Pseudoerantemum (Pseuderanthemum) is a perennial ornamental plant from the acanthus family. In total, there are more than 120 species of various plants in the genus. Representatives of this genus are semi-shrubs or shrubs that are found in tropical latitudes around the world.
Description of the pseudo-erantemum
Pseudoerantemum, distinguished by its rich dark purple foliage, is suitable for home breeding. Wild bushes can be seen on the islands of the Pacific Ocean. The height of the stems is often about 1.2 m. Lateral shoots are directed towards the top. On the surface of the shoots, shortened leaves with a petiolate base are located opposite each other. They are characterized by large sizes, the shape of an ellipse or a wide oval. The skin of the leaves is covered with tubercles, convex veins are felt. The ends of the leaf blades are curly. In bushes that have lived in one place for several years, the length of the leaves reaches 15 cm, and the width is up to 10 cm. The color of the ground part is pink-green, alternating with silvery specks.
The flowers, painted in a white-pink hue, stretch into tubes and gather in loose spike-shaped panicles that crown the tops of the stems. The flowering of a crop growing in the wild is long lasting. The same cannot be said about domesticated varieties. It is very rare to observe flowering in a room pseudo-erantemum. It is bred, as a rule, as an ornamental deciduous plant.
Caring for pseudo-erantemum at home
Pseudoerantemum has many requirements for care. To grow a healthy and attractive flower, florariums or "tropical windows" are used. Of course, it is not always possible to create such conditions, so first you should familiarize yourself with the basic rules of growing.
Location and lighting
The pseudoerantemum plant develops stably under diffused bright light, so it is advised to place flowerpots nearby with window openings directed to the east or west. Placement on the south side of the building is also acceptable, but care must be taken to hide the foliage from the direct scorching sun.
In the winter and autumn months, the need for lighting is the same as in June-August. As a backlight, special phytolamps are used. The length of daylight hours for a flower should be at least 12-14 hours.
With a lack of light, the foliage loses its intense color, and the spots fade. Conversely, excess sun causes the plates to redden. The greenery stops growing and the development of culture is disrupted.
All year round, pseudoerantemum is grown at moderate temperatures, namely 20-25 ° C. Low temperatures cause leaf fall. Lowering the thermometer to 15 ° C can lead to the death of the plant.
Sharp changes in daily temperatures and exposure to drafts negatively affect the growth of perennials. In winter, when the heating devices are turned on, the flowerpots are removed from the windowsills. During the airing of the room, the flower is transferred to another room.
The pseudoerantemum plant consumes a lot of moisture. Watering the soil is carried out often, but carefully, without overflowing the roots. As soon as the top layer of the substrate dries well, the soil is moistened again. They take settled soft water without chlorine impurities.
You should adhere to the timing of watering, since even a short drying out of the soil can cause leaves to fall. The accumulation of water in the pot leads to the formation of rot on the root layers.
Culture requires the creation of such conditions in the room when there is high humidity. Dry air, which occurs due to working heating devices, negatively affects the growth of the flower. You can increase the humidity by installing pallets with pebbles or expanded clay next to the bushes, where a little water is poured. Twice a day, the foliage is sprayed with soft filtered water from a spray bottle.
As they grow older, the decorative properties of the pseudo-erantemum are lost. The leaves of the lower layer fall off, and the stems are bare. To preserve an attractive appearance, the tops of the shoots are periodically plucked, which allows the bush to form a lush and spreading crown. The frame of well-groomed plants looks more proportional.
Another way to improve decorativeness is to change the direction of the upright stems with a string. The branch is tied to a string and folded down. The plant needs to be fixed in this position. The garter is removed when the stem begins to grow on its own in the desired direction.
For planting pseudoerantemum, a light substrate with a high humus content and a weakly acidic or neutral medium is prepared. A part of the leaf, peat and sod land is combined in equal amounts and a little coarse sand or verkulite is added. The substrate is thoroughly mixed and filled with a flower pot, and drainage material is placed on the bottom.
Fertilizers are applied relatively rarely. For the full development of the culture, it is enough to feed the soil once a month. It is recommended to fertilize the soil with potash fertilizers, which give the foliage a rich color. At the same time, the introduction of nitrogen into the soil is limited, since this substance modifies the color of the ground part and makes it uniform.
For the autumn-winter period, the bushes are left without feeding.
Pseudoerantemum is rapidly growing greenery. A year later, the young plant needs to be transplanted into a new pot. If you leave the seedling in the old container, as a result, the leaves will be discarded. The new pot should be one size larger than the previous one. When transplanting, it is advisable to prune the roots.
Reproduction methods of pseudo-erantemum
The fastest and most effective way to propagate a pseudo-erantemum is to plant cuttings. For these purposes, the tops of non-lignified branches are harvested, which are then stored in any container filled with water, or in moist soil.
Diseases and pests
A spider mite, scale insects, worms or whiteflies may appear on the leaves of the pseudoerantemum. If insects are found, you should immediately rinse the foliage under a hot shower and treat with special chemicals.
• in rooms on light (not northern) windows, it is better to keep in a room greenhouse
• in winter gardens, greenhouses
• for young plants - annually
• for adult plants - once every few years, standard proportions of pots are used
turf land: leafy land: sand (1: 3: 1)
• does not tolerate direct sunlight
• daily spraying is required
• does not tolerate sudden fluctuations in air temperature
over time, the lower parts of the stems become bare, therefore it is necessary to constantly carry out formative pruning
bright diffused light without direct sunlight
once a month with a liquid complex fertilizer with a high potassium content and a low nitrogen content
in room conditions, forced (from October to February) due to low illumination and humidity
rooting cuttings at a soil temperature of 25-30 ° C, high air humidity, using stimulants
• 10-15 cm long, oval, dark green with a metallic sheen, with purple, pink, yellow and light cream veins
• common form 'Tricolor', on the leaves of which yellow, green and pink spots of various shapes
• herbaceous plants and shrubs, common in the tropics of the whole world, especially Polynesia
• in culture - 2-3 species
Genus Pseudo-erantemum (Pseuderanthemum) belongs to the Acanthus family (Acanthaceae), includes 47 plant species native to tropical regions around the world.
Genus name comes from Latin words pseudo (false), and Eranthemum (this is the name of a closely related plant genus), i.e. means False Erantemum.
It is a genus of herbaceous plants or shrubs that have cystoliths (crystalline deposits of calcium carbonate) in their cells. Leaves are sessile or petiolate, the edge of the leaf blade is solid, or almost whole, or lobed. Flowers in axillary or apical thyrsi, brushes or ears, with bracts are usually shorter than the calyx. The calyx is deeply 5-lobed, with equal or nearly equal lobes. Corolla with a thin tube and a widening end, a five-lobed or two-lipped limb. There are 2 stamens enclosed in a corolla tube or protruding from the corolla orifice, and 2 staminodes (sometimes absent). Pistil with two-lobed stigma. The fruit is a 4-seeded club-shaped capsule with a mesh surface. The seeds are lenticular, textured or smooth.
In indoor conditions, the following shrub species are found:
Carruthers pseudo-erantemum (Pseuderanthemum carruthersii), synonyms: Pseudorantemum reticulated (Pseuderanthemum reticulatum), Pseudorantemum dark purple (Pseuderanthemum atropurpureum). View from Polynesia, found on the islands of the state of Vanuatu.
Colorful, erect, moderately fast-growing evergreen shrub up to 1 m tall, with an attractive crown of waxy, wide, pointed, somewhat irregularly shaped, variegated leaves, combining different shades of green with purple and silver, with small inflorescences of pink flowers.
Stems glabrous, smooth, from maroon to purple in color. Leaves are whole, simple, opposite, narrow-ovate, extended and thinner at the base, pointed at the apex, waxy, up to 15 cm long and 6 cm wide, dark green, with silvery and purple irregular coloration of the petiole from burgundy to purple, about 1-2 cm long. Flowers in erect, loose inflorescences at the ends of branches, pink, brighter in the throat of the corolla. Fruits are club-shaped capsules with 4 flat seeds.
- Tricolor - a form with leaves in yellow, green and pink spots.
- Black magic - with dark purple foliage and bright pink flowers.
- Variegatum - with white-variegated leaves.
Growing and care
Growing from seeds
There is often a question about the possibility of growing gatsania from seeds. This is real, but a lot depends on the area where it will grow.
The growth process from the moment the seeds are planted to the flowering period usually takes 80 to 110 days. Therefore, it is so important to find the optimal time for disembarkation.
In cold and late spring, the plant will not have enough heat and light, so it will be necessary to additionally provide the flower with lighting. Only then will he be able to develop fully.
But, late sowing is also not desirable. If the seeds are sown in May, then the color will appear very late.
Therefore, the best time for sowing gatsania is mid-March.
Mid-April is allowed, provided that the sowing is in deep boxes so that the long rod grows and does not bend.
- Planting requires light soil with good drainage.
- Seeds are sown at a distance of 3 cm from each other.
- From above they need to be covered with soil or pressed tightly to the soil.
- Some people prefer to plant in a checkerboard pattern.
- We need to create a greenhouse effect.
- The seeds are moistened with a spray bottle and covered with foil.
- The pot is placed in a warm and bright place.
- Every day, condensation will form under the film, which must be removed.
- The first shoots can be seen in a couple of weeks.
Growing from cuttings
Gatsania hybrids are not capable of producing seeds, so the only way to reproduce is by cuttings.
At the end of summer, a piece of the stem is cut off from the overgrown bush and placed in greenhouse conditions. The cuttings will give roots in about 2 months, maybe a little earlier. Then you can plant the plant for the winter in a pot, and in the spring in open ground.
As soon as the fourth leaf on the seedling has blossomed, it must be dived.
For this, peat-peat soil is perfect.
Seedling pots are transferred to a cooler place with a temperature regime of 12 to 16 degrees. Usually this is a glazed loggia.
But you don't need to grow a greenhouse plant, it's time to get used to the temperature of the surrounding world.
The young gatsania should receive a stream of fresh air every day.
The main thing is that the pot does not stand in a draft!
Planting a flower
Gatsaniya can be planted in open ground from mid-May. It is advisable to finish planting by mid-June. This is the most optimal time, which will subsequently play a big role in the growth and flowering of the plant.
To disembark, you need to find the right place. It should be well lit and have a nutrient-rich soil. However, it is better if it is light.
It is important to ensure that the flower has access to sunlight.... It does not matter whether it is direct sunlight or not. Gatsania is very light-requiring and is not afraid of drought.
If the seed plant grew in a pot, then you can plant it directly in it. If the seedlings were in boxes, then with the help of a long scoop, each seedling is dug out from the root and transferred to the hole.
It is important not to damage the root system... When planting gatsaniya, you need to observe the flower spacing of 20 cm. As soon as the seedlings are planted, you can soon expect color.
Conditions for growth
It has already been said above that sufficient illumination and good drainage of the soil are important conditions. But, gatsaniya is an amazing plant and, in spite of its love for the sun, can live even with a sharp temperature drop down to -5-7 degrees.
Taking care of a plant is not difficult.
Gatsania pleases with its flowering from early summer to late autumn.
Each basket holds the color for about 3 weeks.
As soon as the sun goes over the horizon or clouds appear in the sky, the tongues of flowers roll up and cover the yellow tubular middle.
Some gardeners and florists note that gatsania does not want to bloom.
Perhaps the reason lies in insufficient lighting, excess moisture, or late disembarkation.
If you follow the recommendations and rules for caring for the plant, it will delight you with its abundant flowering for a long time.
In hot and dry summers, there is a chance to harvest gatsania seeds, but they usually do not mature in time.
And in most cases this does not make sense, since the seeds are sold hybrid and lose their species and varietal characteristics by the end of flowering.
Even if you decide to collect seeds, it is not easy to do it.
They, like dandelion, just fly away. To prevent this, growers wrap several large inflorescences with gauze, which is fixed on the peduncle.
This plant prefers a moderate temperature in the range of 15 - 20 degrees, coolness is desirable at night.
It is not necessary to allow the temperature to drop to -10 and below, but the flower does not tolerate more than 20 degrees.
It is generally believed that the fern is a shade-loving plant, but this does not apply to all species. Many of this family love the sun and the homeland of their tropical sunny forests.
These indoor plants prefer to stand in bright but diffused light. The east and north sides of the apartment are perfect for this.
Watering the fern must be approached responsibly.
The soil should not be allowed to dry out, but the bay is also dangerous for him by rotting roots.
In the cold season, watering becomes much less frequent.
Air humidity is important for the fern. It should always be high, so it is recommended to regularly spray the flower.
Transplant and reproduction
In the spring, the plant can be transplanted. The frequency depends on the type of fern and its age. Usually a young plant is replanted annually when the pot is filled with roots.
Dividing the bush
Fern can be propagated by division. This is the easiest and fastest way.It is allowed to carry out division if there are new processes on the plant into 2-3 parts. The time for this procedure is spring in the transplant process.
There are fern species in which new shoots grow at the ends of terrestrial shoots or at the ends of wai. The first is the sublime Nephrolepis, and the second is the onion-bearing Kostenets.
Reproduction by spores
Ferns can be propagated by spores that form in the sporangia below the leaf, but this is much more difficult.
How to transplant a baby
Children are transplanted in the same way as already adult orchids, it is only necessary to properly divide the baby and the mother. You can separate children in different ways. During the peduncle, we cut off with disinfected scissors, while two centimeters of the mother's tissue should be grabbed.
Be sure to treat the cut off areas with any solution.
If the zone is rooted, then everything is done in the same way, while after processing the cut site, it should also be dried. The same method applies to the leaf sinus. If the baby does not have roots, then you should wait for them, this time can last for six months.
Dieffenbachia refers rather to undemanding plants and even a beginner is able to grow this beauty at home, you just need to follow a few recommendations.
When growing dieffenbachia, it is important:
When trimming the top of a plant, or if it breaks from its own weight, we get a part of its stem, which can be used for reproduction.
The stem is divided into sections, about 5-10 centimeters each. Each section had a leaf petiole. After the leaf has been shed, a dormant bud becomes visible on the stem - a small dark green tubercle.
For reproduction, the stem is cut into sections (you can directly along the edge separating them) and the resulting parts are placed in a moist earthy substrate or wet sawdust.
It is only important to correctly position the section of the stem without confusing the top and bottom!
Dieffenbachia takes root perfectly and very quickly. The awakening of the bud and the appearance of the sprout will tell you that the stalk has given roots.
This method is possible when the plant has bloomed and gave seeds, but this happens quite rarely, therefore reproduction by sections of the stem is the easiest way, which gives good results.
Dieffenbachia flowers are collected in inflorescences that resemble an ear of corn and emerge from the leaf axils. Flowering begins in April and lasts only a few days. After wilting, the flower does not fall off, but remains on the plant, taking away its strength.
If you are not planning to get fertilized seeds, then it is better to cut it off. In the event that fertilization has occurred, after a while the place of the flower will be occupied by berries of bright red or orange color, which look decorative on the plant, but are very poisonous.
At this time, dieffenbachia is in dire need of fertilizing with mineral fertilizers.
In female dieffenbachia flowers, the floral part is partially closed, so self-pollination at home is impossible. For viable fertilized seeds to appear, you need to take the pollen from the male flower with a brush or cotton swab and apply it to the closed part of the female flower, making an incision on it.
Time for transplant
It is advisable to replant the plant annually or once every two years. This is done between February and May. For this, a pot is selected, slightly larger than the previous one, and a drainage layer of expanded clay is laid on its bottom and a little earth is poured.
After that, the dieffenbachia veste with an earthen lump is carefully removed and placed in a new pot.
The plant has fragile roots, so you cannot disturb the earthy lump.
The distance between the walls of the pot and the earthen lump is filled up with soil.
The soil can be bought at a flower shop, suitable for the Aroid family, or you can prepare it yourself at home.
You need a land of neutral acidity:
- ordinary garden soil (4h)
- Leaf humus (1 hour)
- Peat (1h)
- Sand (1h)
- Bone meal (for fertilization).
Many do not suspect that about 300 genera and more than 10 thousand species of this plant grow in nature.
The oldest inhabitants of our planet can be graceful and lacy representatives of their kind, and some, on the contrary, are formidable giants. Each fern is individual and unique.
Bracken ordinary - a giant among ferns.
Beautiful, drought-resistant. Its height reaches two meters.
Able to form tremendous thickets.
Mnogoryadnik (Polystichum) is a very beautiful plant.
Belongs to the Shchitovnikov family. Found wide application in rock gardens, decorative decoration of places under the shade of trees.
It can be found in humid or coniferous forests, more often on river banks and in ravines. There is Brown's mnogoryadnik, tripartite, bristle.
Water this fern abundantly during growth and moderately during dormancy. The plant prefers non-direct light. Feels comfortable at temperatures from 16 to 24 degrees.
The humidity level should be high. The mnogoryadnik is propagated by the method of division. The soil must be created from a mixture of turf, leafy soil and sand in a ratio of 1: 2: 1.
If necessary, the bush should be transplanted in the spring. Do not forget about fertilization in the warm period 1 time in 7 days. For this, it is allowed to use mineral and organic additives.
The multi-rower needs to be protected from scale insects, whiteflies, aphids, springtails, root rot. Any disease or pest can cause drying and yellowing of the leaves, which subsequently fall off.
Davallia (Davallia) is a fast growing perennial.
Belongs to the Davalliev family. Natural habitat - Tropics of Asia, China, Japan, Polynesia, Java island, Canary Islands.
As a rule, the plant grows well indoors and in greenhouses.
The people call this fern "hare feet".
During any period of growth, Davallia should be watered sparingly. The same lighting should not be bright. This species prefers low humidity, and the temperature is 16-24 degrees. Ideal soil will be a mixture of leafy soil, peat and sand in equal proportions. Good drainage is needed.
It is better to fertilize the plant with a liquid plant twice a month. If Davallia is hit by a scale insect, the plant will stop growing.
Shieldworm (Dryopteris) can be found everywhere, especially in the coniferous forests of the Far East.
The leaf of this fern is double pinnate. Exist:
These ferns are unpretentious. They can delight with their growth for many years and will not suffer during drought or vice versa, with too high humidity.
Propagate by dividing the bush.
Nephrolepis (Nephrolepis) belongs to the Lomariopsis family.
The name consists of two parts - nephros (kidney) and lepis (scales).
This species prefers not direct, but bright light and high humidity.
The best soil for growth is leafy soil and peat.
Top dressing is carried out only in spring and summer weekly, but during the dormant period it is better not to touch the plant.
Damage from pests and diseases damages the leaves, which dry, die off and turn brown.
Asplenium, also known as Asplenium, has from 30 to 700 species of this genus, but most of them grow in the tropics.
But the most interesting decorative pitchforks are rock ones. The bushes look graceful and consist of feathery openwork leaves.
- The wall asplenium is found on the walls of old monasteries.
- Asplenium northern grows on the rocks of Northern Europe and Asia. The leaves are the simplest - narrow and long.
- The hairy asplenium is the most shade-loving among its own kind. The leaves are graceful, feathery.
During the dormant period, Kostenets is rarely watered, and with active growth, it is abundant.
This fern doesn't like moisture. If a transplant is planned, then it is better to do it in the spring.
Propagated by dividing the bush or by spores. The soil for flowers is mixed from peat, leaf, turf and sand in equal proportions.
Pellea (Pellaea) is part of the Pteris family, native to South America, Central Africa, Australia, and Zealand.
It is watered in the same way as Kostenets, but the humidity should be high. The lighting is preferably moderate.
It needs feeding every 2 weeks all spring and summer. Mullein is an excellent fertilizer.
When the scabbard is affected, the fern leaves curl and lose their color. They become transparent, lethargic and fall off.
Platizerium (Platycerium) or Antler is a member of the Centipede family and has at least 18 species.
Many of them are grown at home, in greenhouses and botanical gardens. This fern loves bright, diffused light, high humidity and abundant watering during the growing season.
Fertilize the soil once every 1.5 months. Pests do not allow the plant to grow fully, the leaves become yellow, faded and lethargic.
Pteris (Pteris) has about 280 species.
Distributed in the tropics and subtropics. They prefer bright light, high humidity. Diseases lead to root rot.
Kochedyzhnik (Athyrium) - this genus consists of 200 species.
Bushes are dense, tall with delicate and thin leaves. Often in the forests of central Russia you can find a female kochedyzhnik. One of the most unusual ferns. He is delicate, elegant, feathery.
It is characterized by delicate dissected leaves, reminiscent of palm and falling in early autumn. Purple and silver colors are popular.
In the Far East, the Chinese reddish cochinate grows.
This genus prefers moderate humidity, grows in ordinary garden soil for a long time - up to 15 years. Does not need fertilizers.
Cyrtomium (Cyrtomium) - the Shchitovnikov family.
In total, there are about 20 species of this genus. Grows in Asia, America, Oceania.
Does not like abundant watering, but prefers high humidity.
Comfortable temperature from 16 to 24 degrees. The soil needs fertile, supplemented with peat and sand.
Centipede (Polypodium) consists of 100 species.
The Common Fern is called Sweet Fern and is a rare plant. Occurs in forest, mountain forest, subalpine, mountain tundra areas.
Winter hardy. It grows in the Russian climate. It is the only epiphyte fern of its kind.
Epiphyte means growing on a tree, on a wall.
The fern is finicky but unusual.
It is a low evergreen bush with leaves up to 20 cm in length.
The root crawls on the ground, and its taste is sweet, hence the name.
It is recommended to grow such a fern near water in a place protected from the cold.
The plant can be propagated using root segments.