, preventing it from drying out. Seedlings should appear in one to three months. After that, the glass is removed, and the container with seeds is taken out to a bright place. After a little time, the seedlings of nephrolepis will get stronger, and they will need to be thinned out, leaving only the strongest, but so that they are at a distance of at least 3 cm from each other. After another month, young plants can be planted in 2-3 pieces in separate pots.
Reproduction by shoots
Nephrolepis produces not only fronds, but also shoots without leaves, which can be rooted and get a new plant. An escape or several shoots are pressed with a piece of wire to the substrate in another pot (4 hours of leafy soil, 1 hour of peat and sand). The soil is kept moist all the time and after new leaves begin to appear on the rooted shoot, it is carefully separated and planted in a separate pot. When the plant is well rooted, it is cared for as an adult plant.
Dividing the bush
It is possible to divide the rhizome of nephrolepis during plant transplantation in early spring. It is better to divide a large bush, which has at least a dozen points of growth. Otherwise, the plant may die. At home, nephrolepis are planted in separate pots, covered with a plastic bag and placed in a bright, warm place. The package is removed from time to time, airing the plant, moistening the soil and sprinkling the foliage. It will take some time before the plant grows again, you need to be patient.
Some types of nephrolepis reproduce in tubers. When transplanting a plant, you can separate the tuber and immediately plant it in the substrate, which is described above in the paragraph on transplanting. Such reproduction is not only a fairly simple matter, but also allows you to preserve the varietal characteristics of the plant.
Diseases and pests
The leaves (frond) of nephrolepis dry and fall. Too dry indoor air, growing in rooms with central heating without spraying and an extra container of water next to the pots. Also, low air humidity contributes to the defeat of spider mites.
Spots on the leaves of nephrolepis. They can appear if the plant stands on the south window in direct sunlight - these are burns.
Nephrolepis fell ill, is getting weaker. This happens if fertilizers continue to be applied with the arrival of autumn and throughout the winter. In the autumn-winter period, fertilizers are not applied.
Do not wax nephrolepis leaves. Nephrolepis leaves should not be rubbed with wax or any other means to make the leaves of plants shine.
Nephrolepis grows poorly. The reason may be in the soil, or rather in its incorrect composition. The soil should be light and moisture should not be trapped in the soil, as this interferes with the normal development of the root system.
Pests of nephrolepis. The plant can be affected by scale insects, mealybugs, whiteflies, and spider mites, especially in dry indoor air.
Nephrolepis exaltata / Nephrolepis exaltata
This species is native to the southeastern part of tropical Asia. Herbaceous plants with a root in the form of a rhizome, can be both epiphytic and terrestrial plants. Rosette leaves, growing from the root, reaching more than 0.5 m in length, feathery. Each feather can exceed 5 cm in length, are lanceolate, light green in color, but turn yellow with age, after which they crumble. On the underside of each leaflet (feather), sori (spores, seeds) are located along the central vein on both sides, closer to the edge of the leaflet, have a rounded-oval shape. This species can multiply using leafless shoots that appear on the rhizome. A large number of forms have been bred, which differ in the number of leaflet dissections, as well as their color.
Xiphoid Nephrolepis / Nephrolepis biserrata
Originally from Central America. The plant is not grown indoors, only in greenhouses. The leaves are very large, ranging in length from 1 m to two and a half.
Distributed throughout the world in tropical areas. In principle, it is similar to sublime nephrolepis, but does not form tubers on the rhizomes. The leaves of this species grow upward, and the leaves on the leaves overlap slightly.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the Nephrolepis family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Indoor Plants Information
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Nephrolepis (Nephrolepis). Description, types and care of nephrolepis
Nephrolepis (lat. Nephrolepis) - genus of ferns of the family Lomariopsis (Lomariopsidoideae)... Some experts attribute these ferns to the family Davalliaceae.
The plant got its name from the Greek words "nephros" - bud and "lepis" - scales, which characterizes the veils on the plant that cover the spores.
The homeland of nephrolepis is the open areas of the tropics of Africa, America, Southeast Asia and Australia. It can also be found somewhat outside the tropics - in New Zealand and Japan.
Nephrolepis are epiphytes or terrestrial ferns, the leaves of which are more than 3 meters long (Nephrolepis biserrata, Nephrolepis cordifolia). Plant stems are shortened, give thin horizontal shoots, on which new rosettes of leaves develop. It is worth noting that the leaf grows over several years, which contributes to its enormous size. The leaves are pinnate in shape. Sori are located at the ends of the veins, round in shape, or elongated along the edge. The veil is attached along the base, round or oblong in shape. Sporangia on legs, uneven ages within the same sorus. The spores are small, with a more or less clearly distinguishable feather bed. Reproduction in nature occurs by disputes and abundantly: in one year, nephrolepis is able to plant over 100 new plants!
If you need indoor plants for your office, then nephrolepis is the right choice, because he is one of the most beautiful ferns in the world! In culture, some of its species are used as a pot plant, others as ampelous plants.
Also, nephrolepis is an excellent natural air filter (air purifier): the plant is able to absorb and neutralize vapors of substances harmful to human health, such as xylene, toluene, formaldehyde and other substances. In addition, nephrolepis is believed to reduce the concentration of airborne microbes in the air.
Some natives, such as Guyana, use the leaves of the nephrolepis double-serrate to heal wounds and cuts.
The genus Nephrolepis includes about 40 plant species.
Fern varieties grow in different climatic zones; they can survive in swampy areas, meadows, and forests. Some species of this plant develop only by growing to trees. But ferns are most common in their natural environment in tropical forests. These particular species have become indoor ferns. Such home decorative flowers are not frost-resistant, so they are not used for growing in open soil.
Indoor fern, regardless of cultivar or variety, does not produce inflorescences and does not set fruit or seeds. Reproduction of a domestic plant is possible only by spores or division of an adult mother plant, as in mosses, fungi or algae. In its natural environment, it is extremely hardy and unpretentious, but in the case of indoor cultivation, it is known as a relatively capricious plant. When fern care is insufficient, at home it stops developing and dies.
Regardless of the species, ferns are fairly lush shrubs with long, curved leaves. The overwhelming majority of varieties have openwork, feathery and dissected leaf plates, but there are species whose leaves are whole. The main types of decorative indoor ferns are few. Not all relics are capable of being in confined spaces. The following varieties are chosen as indoor plants:
- Maidenhair - thin, fairly strong shoots and pinnately dissected fronds. Grows well in shaded warm and humid places. More suitable for growing in greenhouses, conservatories, and not in an apartment. Popular varieties are gentle, for the sake of, Venus hair.
- Nephrolepis - lanceolate leaf plates, strongly dissected and pinnate. New shoots can form at the rhizomes of this relic.Most often, in apartment conditions, they keep nephrolepis of the sublime variety.
- Asplenium - grows well in shade, in high humidity conditions. In apartment conditions, they contain such varieties - nesting and viviparous, which have no noticeable similarity with each other.
- Blehnum (another name Derbyanka) is a sprawling relict plant, the crown of which reaches 1 m in diameter, and the fronds resemble palm leaves in appearance. Houses often contain Brazilian and humpback varieties.
- Platycerium (flathorn) is a relic of an unusual appearance for a classic fern - its frond is large, resembling antlers in shape. The plant is relatively unpretentious to care for.
- Pylaea - unlike other species, this fern prefers not a wet, but a dry habitat. In indoor floriculture, varieties with the names green and round-leaved are popular.
- Disconia - the bush of this fern is not compact, adult relics can reach a diameter of 3 m, so this variety is grown only in spacious rooms.
- Polypodium (centipede) - fronds are strongly dissected, with blunt tips, and the rhizomes are distributed over the surface of the soil. This plant is capable of growing indoors with dry air.
- Davallia - this relic has a thick rhizome and therefore it is also called "squirrel legs".
Large plants look quite impressive in hanging pots, as well as on stands. Nevertheless, each of the varieties is very different from one another in size, shape and color saturation of the leaf plates. There are other varieties of domestic ferns, the names and photos of which you can see and choose the one you like best for growing.
Popular types of domestic ferns: photo and name
From a large number of varieties, you can choose plants for planting, both on the site and in the room. It is necessary to build on their requirements for living conditions. It is easy to care for indoor plants, they all need almost the same conditions. You can choose a suitable copy for any interior. In nature, there are over 10,000 species that differ significantly in size, life cycle, structure. Varieties of short stature are planted in containers. Florists really like the ampelous forms with which they plant terraces, windows, loggias and balconies. Before starting a fern, you should familiarize yourself with the names and characteristics.
They are distinguished by their rapid growth, belong to the perennials of the Davallia genus. Southeast Asia is considered their homeland. Although in addition to Japan and China, some species grow in the Canary Islands and the Caribbean. In another way, the plant is called a deer leg or a hare's paw. Florists adore davallium ferns for their decorative appearance. Davallia is the most common:
First of all, it is spreading and dense foliage. In nature, the bush can grow above 1 m, more than 1.5 m wide. Indoors, the plant height is 50 cm, and the same width. The roots of Davallius are strong, the main rhizome is powerful. Many branches grow from it. Sometimes something like scales appears on them. The frond, as the leaf-like organs of the fern are called, are very resilient. They are heavily dissected, painted in a bright green color. Small sporangia are found on the underside of the leaves.
There are about 60 species in the genus, which are very similar to each other, of which there are about 10 species of indoor ferns. Most often, growers choose specimens of the Davallia canariensis species for growing at home. Its leaves resemble carrot leaves. The bush grows 40 cm wide and 30 cm high. It is used in group plantings and hung in pots.
One of the most charming is the fern of the genus shitovnikov. A multiformer is a deciduous or evergreen plant that forms a funnel-shaped bush. There are more than 200 species of the multiforme family of the thyroid family, some of which are very rare and are endangered. The multi-rower is a very decorative culture, so it is often planted in places that they want to decorate. On average, they grow in height from 60 to 80 cm. On the back of the leaves there are 2 rows of sporangia.
The plant is adapted to grow in moist, but not too damp soil. Disputes appear in early summer. The plant's rhizome is superficial, horizontal, poorly branched. He has only one point of growth.
Another feature of the Dutch species is that the leaves remain green in the winter. Cirrus and openwork leaf-like organs are folded in early spring, very similar to snails. Ferns of this species include decorative multi-row bristle-bearing and Brown.
The largest indoor flower with rich green leaves is nephrolepis, which has tough foliage. It grows up and then turns to the sides. Most often, this particular type of fern is used in indoor floriculture. Nephrolepis belongs to the Lomariopsis family. This undemanding plant is grown in spores. It can be allowed to grow down, or the leaves can be tied up. Nephrolepis is able to purify the air from harmful substances.
The indoor ferns of the Lomariopsis family are the heart-leaved and sublime Nephrolepis. One of the features is that nonferlapis do not like to coexist with other plants. They need diffused and bright lighting. Sometimes, at a suitable temperature from 16 ° C to 22 ° C, they can be placed on the balcony. But you should not allow cool raindrops to fall on the plant. Because of it, the fern can grow poorly or get sick. The plant prefers high humidity and moderate watering. It should be sprayed with warm water 2 times daily. Every 7 days, from April to autumn, fertilize with organic and mineral compounds alternately. For reproduction, spores are used or the bush is divided. The soil is prepared by mixing the same amount of leafy soil and peat.
It bears another name Asplenium of the Kostentsov family. There are many types of them in nature. The plant is tall and dense, even at home it needs a lot of free space. It grows up to 1 m in diameter. There are small specimens, but there are also huge ones, reaching 2 m in height. Some have openwork fronds, others have wide, dissected leaves. In European countries, small fern bushes often grow on ancient walls. The asplenium is firmly attached to the stones. It feeds on precipitation and decayed moss. Of the entire Kostentsov family, only 4 species are suitable for indoor cultivation.
Kostenets is distinguished by vayami, which consist of one large sheet. Its core is flexible and strong. The room where they grow should not be heavily lit, and the humidity should be low. The temperature should be kept between 16 ° C and 24 ° C. Kostenets does not need to be sprayed. But in order to remove dust from the leaves, you can spray it 1 time in 2 months, and immediately wipe it with a soft cloth. In autumn and winter, it is moderately watered once a month. From mid-April, watering should be done every day to keep the soil moderately moist.
The bush needs excellent drainage. For cultivation, you should purchase a ceramic pot with a diameter of at least 30 cm, pour loose earth into it. For reproduction, spores are used or the bush is divided. At the end of March, the plant can be planted.
This fern variety has not quite their characteristic fronds. The deciduous lobes shine as if they have been polished. The plant is charmed by its compact size. It is difficult to grow pellets. It doesn't grow much. It produces about 10 young ornamental plants per season. The growth of the smallest reaches 15, and the largest 40 cm. Young leaves appear in spring, summer and even in winter. Due to the fact that old leaves are constantly dying off, decorativeness deteriorates. The rhizome is compressed and rounded.
The fronds of pellets are unusual, the leaves can be simply feathery, twice or three times feathery. They are almost the same in size. They are tightly arranged, creating an almost flawless symmetrical pattern. Sporangia can be seen along their edges and at the tips of the veins.
At home, 2 types of Pellei ferns are grown, which differ among themselves in the size of the foliage and the shape. Outwardly, Viridis is similar to the classic fern. The leaves have a feathery structure. Bushes are not very dense. In Rotundifolia pellets, dark green foliage forms a poor crown. This type of fern is used as an ampelous plant. The suitable soil temperature for the dormant period for them is 14 ° C -16 ° C, in summer - from 17 ° C to 20 ° C. If the temperature drops below 13 ° C, the pellea roots may die.
The plant prefers to grow where much sunlight does not penetrate. It is best to put the flowerpots on the windowsills, the windows of which face the north side. Watering should be moderate. The fern will grow well, develop when the air humidity is at least 50%. If warm, settled water should be taken to irrigate other ferns, then the pellets need water, the temperature of which is 2 ° C below room temperature. Do not allow water to enter the green mass. Fertilized once every 21 days with special complex fertilizing. Transplanted at 2 years, 1 time in any month. Propagated most often by division.
Pteris is an unpretentious plant, it has another name for bracken. The leaves are distinguished by a variegated color. The bush is spreading and dense, because the stems, which grow in parallel, number at least 10-20 pieces. There are over 200 varieties of the plant, which differ in the shape of the branches and leaves. All types of pteris are arranged in the same way, however, the color of the leaves is different for each variety. The frond grows in length about 50 cm. They consist of 6 parts. Wholes located at the top, and those that are closer to the root system, are cut more strongly.
For indoor cultivation, the Alexandrae variety is most suitable, the leaves of which are distinguished by an unusual shape and color. On the veins located in the middle, the color of the leaves is creamy, this gives the plant a picturesque look. Another indoor species is Ensiformis victoriae. If you look at the picture, you can see that it looks like a big bump in shape. The leaves are in the shape of a sword, collected in a delightful neat bush of greenish-silver color. The small Cretica pteris has very long leaves attached to a thin stem. In a pot it grows up to 40 cm in diameter.
There is a specific direction in which dense shoots break, this is considered a feature of pteris. During dormancy, the plant needs to provide a temperature of 12 ° C -16 ° C, in the warm season 16 ° C-25 ° C. Due to the small amount of chlorophyll, pteris needs bright lighting. But the direct rays of the sun should not be allowed to hit the plant. Sprinkle with water at a temperature slightly above room temperature. From April to June it is abundant - at 3-4 days, and in winter at 14-21 days, and the rest - once every 5-6 days.
Every day, except for winter, should be sprayed with warm water, and in the heat, the procedure should be repeated 3 times a day. As soon as the fern roots fill the entire pot, it needs to be transplanted. Spring is considered the optimal time for the procedure. Fertilize in the summer, every 20 days. In early April, add organic fertilizing once.
The family of Shield ferns includes about 20 species that can be grown indoors. Almost all of them are of the rarest species. It is popularly called the holly or sacred fern. The plant has a compact size, it grows no more than 60 cm. The fronds have a bluish-gray color. By themselves, they are leathery, dense and hard with a feathery structure. The tips of the leaves are serrated. The top is curved. On the reverse side, brown spores are concentrated, they are covered by a colorless film. They grow slowly, even if they are fed with growth stimulants. Only 2-3 new shoots appear per year.
Cyrthomium tolerates dry air well, so home care is quite simple. This decorative fern is not afraid of heat, drafts, it is not necessary to maintain high humidity. But in order for it to grow normally, you should choose the right place. The leaves will begin to turn yellow, and the plant itself will grow slowly if direct sunlight hits it. It is necessary to put the flower pot on the windowsill of the window facing north. If this is not possible, then be sure to arrange shading. The plant needs stable conditions.
The plant propagates by dividing the bush at any time. There is no resting phase in cytomium. Fern growth will stop when lighting, humidity, temperature changes. After the adaptation period, cytomium will begin to grow again. To preserve the decorative appearance of the plant, water must be frequent and abundant, the ground must be moist. There is no need to spray it. Fertilize with mineral compounds once a month.
The centipede is often referred to as the sweet fern. This original indoor fern is a rare species. Scaly roots spread. The fern grows no higher than 25 cm. In some species, the adventitious roots are fleshy, while others are thin. They do not form stems, the main organs are leaf petioles. It grows so that part of the root system is outside the soil. Due to the fact that the root is creeping, you need to carefully select the pots for the plant. They should be long, 15 cm deep.
Some varieties of this type of plant have fern leaves of bright green or dark color, others have a bluish bloom on their surface or spots are barely visible. Taking care of a centipede is easy. It is not demanding on humidity and temperature, it tolerates winter well. Can adapt to any soil, although it prefers soft and slightly acidic soil. In the hot period of the year, it needs 2-time watering per week. Fern need not be fertilized, it grows well without feeding. Propagated by root division. The first days of May are suitable for this procedure.
Table: conditions of keeping nephrolepis, depending on the season
|Season||Temperature||Humidity||Illumination||Watering||Frequency of dressings|
|spring Summer||+20. +24 ⁰C, with regular spraying and above||spray with clean water as often as possible (especially on hot summer days and during the heating season), keep the pots on damp pebbles, take a shower once a week||diffused light: place on windows facing north, west or east, as well as in the back of rooms||as the top layer of the soil dries up||3-4 times a month|
|autumn winter||not lower than +15 ⁰C||1 time per month|
Compact species of nephrolepis are suitable for growing in florariums, since favorable conditions are created in glass containers: diffused light and high humidity. However, it should be borne in mind that ferns grow very quickly, even compact and slow-growing ones can greatly change the appearance of the composition and displace other plants. If a closed florarium is chosen for cultivation, then it is desirable to have an airing system, otherwise the flower may rot.
Video: features of the maintenance and care of the nephrolepis fern
Growing nephrolepis implies many nuances, which the site flowery-blog.ru will tell about. By finding the optimal location and providing the right conditions, you will get a healthy and beautiful plant!
Temperature and lighting
The fern nephrolepis is not picky about lighting, it can successfully grow both in medium-lit rooms and located near windows in a southern direction.In the second case, you need to protect the fronds from direct rays, this threatens with burns! Of course, it is impossible to completely deprive this household of sunlight; growth will stop in absolute shade. To make the nephrolepis happy, it is enough to place it in a bright room, at some distance from the window. How to Extend Your Day with Backlighting.
By the way!
It is believed that the fern plant is difficult to transfer and adapts for a long time in a new place. So don't worry if your newly acquired flower doesn't look too cheerful! It is important to find the right place for him - a bright, ventilated and warm room. The kitchen is excluded: stuffy air and heat from the stove will negatively affect the health of the flower! New fronds serve as a signal that the plant has adapted.
Nephrolepis is a thermophilic plant; a cold snap below + 16-18 degrees is undesirable for it. In summer, the flower pot can be taken out into the garden or onto the balcony. Fresh air is good for you! At the same time, provide him with a calm place so that the fragile fronds are not damaged.
Watering and moisture
Indoor fern is a water-loving plant! It is difficult to tolerate drought, preferring constantly slightly moist soil. But, nevertheless, do not overdo it with watering - do not allow the soil in the pot to acidify! Before watering, try the top layer with your finger - if the soil is crumbling and does not stick to your hands, it is time to water, if it is wet, watering should be postponed. 8 questions about watering plants.
The root system of the fern is quite large, so you can do top watering along the edge of the pot, taking care not to damage the frond. Accustomed to tropical conditions, Nephrolepis loves daily spraying! And in the winter season of dry air, this procedure, beloved by the plant, can be carried out even more often.
photo of the author
Fertilizers and feeding
They start feeding in April. Although the dormant period of the flower is not pronounced, in winter it is "half asleep" and it is better not to add additional trace elements to the soil. As a fertilizer, universal mixtures for decorative deciduous trees are suitable, in which magnesium and iron must be present. They support pigment formation in leaf cells and healthy growth. What is the role of different micronutrients. Organic fertilizing will have a good effect on the development of the fern; they can be alternated with mineral ones. How to apply organics to plants.
Nephrolepis loves rich and nutritious soils, so sometimes the soil can be "flavored" with organic matter - ash infusion, sapropel, chicken droppings, etc. Thin "feathers" of the fern easily absorb moisture, so foliar (leaf) dressing will be very useful. How to carry out foliar feeding.
Reproduction and transplantation
Nephrolepis prefers stable home care; transplant is not the most pleasant procedure for him. And they spend it very carefully! After all, if the crown of a young frond, where the growth point is located, is damaged, it will not grow further and will gradually dry out. The pot is chosen only a couple of centimeters larger than the previous one, wide and not very high. How to choose the right pot.
The soil for the fern nephrolepis needs nutritious, moisture-absorbing, but at the same time loose. It is better not to use heavy clay soils in the preparation of an earthen mixture. Low-lying peat, leafy earth, humus, vermiculite are suitable as components. Councils for choosing a substrate. Can be added to the composition of coniferous bark, or charcoal. From purchased ready-made substrates, mixtures are suitable for camellias, calla lilies, azaleas, hydrangeas, which, like nephrolepis, love acidic soil. However, there are ready-made soils for sale specifically for ferns. How to measure soil acidity.
When planting, roll the long mustache into balls and place it on the surface along the edges of the pot, slightly burying it in the ground. New fronds are formed from them and fill the voids. While the plant is in the air, cover the roots with a damp cloth to keep them from drying out before entering a new pot. Do not deepen the growth point when planting!
Reproduction of indoor fern has its own characteristics! In the process of transplanting, you can propagate the plant by dividing the rhizome. Moreover, the separated segments should have points of growth of aerial shoots. They can be planted directly into the prepared soil.
The second method is much more convenient, because it does not even require access to the plant's root system and is the safest for it! This is the rooting of lashes of domestic ferns, or, as they are also called, whiskers. Most nephrolepis "start up" long whiskers, a kind of bald leafless shoots. The mustache is not cut off, but the tip of the mustache is buried in nutritious peat soil, as in the picture, and maintain constant moisture. After a couple of weeks, the tendril will begin to take root, and then growth points will appear. It is then that you can separate it from the mother plant by simply cutting it off. It is not necessary to cut the whips unnecessarily, they do not interfere with the development of the plant at all!
The last method is reproduction with spores, which are something like seeds, used by experienced connoisseurs! A special greenhouse may be required to germinate the spores, and the result will appear only after a few months.
Diseases and pests
Selaginella is resistant to various diseases and attacks of insect pests. However, when the soil dries out and the air humidity is low, insects that infect the plant in a dry microclimate (spider mites, aphids, powdery mildew and others) can attack the bush. To combat them, spraying with soapy water, treatment with alcohol, a solution of potassium permanganate is used. In advanced cases, Actellik insectoacaricide is used. Severe waterlogging of the soil leads to the spread of root rot.
Selaginella is an unusual plant, the dream of many flower growers. A capricious exotic bush will reveal all its beauty only in the hands of very diligent and caring people. Openwork miniature leaves of a small green creature will adorn any home.