Chemeritsa (Veratrum) is a perennial herb from the Melantiev family. It grows in many parts of Europe and Asia. The ancient Romans used this perennial to scare off rodents and insects on the farm. Useful substances are found in the roots and shoots, so the plant is highly valued in folk medicine.
Domestic gardeners often call cheremitsa "puppeteer", "veratrum or" chemerka ". The cultivated species of the flower attract with the beauty of the leaves and inflorescences. They are planted in the garden next to other blooming greenery.
Description of the plant
Chemeritsa is a herbaceous perennial characterized by an overgrown superficial root with a thickened base and a straight, powerful stem. The rhizome over time becomes overgrown with thin short processes. Above the ground, a shoot with a length of 50 to 150 cm rises, covered from top to bottom with wide sessile plates arranged in a spiral direction. The shape of the leaves is oval, the tips are sharp. The surface of the leaf is convex due to protruding veins. The length of each plate does not exceed 30 cm. There is a layer of soft, delicate felt on the back of the sheet.
The life span of a cheremitsa can be about 50 years. The flowering phase begins decades later. Flowers form at the top of the stem first. The range of colors is yellow, white or green. The diameter of one bud is approximately 1 cm. The buds bloom in the middle of summer and sit densely next to each other. The freshness of the flowers lasts until the end of August. Insects and wind pollinate the inflorescences, in the place of which soft seed pods subsequently ripen. Elongated brown grains ripen inside the fruit.
The plant is considered toxic, therefore it is necessary to place cultural plantings of cheremitsa away from children and pets. Always wash your hands after contact with grass.
In the area where the hellebore is located, it is dangerous to place bee hives. The bees that have collected the flower nectar from the cheremitsa survive, but honey should not be eaten.
Types and varieties of hellebore with photos
There are 27 species in the hellebore genus. Breeders have also bred several hybrids. Only 7 species are grown on the territory of the Russian Federation. The most popular perennial specimens include:
Lobel's hellebore (Veratrum lobelianum)
The culture grows in the forest-coniferous zone of Siberia, the Caucasus and contains such healing substances as mineral salts, vitamins, amino acids and alkaloids. The height of the main stem reaches a couple of meters. Wide green leaf blades adorn the stem along its entire length. The length of yellowish panicle inflorescences is about 60 cm.
Chemeritsa white (Veratrum album)
This species chooses an open, lighted area, for example, meadows or mountain slopes. The plant tissues contain many alkaloids. The shoot height barely exceeds one meter. The fleshy root lies close to the surface of the soil. The lower layer of leaves is formed from plates up to 30 cm long. Approaching the top of the shoot, the leaves become smaller and narrower. The grass blooms with lush paniculate inflorescences, painted in a white tone.
Black hellebore (Veratrum nigrum)
The species is distinguished by folded leaves up to 40 cm long. The plates are arranged in regular order. At the top of the stem, the leaves are collected in groups of 3. The color of the flowers is reddish with brown spots. Panicles are formed from the buds. The corolla, peeking out in the center of the inflorescence, grows up to 1.5 cm.
Cheremitsa are grown by seed method or with the help of cuttings. Growing a crop from seeds is not always fruitful and requires a lot of strength and patience. Grains collected from achenes are immersed in the soil for the winter, sprinkled with earth on top and watered. By spring, the seedlings come to life. Young plants are planted, keeping the distance from one seedling to another at least 25 cm. At first, the cheremitsa needs regular watering and shelter from the sun. Then the plants will be able to quickly adapt to environmental conditions and grow greenery.
In areas where severe winters prevail, gardeners recommend starting the cultivation of perennials from seedlings. Sowing will be organized in March. The boxes are filled with sand mixed with peat and moistened. The seeding depth of the grains is not more than 5 mm. The boxes are covered with foil and transferred to a cold place. After 1.5-2 months, the containers with crops are returned to the heat. As soon as the first leaves appear above the ground, the film is removed. The growth of seedlings is uneven, so the germination process is sometimes delayed for several months. Cultivation of hellebore seedlings is carried out first in a greenhouse, and then transplanted to the site.
In the spring, hellebore is grown by root layers. To do this, the bushes are dug up, the rhizome is shaken off the ground and cut in parts, leaving the bud and filamentous roots. Planting divisions should be carried out taking into account the observance of a distance of at least 30 cm.To activate the growth of seedlings, they are shaded and watered abundantly.
Planting and caring for hellebore
Caring for hellebore is simple, but it is important to follow certain rules. The only thing to pay special attention to is the location of the culture in the garden. The area where the perennial will grow should be slightly shaded. For this purpose, neighboring fruit trees or fences will do a great job, which will protect the seedlings from the hot sunlight at noon.
The soil is selected light with high drainage properties. Loams containing compost and sand are considered the most suitable for growing a young flower. Acidic soil types inhibit the plant. Puppeteer transplants are not always successful.
The hellebore needs to be watered frequently, but in moderate doses. The decorativeness of the grass will deteriorate if time is not given to irrigation during a drought. The top layer of soil is kept moist.
Before the beginning of the growing season, the soil is enriched with compost or manure, and flowering seedlings are periodically fed with mineral complexes.
In order for the culture to delight the owners and guests with its beauty, wilted flower stalks are cut off in time. At the end of the season, the stems and yellowed foliage are removed. Frozen parts of hellebore are also subject to pruning with the arrival of spring. Many flower varieties are frost-resistant, so they don't need shelter.
Application of hellebore
Thanks to the lush relief foliage, the hellebore will perfectly complement any flower garden or lawn planting. The plant is often planted near bodies of water to create a backdrop for other flowers. Cultures such as phlox, gladioli or eremurus are happily adjacent to the puppeteer.
Due to the toxin present in the tissues of perennials, it is used, as a rule, to repel insects and parasites. Freshly prepared herbal infusion is sprayed on trees and shrubs in the garden.
CHEMERITSA || Useful properties and application
Internal use is strictly limited. Ointments and alcoholic tinctures from cheremitsa are used as external remedies in folk medicine, which effectively help in the treatment of gout, rheumatism and various fungal diseases. Cheremitsa has an anthelmintic, diuretic and laxative effect.
Perennial plants that are included in family of liliaceae, very colorful, because they are often planted in squares, in the courtyards of residential buildings, parks, gardens and personal plots. They have a wide variety of green spaces with high decorativeness, not inferior to those of the buttercup or quarry family, which are very popular in home and garden floriculture.
The article describes techniques for different methods of plant seedling family of liliaceae, caring for them, well, you will also find the features of the flowering of such plants, which are popular in landscape floriculture:
- Lanceolate function
- May lily of the valley
- Mineral Kamchatsky
- Daylily yellow
- Daylily orange
- Daylily of Middendorf
- Eremurus, Shiryash
This list will include frost-resistant plants liliaceae family, well tolerated stable low temperatures, but absolutely do not tolerate sudden temperature fluctuations.
By ecological and soil composition of the environment distinguish - soil perennials (substitutes for lawns), perennials for the design of alpine hills and rocky areas, coastal (for the design of reservoirs).
TO soil perennials include:
Lanceolate function, Hyacinth, Tulip, May Lily of the Valley, Kamchatka Mine.
TO plants for the design of alpine slides and rocky areas aboutworn:
Low varieties of Tulips, May Lily of the Valley, Lily of the valley, Lily, Chionodoxa, Grouse, Camassia, Proleska.
TO coastal plants relate:
Daylily yellow, Daylily orange, Daylily Middendorf, Chemiritsa.
According to the illumination necessary for their good development flowers of the lily family are subdivided into light-loving, semi-shade-tolerant and shade-tolerant.
TO light-loving plants include:
Hyacinth, Lily, Chionodoxa, Eremus, Shiryash, Camassia, Proleska.
TO partial shade plants include:
Daylily yellow, Tulip, May lily of the valley, Kamchatka mine, Chemeritsa, Kamassia, Hazelnut.
TO shade-tolerant plants include:
Daylily orange, Lanceolis function, Proleska.
The following will describe the development of each individual perennial plant. family of liliaceae.
Western and Central Europe
damp meadows, springs, grass bogs, cattle camps, light forests, forest edges, clearings, foothills and mountains up to heights of 2700 m above sea level
1-2 months cold stratification at 0. +2 degrees
plants bloom in the 16-30th year of life
dividing rhizomes in early May or September
needs drained soils
in the absence of atmospheric precipitation - regular
adapts to a wide variety of soils besides acidic
before winter the plants are cut
numerous, up to 2.5 cm in diameter, greenish on the outside, whitish or yellowish on the inside
leaves up to 20 cm long and up to 8-10 cm wide, rigid, corrugated, with deep longitudinal folds, glabrous or almost glabrous above, shortly pubescent below, especially along the veins
false stem is formed by nested leaf bases
has a short thick underground rhizome surrounded by the bases of dead leaves
Harmful and poisonous plants for animals
Many rabbit breeders learned this truth from their own experience before they learned to recognize harmful and useful plants. We will try to help you avoid such mistakes.
Everyone knows caustic and creeping buttercups. They grow everywhere and delight our eyes with bright yellow flowers. But this herb is extremely dangerous not only for rabbits, but also for all other farm animals. It contains poison that causes drooling, sharp stomach pains, bloating, vomiting, and diarrhea. Buttercups are especially dangerous during flowering. When dried, the poison evaporates from them and in the hay they are almost harmless. From the buttercup family, freshly cut lumbago is also poisonous, which is popularly called sleep-grass. True, when feeding grass with buttercups and lumbago fatalities are quite rare, but in recovered animals productivity decreases, growth slows down.
When mowing grass in forest glades or floodplain meadows, along rivers, you need to make sure that Lobel's hellebore does not get into it. This is a perennial plant from the lily family with a thick, more than a meter high stem, large leaves, similar to lily of the valley. The long panicle is covered with nondescript greenish flowers that bloom in July - August. In spring, basal leaves are the most poisonous, while in summer the toxicity of hellebore falls, and during the fruiting period it completely disappears. In case of poisoning in animals, the activity of the heart and respiratory organs is disrupted, muscles convulsively contract.
The foxglove family is a beautiful but insidious plant with large, thimble-like yellow or red flowers gathered in a raceme. Leaves are oblong, lanceolate. They are especially poisonous in the foxglove. Toxicity is not eliminated in hay. Its insidiousness is that poisonous substances linger and accumulate in the body of rabbits, gradually destroying the cardiovascular system: they cause an increase in pulse rate and arrhythmia, weakness, shortness of breath, and sometimes death.
In shady places between bushes, along ravines, celandine is often found. Its orange juice is poisonous. This very common plant has a high, branched stem from 30 to 70 cm, deeply pinnate leaves, with small, unpleasant odor golden flowers, collected by an umbrella on long pedicels. Blooms from May to July. Neither ensiling nor drying eliminates its harmful effect on the body. Especially dangerous during fruiting.
Milks are harmful to rabbits and other domestic animals. In the milky juice of these herbs there is an acute poison that causes inflammation of the mucous membrane of the digestive tract, diarrhea, and vomiting. Sometimes there are seizures. In hay, the poisonousness of the milkweed is weakened, but not significantly. However, some rabbit breeders claim that milkweed is harmless. And the fact is that not all species of this plant, and there are several hundred of them, are poisonous.
Acute stomach inflammation occurs in rabbits when eating wild radish. It is an annual weed very similar to field mustard.
One of the most poisonous plants is cicuta, or poisonous milestones, from the umbrella family. It has a thick, hollow, smooth stem up to 1 m high. At the top, it branches many times. Leaves are triple-pinnate, with rounded lobes. The flowers are small, white, collected in solid umbrellas. It smells like celery. It grows mainly in shady, damp places: near swamps, lakes, along river banks. Sometimes it forms large thickets. In case of poisoning, rabbits die from paralysis of the respiratory center.
I advise beginner rabbit breeders to take it as a rule: before feeding animals unfamiliar grass, give it in a small amount to one or two rabbits, and only after making sure that it is harmless, put the rest in the feeder.
Poisonous and dangerous plants: photo and description
It is a shrub, all parts of which are poisonous. When eating this poisonous plant, cattle may experience colic, diarrhea, eating large volumes of euonymus can be fatal (mainly for sheep and goats)
Marsh wild rosemary
Marsh rosemary is a shrub whose leaves are dangerous for goats and sheep. They cause paralysis of the legs, heart, intestines, paralyzing the nervous system.
it poisonous plant, all parts of which are dangerous when eaten by livestock. And animals begin to salivate uncontrollably, trembling, anxiety, tympanitis. The marsh calla can cause very rapid death.
It is a herbaceous annual plant that does not lose its dangerous properties either fresh or dry. Eating black henbane can lead to seizures, rampage, and tympanitis is observed in cows.
It poisonous biennial plant causes paralysis of the nervous system. The death of cattle can occur from respiratory paralysis. When eating a speckled hemlock in animals, general weakness is observed, sometimes paralysis of the limbs. All parts of the plant are poisonous.
It is a perennial plant, the consumption of which causes salivation, paralysis of the limbs, respiration, and bloating. Suffering from a milestone poisonous cattle. Dangerous both fresh and dry. The milestone root is especially poisonous.
This perennial herb is dangerous because it irritates the kidneys and the digestive tract. The animal refuses to feed, sometimes blood is visible in the urine, the stomach is swollen. Buttercup anemone is dangerous for all species of animals. Eating this poisonous plant may end in death.
This plant is especially dangerous for horses. Poisoning of a horse with pink bitterness manifests itself in the lethargy of the animal, refusal to feed, cramps in the neck and lower lip. Death from exhaustion may occur.
Datura stinky is dangerous to livestock both fresh and in hay. The action of this poisonous plant aimed at the heart and brain, can cause paralysis. Datura stinky is dangerous for all species of animals.
St. John's wort
Dangerous are the leaves of St. John's wort - both dry and fresh. Works on animals with white fur. Tumors appear on parts of the body covered with white hair. In horses, tongue and lips can swell from eating St. John's wort.
Cereal stellate in dry and fresh form is dangerous, first of all, for horses. This is a poisonous plant can cause swelling of the extremities, shortness of breath, unsteady gait, and excessive flow of urine and feces.
This herb is poisonous to all animals only in its green form. Eating marsh marigold can lead to bloating, colic, and diarrhea.
Buttercups (perennial and annual)
The plant is only dangerous when fresh. Eating buttercups can lead to pain and bloating, diarrhea. Horses, sheep, cows are suffering.
The whole plant is dangerous, mainly fresh. Eating lilies of the valley is fraught with loss of appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, and in serious cases, death. May lily of the valley for all types of animals.
This plant is dangerous in its green form, affects the nervous system, can cause vomiting, diarrhea. In severe cases, animals die from heart paralysis right on the pasture. A sharp gingerbread is poisonous to cows, sheep, horses.
Mariannik seeds are poisonous, after eating which the milk becomes bluish and unpleasant in taste, and the animal becomes drowsy, lethargic. Mariannik is dangerous for all livestock.
Euphorbia (perennial and annual)
The whole milkweed plant is poisonous for cattle, sheep and goats. The milk juice secreted by this plant causes inflammation of the digestive tract mucosa, diarrhea, and vomiting.
The danger to livestock is represented by immature bolls of self-seeding poppy, which cause diarrhea, vomiting, drunkenness, and frequent sleep in livestock.
This is annual poisonous plant dangerous both fresh and in hay for sheep and cattle. Eating omelet water causes convulsions, colic, and general paralysis.
This plant is dangerous mainly in hay. Very dangerous for horses - causes a fatal disease similar in appearance to meningitis. Eating bracken ferns by a cow can cause bloody urine.
The whole plant of the black nightshade is poisonous, and especially the seeds. After consumption, animals begin to tremble, the temperature drops, livestock dies from suffocation (nightshade is poisonous for cattle, sheep, birds and pigs).
The seeds of the intoxicating chaff are poisonous for all species of animals - they affect the central nervous system.
Marsh, marsh, forest horsetail
These plants are poisonous for horses in hay - may cause a crank (hind paralysis).
Dangerous both dry and fresh. When poisoning with hellebore horses initially experience convulsions, salivation, cardiac activity weakens, then the horse dies. In goats, cows, sheep, hellebore white causes colic, diarrhea, bloating.
The flowers of the common chastuha are very poisonous, the stems and leaves are only in green. Cattle, less often sheep and horses, suffer from these dangerous plants.
Common cheremitsa - decorative, but poisonous
Some summer residents in pursuit of garden "exotic" plant very dubious plants on the site: some of them are quite decorative, but very dangerous. One of them is Lobel's hellebore, or common hellebore.
Lobel's hellebore, or green hellebore, or common, is common in Central Europe, and also inhabits the countries of the Mediterranean, Asia Minor and Central Asia. In Russia, it grows in the European part, in the Caucasus, in Siberia, in the Far East, where it prefers dry meadows and river floodplains.
The plant is very poisonous. The roots of hellebore lobela contain alkaloids, the most poisonous of which is protoveratrin. It affects a person so strongly that it can suppress the central nervous system. This alkaloid also negatively affects the digestive tract and organs of the cardiovascular system.
When hellebore juice gets on the skin, a person feels warmth in this place, turning into a strong burning sensation.
Then there is a feeling of coldness, followed by loss of sensitivity. Even more dangerous is the ingress of plant particles! In this case, there is a tingling sensation in the throat, active salivation and lacrimation begin. Poisoning is accompanied by severe agitation, headache or dizziness, possibly a decrease in pressure and a state of shock.
Despite such a strong effect on the human body, Lobel's hellebore is a medicinal plant. The rhizome with roots serves as a medicinal raw material. Preparations from the plant are used in the fight against human skin parasites. The extract from the roots of hellebore acts against the scab.
Lobel's hellebore is a long-lived perennial plant (there are specimens that are at least 50 years old). Plant growth is also impressive (up to 160 cm). The leaves seem to embrace the stem, the lower ones are large, 8–12 cm long, 5–7 cm wide, broadly elliptical, the upper ones gradually taper to lanceolate. All leaves are folded, pubescent from the inside. Green flowers with a diameter of 2.5 cm are collected in an apical panicle, consisting of spikelet brushes. The fruit is an ovoid capsule.
Some summer residents, having appreciated the decorative qualities of the leaves of hellebore Lobel, grow it in the garden. If such a poisonous species seems attractive to someone, then when growing a plant in a summer cottage, it must be fenced off and warned about the danger of household members. In places where children often rest, it is better to refuse such a green "pet" altogether.
This section on decorative wild-growing field and meadow flowers also contains recommendations for their cultivation. You saw these plants while walking in nature, in your garden like weeds. We invite you to look at them differently, from the point of view of decorating your garden and medicinal properties. Almost all types of field and meadow plants are not inferior in beauty to cultural representatives of the flora, and many have no analogues among cultivated plants, while they are highly resistant to adverse conditions, ease of cultivation and reproduction.
Before you start creating a flower garden in the style of a "corner of nature" carefully read the short information about the presented wild species, otherwise you risk wasting labor and time, as well as ruining the hard-won planting material and getting a completely false idea that wild plants do not grow in the garden. The short descriptions are based on years of observation in nature, the cultivation of wild plants in the garden, and information from popular and special literature. Here you will get acquainted with the photos and the names of the colors, while short guides will tell you about their main characteristics.