The watermelon plant (lat.Citrullus lanatus) is a herbaceous annual, a species of the genus Watermelon of the Pumpkin family. Watermelon is a melon culture. The homeland of watermelon is southern Africa - Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa. The colocynth species, related to the watermelon, is still found here, which is considered the ancestor of the cultivated watermelon. This culture was cultivated in Ancient Egypt, in the 20th century BC: watermelon seeds were found in the tomb of Tutankhamun. Proof that watermelon was known to the ancient Romans, who ate it fresh and salted, and also boiled honey from it, can be found in the verses of Virgil.
Agro-botanical iconography of chalmoid forms of the fruit of the pumpkin family
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Kuban State Agrarian University
Agro-botanical iconography of chalmoid forms of the fruit of the pumpkin family
Tsatsenko Lyudmila Vladimirovna, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor
The depiction of plants in painting, mosaic, sculpture, scientific illustration, herbariums, books or agro-botanical iconography is a valuable source of information about the history of the distribution of certain phenotypes, for example, the turban-shaped form of pumpkin fruits in past centuries in various regions of the world.
Key words: agro-botanical iconography, image analysis, turban gourds, melons, cucumbers, squash, law of homologous series.
The term "iconography" appeared relatively recently in genetic selection studies, which was successfully used by Julian Jenick in his studies on the history of the introduction of a number of crops from the American continent to Europe . Iconography refers to images of plants in artists' paintings, frescoes, mosaics, botanical illustrations, tapestries, and scientific drawings. The artist paints what he sees. In the painting of the 17th and 18th centuries, a botanical and decorative style, characterized by almost scientific objectivity, is intensively developing. The creators of paintings largely followed the principles of floristic drawing, the interest in which increased so much that it stood out as a special plot type of graphics. Due to the careful transfer of the appearance of plants, the paintings could well serve as illustrations for botanical atlases.
The task of our research was to analyze the turban-shaped forms of the fruit in pumpkin crops by analyzing the image, more precisely, the agro-botanical iconography of this trait in works of art and scientific illustration.
The Cucurbitaceae family, the tribe Cucurbitiae, is one of the largest families of angiosperms and includes over 100 genera and about 1,100 species.
The turban-shaped form of the fruit entered botanical terminology thanks to the pumpkin plants of the Chinese subspecies Cucurbita maxima, which had the shape of a fruit resembling an oriental headdress - a turban, a synonym for this word turban. In this regard, the turban pumpkin has several synonyms: turban pumpkins, turban pumpkin, Alladin's turban, Turkish pumpkin, mushroom pumpkin, acorn pumpkin. E. Kastetter divided the entire assortment C. maxima into 7 groups, where the 4th group is represented by the Turban group - turban, with a turbid trace of the perianth. In the classification of I. Grebenshchikov, turban forms are also allocated to a separate group C. maxima convar.turbaniformis Alef. In the new classification proposed by T.B. Fursova and A.I. Filov in 1982 considered 4 subspecies within the species, one of which is the Chinese subspecies -subsp.turbankurbis .
The Chinese subspecies is known in the local culture of China and partly in Tibet, although its varieties are widespread in Europe as an ornamental plant. It has delicate vegetative organs and turbid flattened fruits, usually dark green at the beginning, reddening in stripes when ripe or completely, in the latter case, taking on a bright red color. This subspecies includes 4 varieties:
Large turd variety - C. maxima var. turbankurbis, C. maxima var.rouge Naud, C. maxima var. rubra constricta Harz. The fruits are large with a transverse diameter of more than 35 cm. The fruits are strongly flattened, with a pronounced large turban. The color of the turban is usually different from the rest of the fruit. The bark is woody. The pulp is thin, dense, sometimes with a pleasant taste. In local agriculture, it is known in the west of China, as well as in Japan. These pumpkins are often mistakenly called Turkish, apparently because of the turban. botanical iconography turban pumpkin
Srednechnaya variety - C. maxima var. nouvebresil Naud. Fruits are less than 35 cm in diameter. It is similar to the large-chamois variety. It differs from it in smaller fruit sizes (23-35cm).
Small-fruited red - C. maxima var. costricta Alef., C. maxima var. rubra erithrocarpa Hazr. Fruits are less than 35 cm in diameter. It is similar to the large-chamois variety. It differs from it in smaller fruit sizes (23-35cm).
Small turtle green - C. maxima turbanopetit Naud., C. maxima var.lignosa Harz. Fruits are less than 23 cm, green, turban always takes less than half of the fruit. The bark is woody.
It is interesting to note that in the Old World, i.e. the pumpkin came to Europe only after the discovery of America, i.e. about 520 years ago. But during this period, as N.E. Zhiteneva notes, its ecological variability in Asia and partly in Africa reached such striking results that some botanists were inclined to find new types of cultivated pumpkins here, as, for example, it happened with FROMucurbita maxima turbanoformis... According to N.E. Zhiteneva. here there is an intraspecific variability of cultivated pumpkins .
Turbid gourds were rare, mainly bred as an ornamental crop, although there is also evidence of use as a vegetable crop.
In Russia, turban and semi-calm pumpkins were bred as vegetable crops. In the book of L.A. Chernoglazov. and Kichunova N.I. “Cucumbers, melons, watermelons and pumpkins. Description of breeds and their care ”(1883) mentions these pumpkins. “Turban pumpkin (Turkish turban). The fruit is small, weighing 7-9 feet. Usually, the fruit has stripes of dark green, yellow and red. Sometimes the whole fruit is green. The pulp is dark orange, relatively thick, mealy and sweet» .
Giramon petit de Chine: This red pumpkin was introduced by the Museum of Natural Sciences in Paris and is still rarely seen in culture. The fruit is small, weighing no more than 3 pounds. The skin is bright red with oblong yellow dark green stripes. The top of the fruit (crown) is clearly marked, but not convex. The pulp is yellow and rather sugary. "
As M.V. Rytov (1927) writes, “All large-fruited pumpkins (Hundred-pound pumpkin, Valpari pumpkin, Almond, Chilean Mamantovaya pumpkin, Boulogne pumpkin) are not very fertile and are inferior in pulp quality to Chalm and Received pumpkins with a flat circle instead of a turban outgrowth) pumpkins with small fruits magnitudes. The best of them is Poliscalmovaya Parisian with white like-shaped seeds, fruits are red-orange, up to 27 cm and up to 3 kg in weight, with tender, excellent pulp ”.
Turbid gourds were used in cultivation as vegetables, therefore, the image of the large turkey pumpkin variety is found only in botanical illustrations, including vegetable calendars, produced by the French breeding company Vilmorin. The French company Vilmorin-Andrieu was founded in the 18th century in collaboration with P. Andrieu. For more than 200 years of its existence, the company "Vilmorin" introduced into the culture in France over 450 species and forms of useful plants, including potatoes and sugar beets, created many high-yielding varieties of various agricultural crops, was engaged in the popularization of agronomic knowledge. Their first well-illustrated catalog appeared in 1766 and included all kinds of garden seeds, vegetables, greens, legumes and pumpkin crops. The Vilmorin firm has published their excellent illustrations in the form of an album. The album included 46 colored canvases of vegetables, salads and seeds, including legumes. 15 artists of agro-botanical iconography were recruited to create this work, most of whom were trained as naturalist painters in the botanical garden, the former royal garden, including Elisa Champin, who produced most of the best illustrations.
The image of a large turkey gourd is found in the painting Still Life with Game, Fruit and Flowers (1820) by Geogius Jacobus Johannes Van Os, the Netherlands.
The mention of a turban pumpkin is also found in Charles Lemarie (1857): "Turban pumpkin or turban pumpkin," Turkish turban "- Pumpkin 'TurksTurban', Cucurbita maxima var. Turbaniformis Turk'scap or C. Pepo var. Pileiformis Alef. also applies to decorative, which is not entirely true. The so-called Turkish turban is a variegated, squeezed pumpkin with a deep-lobed upper half separated from the lower by a deep groove, its name depends on its close resemblance to a turban ”. And here we already see that these pumpkins were used as a vegetable crop.
In Uzbekistan, the view C. turbaniformis, was first described by K.I. Pangalo (1947). In many regions of the Republic of Uzbekistan, it is cultivated as a food, fodder and medicinal plant with the local name Salla-kada, Tammama-kadi, Potoshka-kovak and is considered a promising starting material for the creation of new large-fruited varieties of edible pumpkin .
However, the turban form of the fetus is also found in another subspecies. C. maxima - American, in two of its varieties: Brazilian and bush. The Brazilian variety of this subspecies - Cucurbita maxima subsp. americana var.bresil Naud. C. maxima var. Coffeisperma Alef. C. maxima var.turboviridis Filov. The fruits are spherical, medium in size, but the fruits are flattened, have a pronounced small turban. Distributed in Brazil and Chile.
Bush variety - C. maxima var.zapallito (Carr.) Millan., C. maxima convar. zapallitina Greb., C. maxima var. defflagellatis Filov. It is characterized by small fruits, flattened, often with a small turban, greenish-brown. Distributed in Chile and Argentina .
In painting, one of the first images of a turban pumpkin is found in the background frescoes of the Villa Farnesina, made by masters of the Renaissance. These are paintings of garlands of flowers and fruits made by Rafael Sanchez and Giovani da Udine, including 170 plant species, and contain a wealth of information about fruits, vegetables and ornamental plants that came to Europe in the 16th century [11,15].
The chalmoid shape of the fruit is also found in ordinary pumpkin, namely in the squash Cucurbita pepo var. patisson Filov .
The turban form of the fruit was widespread in the melon, as evidenced by paintings by artists of the Renaissance and the 19th century: Giuseppe Arcimboldo, "Summer" - the second version, (1563), Italy Jan the Elder Bruegel "Ceres and the Four Elements" (1604) Jan the Younger Brueghel Madonna and Child with Little John (1670) by Giovanni Battista Ruoppolo Still Life (1679) Frans Snyders Holland. Fruit Shop "(1618 - 1621) Frans Snyders" Woman with a Child in the Pantry and Fruits with Vegetables "(1625-1635" Claes van Heissen "Saleswoman of Fruits and Vegetables" (1630) Peter Huissels "Still Life at the Fountain" (1680-1691) Christopher Minari "Still life. Kitchen" (1801) G. Recco "Still life with fruits and flowers" (1670), Naples, Italy P. Gesels "Still life" (1685) G. Latour "Flowers, fruits and melon", France (1865) ).
The chalmoid shape of the melon fruit is also noted in the wide unified CMEA Classifier , but today varieties with this shape of the fruit are practically not found on the market.
Judging by the agro-botanical iconography and literary sources, this type of melons was widespread until the beginning of the 20th century, however, as noted by N.I. Kichunov. "Maltese winter melon (turban) and similar varieties that need a significant improvement in taste in this respect, although with the taste merits these winter melons, although they get to the French markets, are far from able to cause delight in terms of the taste of their consumers" .
It should be noted that the turban form is characteristic not only of a special botanical group of pumpkins gr.turbaniformis Al., Melons, but also of some races of cucumber. An expedition of the Botany Department of VIR (St. Petersburg) brought turban cucumbers from Mongolia .
Chalmoid or turban cucumbers belong to the subspecies of hermaphrodite-flowered Cucumis sativus, ssp.hermafroditus Fil. (C. sphaerocarpus Gab.). This subspecies was isolated, described and studied by A.I. Filov and he was also the first to explain the appearance of a turban in cucumbers. He notes that the characteristic feature of this subspecies is the hermaphroditic structure of all pistillate flowers. The pollen of these flowers is fertile. The ovary is semi-inferior, which is why during the formation of the fetus a turban is obtained on it  (Figure 1).
Figure 1 - Flowers and ovaries: On the left are the hermaphrodite-flowered subspecies of cucumbers (turban-shaped), on the right are ordinary dioecious ones. The original drawing by A.I. Filov (1948) in the elaboration of N.N. Likhanskaya (2013).
The plant is very prolific. The growing season is long. Due to its high fertility, bisexual flowers and high palatability of the pulp, this subspecies deserves attention. However, the stiffness of its spines, unsuitability for salting and the light yellow coloration of zelents gives the impression of an overripe species and is the reason for its weak distribution. Geographic distribution of the United States. The hermaphroditic-ball-bearing varieties include the Lemon varieties and the Oval Capital .
Figure 2 - Images of pumpkin and nightshade, illustrating the law of homologous series of hereditary variability of N.I. Vavilova - the presence of the same characteristics in different plant species. Turtle gourd (1), turban squash (2), turban melon (3), turban cucumber (4). Image 1,3,4 scientific drawing from the work of N.I. Vavilova “On intergeneric hybrids of melons, watermelons and pumpkins. To the problem of occurrence of species and generic systematic characters ”.
Thus, the analysis of the agro-botanical iconography of the turban-like forms of the pumpkin plants made it possible to note the following features. In pumpkin, turban-like forms are found in the species FROMucurbita maxima, in two subspecies: Chinese and American and in common pumpkin in squash, Cucurbita pepo var. Ratisson Fil. Representatives of both species are used for both vegetable and ornamental crops. The turban forms of the melon actually disappeared from the market, because in taste, they were significantly inferior to other varieties. Chalmoid cucumber, subspecies hermaphrodite-flowered C. sativus, ssp.hermafroditus Fil., Is rarely found in culture, because has a non-marketable type of fruit, but due to its good yield and unpretentiousness in cultivation, it is a promising material for breeding work. The presence of turbid forms in various species of the pumpkin family indicates a parallelism in the variability of closely related species, and this variability becomes more and more complete, according to the law of homologous series .
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family pumpkin gourd food
The correct use of natural healing agents in acceptable doses for the human body is almost harmless and does not cause deviations from the norm of either an individual organ or the body as a whole. A. Altymyshev - Natural remedies. F. "Kyrgyzstan" 1985 pp. 6-7.
Objectives and tasks thesis.
I chose this dissertation for a biomorphological comparison of the species of the pumpkin family, and characterizing their external similarities and differences. Studying and researching the pumpkin family, I found that there are over 130 species, and they are all very diverse. The species of this family differ in morphological, anatomical and botanical structures, in habitats and distribution, as well as in their use in the national economy.
For practical purposes, pumpkin plants are classified according to their use. In this regard, groups of vegetables, melons, medicinal and ornamental plants are distinguished separately, and the diversity of the use of some species (for example, for vegetable and technical purposes, etc.) is noted.
Power elaboration Topics.
This family has been studied well enough, but there are facts unknown to science that require additional and detailed research. With my master's thesis, I tried to contribute to the coverage of issues previously insufficiently studied.
For a more extensive study and study of the biomorphological features of the pumpkin family, I planted two types of pumpkin in my garden (large-fruited fodder (cucurbita maxima) and nutmeg (cucurbita moshata)). For four months, I followed the growth of these two types of pumpkins. This helped me become more familiar with the pumpkin family.
Thanks to the study of this topic, you can discover a lot of new things for yourself and humanity. After all, each plant contains many secrets that are revealed to people as scientific and technological progress develops.
Vegetables are of great importance in human nutrition. They are valuable not only because they contain sugars, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins and enzymes in an easily digestible form, but also because they regulate digestion and improve the absorption of other foods. The systematic consumption of vegetables increases the vitality of the body. Vegetable food helps maintain a slightly alkaline reaction in the blood and neutralizes the harmful effects of acidic substances contained in meat, bread and fats.
Vegetables are of great importance as sources of vitamins. After all, a lack of one or more vitamins leads to disruption of human vital processes, and prolonged absence leads to diseases. The lack of vegetables in winter and early spring is one of the reasons for the decrease in the body's resistance to disease. Synthetic drugs, which, moreover, can cause allergies and side diseases, cannot replenish the vital complex of vitamins found in vegetables.
In one type of vegetables, several vitamins are often present, which enhances the physiological effect of each of them.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and carotene (provitamin A) enter our body mainly from vegetables and fruits. Skripnikov Yu.G. - All about the pumpkin Almanac "Garden and Vegetable Garden" - M .: Kolos, 1993 pp. 23-26
Among vegetable crops, pumpkin occupies a special place in solving the problem of nutrition. Pumpkin is a vitamin-rich, juicy, well-digestible food. Pumpkin contains salts of potassium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, copper, zinc and other elements. Pumpkin contains vitamins C, B1, IN2, IN6, E, carotene. Pumpkin is widely used for food and feed purposes, and is also a raw material for the canning, confectionery and vitamin industries. Skurikhin I.M., Volgarev M.N. - The chemical composition of food. M .: VO "Agropromizdat", 1987, p. 360
Class monocotyledonous (Monocotyledoneae)
Liliales order. Mostly grasses with three or six stamens, carpels and perianth parts. Many species form bulbs and other underground storage structures. Examples are lily, hyacinth, tulip, onion, asparagus, aloe, agave, daffodil, iris (iris), gladiolus (skewer), crocus (saffron).
Order Orchids (Orchidales). It includes only one, but very large (probably about 15,000 species) family of the same name. Mostly tropical plants, but many species are common in the marshes, meadows and forests of the northern regions. Flowers, of which there are in principle three different elements, are apparently the most complex in structure: their parts form structures that are unique in the angiosperm section. Many species are amazingly beautiful. Examples are cattleya, vanilla, lady's slipper, orchis.
The order arecales, or palms (Arecales). Trees, sometimes dwarf, with cylindrical trunks that do not grow in thickness and usually reach a maximum diameter just below the apical bud. The trunk usually does not branch and only at the top is crowned with a rosette of large, usually dissected leaves. Numerous flowers (three of them in different parts) are formed in massive racemes. Examples are coconut, date, royal palms.
Arum order (Arales). Mostly tropical plants with small flowers on the cob that are often surrounded by a large, brightly colored blanket. Examples are calla (calla lily), arum, monstera, philodendron, taro (food crop in several tropical countries).
Order bromeliads (Bromeliales). Basically the tropical group, which includes many herbaceous epiphytes (aerophytes), i.e. non-parasitic species that inhabit the branches and trunks of other plants and even telephone wires. Examples are Louisiana moss (tillandsia), bromeliad, pineapple.
Order ginger (Zingiberales). Tropical plants with complex bilaterally symmetrical flowers. Examples - Madagascar ravale ("tree of travelers"), banana, ginger, canna.
The order is bluegrass, or cereals (Poales). Probably in terms of the number of specimens (but not species), these are the most numerous plants on the planet. Mostly herbs distributed throughout the world. Flowers are small, greenish, collected in several pieces in the so-called. spikelets, which in turn form either loose panicles or dense ears. Fruits (kernels) of cereals are the main plant food for humans, and their stems and leaves are good food for livestock. Woody grasses from the bamboo group provide building material and fiber for many Asians, the less economically valuable species of the sedge family that are characteristic of damp places. Examples are wheat, rice, barley, oats, corn, millet, bamboo, papyrus.