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Turmeric: medicinal properties and contraindications, planting, description, photo

Turmeric: medicinal properties and contraindications, planting, description, photo


Garden plants

Turmeric (lat.Curcuma) - a genus of monocotyledonous plants of the Ginger family. The rhizomes of plants of this genus contain yellow dyes and essential oils, therefore they are cultivated as spices and medicinal plants. Most often, the type of turmeric is grown in culture, or homemade turmeric, or cultivated turmeric, or turmeric, or yellow ginger (lat. Curcuma longa), the powder of dried roots of which is known as a spice called "turmeric".
In the wild, this culture is found only in India, which today occupies a leading position in the export of spices obtained from the rhizomes of turmeric. Turmeric appeared in garden collections in the 90s of the last century.

Planting and caring for turmeric

  • Bloom: from July to October.
  • Landing: planting parts of the rhizome in the ground - in March-April.
  • Lighting: bright light or partial shade.
  • The soil: rich clay or sandy soils.
  • Watering: frequent and abundant, water consumption depends on the composition of the soil.
  • Top dressing: during the budding period, at the beginning of flowering and two weeks after its completion with a complex mineral fertilizer for ornamental deciduous plants at half the dosage indicated in the instructions.
  • Reproduction: seeds, parts of the rhizome.
  • Pests: spider mites.
  • Diseases: root rot and leaf spot.
  • Properties: is a popular spice and medicinal plant with anthelmintic, antiviral, antiseptic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, regenerating, tonic, sedative, warming and blood-accelerating properties.

Read more about growing turmeric below.

Turmeric plant - description

Long turmeric is a herbaceous perennial, reaching a height of 90 cm. Its leaves are oval, alternating in two rows; tuberous rhizome, rounded, up to 4 cm in diameter, yellowish-gray, with annular scars from the leaves. Numerous thin roots radiate from the rhizome, small tubers are formed at the ends of some of them. The terrestrial part of turmeric grows from the apical bud of the rhizome and consists of several long-petiolate vaginal leaves and a peduncle reaching a height of 30 cm and densely set with green stipules with lighter tips. In the axils of the stipules, located in the middle part of the peduncle, yellow three-lobed tubular, with a slightly irregular limb and a wide lip, develop fragrant flowers. All turmeric tissues contain valuable essential oils.

In the photo: How turmeric blooms in the garden

Growing turmeric

Planting turmeric outdoors

Turmeric can be grown both at home and in the open field, especially since cultivating a healthy spice, you can simultaneously admire the unusually beautiful flowers of this plant. However, it usually takes about 9 months from germination to harvest, so you can grow turmeric outdoors if you live in southern areas with early, warm spring and late fall. Those who live in the middle lane and in regions with an even cooler climate will have to grow turmeric at home.

Sunny or semi-shady areas and rich clayey soils are suitable for turmeric, but the plant thrives well in sandy soil. Before planting, the site must be dug to a depth of at least 20 cm and loosened, then dig holes up to 15 cm deep at a distance of 15-20 cm and spread out 2-3 pieces of turmeric rhizomes in them. Each piece of rhizome should have at least one, but preferably two, buds, and the planting material is placed in the hole with these buds up. The holes are closed so that there is a layer of soil no thinner than 2 cm above the rhizomes. After planting, the area is watered. Turmeric is planted in open ground in March-April.

Turmeric Garden Care

Turmeric loves moisture very much, so timely and sufficient watering is one of the most important points in plant care. How often and how abundantly a plant needs to be watered depends not only on the climate and weather, but also on the composition of the soil in which the turmeric grows. For irrigation, you need to use water heated by the sun.

Turmeric is fed with complex mineral fertilizers for decorative deciduous plants with a predominance of phosphorus, however, the concentration of the nutrient solution should be two times weaker than recommended by the manufacturers. Top dressing is applied during the budding period, at the very beginning of flowering and two weeks after its completion.

The rest of turmeric is undemanding. You will need to maintain its decorative effect by removing wilted flowers, as well as loosen the soil between the bushes after watering or rain, while removing weeds that appear.

Collecting turmeric

How to harvest turmeric

Dig the rhizomes of turmeric before the onset of cold weather, that is, in October-November, when the ground organs of the plant begin to wither. The upper part is cut off, and the rhizomes are cleaned of soil and small roots, dipped in boiling water for a minute, so that a coloring substance begins to emerge from special cells, which gives the root a yellow color, after which the raw materials are dried with good ventilation for a week or two. The finished roots take the shape of a horn.

How to store turmeric

Store turmeric rhizomes in boxes or containers with wet sand at a temperature of 10-12 ºC. Shredded turmeric is stored for no more than three years in a glass jar with a tight-fitting lid in a cool dark place. Make sure that the spice does not absorb foreign odors.

Types and varieties of turmeric

Several types of turmeric are grown in culture, and each of them has its own purpose.

Aromatic turmeric (Curcuma aromatica)

or indian saffron - perennial, sometimes found in South Asia, but mainly growing in the warm massifs of India and in the eastern part of the Himalayas. The plant reaches a height of 1 m. Fleshy, narrow or elliptical, fragrant rhizomes of the plant are colored yellow from the inside, fusiform tubers are formed on their thin roots. Oblong leaves up to 60 cm long and up to 20 cm wide are located on leaf-shaped petioles. The funnel-shaped flowers are hidden in spike-shaped inflorescences, reaching 15 cm in length and 8 cm in width. The bracts of aromatic turmeric are ovoid, up to 5 cm long, pale green, but at the top their color becomes red-red. Aromatic turmeric is a popular spice plant and is valued in confectionery production higher than long turmeric.

In the photo: Aromatic turmeric (Curcuma aromatica)

Long turmeric (Curcuma longa)

or turmeric, or yellow ginger - a valuable spice, also used as a dye and as a medicinal plant. We gave a description of this species at the beginning of the article. It remains only to add that long turmeric is one of the must-have ingredients of Indian curry.

In the photo: Curcuma longa

Round turmeric (Curcuma leucorrhiza)

occurs naturally only in India. The roots of this species are oblong, elongated. Narrow-lanceolate leaves are located on petioles. The flowers are round, which is why the plant got its name. In Indian culture, it is customary to make starch from the roots of round turmeric: the roots are dug and pounded in a mortar or ground with stone millstones, then moisture is manually squeezed out of the resulting mass and filtered through a cloth, and the mass is dried and used as starch.

Turmeric zedoaria (Curcuma zedoaria)

in nature, it is found not only in India, but also in Indonesia, and this plant is cultivated in South China, on the island of Java, in Thailand and, of course, in India. This species reaches a height of one and a half meters, but it can be even higher. On leaves up to 80 cm long, purple-brown veins extending from the central vein are very noticeable. The bracts of the plant are bright pink, fragrant flowers form inflorescences extending from the rhizome even before the leaves appear. The root of the plant, the size of a pigeon's egg, is pear-shaped, has a camphor aroma, a bitter-burning taste and is used in the production of liqueurs and in confectionery.

In the photo: Curcuma zedoaria

Small turmeric (Curcuma exigua)

- a plant up to 80 cm high with fleshy, yellow inside, multi-branched root rhizomes. Tubers form at the ends of the roots of the plant. Green with purple lanceolate leaves, decorated along the central vein with a reddish stripe, are located on petioles 5-8 cm long.The length of the leaf plate reaches 20, and the width is up to 7 cm.The flowers of this species are yellow, elliptical, bracts are oval-elliptical, with white -violet top. Corolla is pale purple. Flowering lasts from August to October. Small turmeric is grown exclusively as an ornamental plant.

Sumatran turmeric (Curcuma sumatrana)

- endemic to the island of Sumatra, first described over 150 years ago. Outwardly, this very attractive plant resembles homemade turmeric. The species is recognized as endangered due to a sharp reduction in the area of ​​the range. In culture, Sumatran turmeric is grown as an ornamental plant.

Turmeric properties - harm and benefit

The beneficial properties of turmeric

Turmeric roots are rich in starch and essential oils, and the characteristic yellow color is given to them by the polyphenol curcumin. In addition, turmeric contains lipids, proteins, dietary fiber, carbohydrates, B vitamins (choline, pyridoxine, riboflavin, thiamine), vitamins E, PP, C, K, betaine, mineral salts of phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, sodium, manganese , iron, zinc, sulfur and copper, omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, phytosterols and monoterpenes. Due to its composition, turmeric has anthelmintic, antiviral, antiseptic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, regenerating, tonic, sedative, warming and blood-accelerating properties.

Turmeric is a natural antiseptic, so it is used to disinfect burns and cuts. It stops the development of melanoma and destroys the already formed cells of this formation, as well as slows down the development of Alzheimer's disease and dissolves the deposits of amyloid plaques in the brain.

In the photo: How turmeric blooms

Turmeric prevents metastases from a wide variety of cancers. In combination with cauliflower, turmeric delays the development of prostate cancer. The use of turmeric during chemotherapy enhances the therapeutic effect and reduces the side effects from toxic medications.

Turmeric is used as a natural liver detoxifier, it takes part in the metabolism of fats, and with its help it is easier to get rid of excess weight. Turmeric is a powerful antidepressant widely used in Chinese traditional medicine.

Turmeric is successfully used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, arthritis, including rheumatoid, it promotes the regeneration of the skin in inflammatory skin diseases, boils, eczema and psoriasis, and a paste made from turmeric and aloe juice quickly and well heals burns.

Turmeric is used for colds, sore throat and severe cough, migraine, atherosclerosis, chronic diarrhea, ulcerative colitis and gallstone disease. However, the ability of turmeric to reduce weight is of particular interest among the population. How to take turmeric to get rid of extra pounds? Dissolve half a teaspoon of turmeric in a glass of bio-kefir, let the drink stand for 15-30 minutes and drink it before bed. The course is 1-2 months.

Turmeric - contraindications

Since turmeric has a strong effect on the body, it is imperative that you consult your doctor before taking it, especially if you are taking any other medication.

Turmeric is definitely contraindicated for those who have clogged bile ducts or have stones larger than 5 mm in the gallbladder, as well as for people with individual intolerance to the product. Frequent use of turmeric is not recommended for pregnant women and children under the age of five.

Other contraindications have not yet been identified.

Literature

  1. Read the topic on Wikipedia
  2. Features and other plants of the family Ginger
  3. List of all species on The Plant List
  4. More information on World Flora Online

Sections: Garden plants Spicy plants Plants on K Root crops Ginger


Maryin root

The herbaceous perennial plant Maryin root (Paeonia anomala), also called extraordinary peony, or Maryin root peony, or evading peony, or irregular peony, is a species belonging to the genus Peony. Most often, such a plant is found on the territory of Siberia, but it prefers to grow in meadows, in river valleys, on the edges and glades of mixed forests. This species is one of the endangered species, and it is included in the Red Book of the Komi Republic. In the name of the species, the word "anomala", translated as "unusual" or "incorrect", appeared due to the fact that in autumn this plant differs from other representatives of the Peony genus in its color. This species has been cultivated since 1788. Gardeners grow such a peony as a medicinal and ornamental plant. As a medicinal plant, the most famous is the name of this genus - Maryin root.


What it looks like and where it grows

According to the description, common meadowsweet (photo below) is a perennial herbaceous shrub of a spreading type. The plant belongs to the Pink family. Under natural conditions, it grows in temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere. Prefers moist soils, so it can be found on forest edges, meadows, glades and steppe slopes.

The height of the meadowsweet reaches 80 cm. Forms erect, ribbed shoots. In young branches, the surface is green, but as it matures, it acquires a reddish tint. The leaves are finely dissected, feathery, bright green in color. The length of the plates reaches 15-20 cm. They consist of separate 5-7 segments and are attached to a common petiole.

There is a slight serration along the edge of the plates. Leaves of common meadowsweet are mostly concentrated at the base of the plant and form a basal rosette. On the shoots, plates are less common, located opposite. The surface of the leaves is matte, with a slight hairiness on the reverse side.

Common meadowsweet has a long creeping root with spherical or fusiform nodules. The diameter of its growth is 50 cm. It is quite strong and branches well along the soil surface. Buds are formed on it, from which flowering shoots eventually grow.

In the second half of May, meadowsweet bloom. Her buds are simple, consisting of 6 petals, and in the center, when opened, you can see fluffy stamens. The shade is creamy white. Their diameter does not exceed 0.5-1.0 cm. They form paniculate apical inflorescences that confidently rise above the rosette of leaves. When opened, the buds exude a pleasant, unobtrusive aroma.

At the end of August, the common meadowsweet produces fruits. They are multi-nets. When ripe, it cracks, and seeds fall out of it.

The flowering period of meadowsweet lasts a month


Types and varieties

Currently, more than sixty species of garden jasmine are known. Plants can be distinguished by their appearance. In addition, in the aroma of some of them you can catch notes of strawberry and citrus.

Common chubushnik (Philadelphus coronarius)

This is a classic representative of a branched shrub with graceful 3-meter shoots. On each shoot during the flowering period, brushes of flowers are formed that have a cream color. The leaves are simple oval in shape.

Crown mock-orange (Philadelphus coronarius)

Sprawling frost-resistant variety with reddish or yellowish bark. Oval leaves are smooth on one side and pubescent on the other, opposite each other. Delicate creamy flowers are found in loose clusters.

Fluffy chubushnik (Philadelphus pubescens)

It is distinguished from other brethren by the airiness of the lower leaves, which is why it got its name. Shoots are covered with layered bark only at the bottom. The flowering period of this shrub is in the middle of summer, but the inflorescences from the lush cups of boiling white flowers are practically odorless.

Small-leaved chubushnik (Philadelphus microphyllus)

This type of chubushnik got its name not only because of the size of its leaves, which, indeed, are quite small, no more than two centimeters. The shrub itself is also small in size and reaches only one and a half meters in height. The crown of the bush is also quite compact. The flowers look quite simple and are arranged one at a time or gather in small inflorescences. The main feature of this garden jasmine is its unique strawberry aroma.

Odorless chubushnik (Philadelphus inodorus)

The main difference between this plant is the lack of aroma, which is compensated by the lush and long flowering, which lasts from the end of June and lasts until August. 4- and 5-petal simple flowers are collected in clusters of up to five pieces. In addition, it is one of the tallest shrubs of its kind: up to four meters in height. The crown diameter reaches three meters.

Chubushnik Lemoine (Philadelphus lemoinei)

This hybrid consists of many subspecies, united by a sweet, rich aroma. Fragrant flowers dilute bright and small leaves, and the bush itself can grow strongly and form dense thickets, reaching up to 3 meters in height.

Schrenk's chubushnik (Philadelphus schrenkii)

The bark on young shoots is brownish and covered with hairs. In the second year of the plant's life, cracks appear on the bark, it crumbles, its color changes to grayish-brown.

The leaves of this three-meter giant are elliptical and have a jagged edge. The diameter of the flowers is small, up to four centimeters. At the same time, the flowers are collected in bunches of 9 pieces and have a delicate aroma.

Gordon's chubushnik (Philadelphus gordonianus)

A real giant among representatives of its kind, which can stretch up to 5-6 meters in height. Glossy large leaves and large white marble flowers with a subtle aroma, which form at the end of July, contributed to its inclusion in the category of ornamental variety.


Types and varieties of bullocks with a photo

Bupleurum aureum

This is a green dwarf shrub, the stems of which grow about 50-120 cm in length. Creeping rhizome, brown colored. The shoots are even, the shell has a purple tint. The leaves located on the lower tier are more elongated and wider, characterized by a petiolate base. Their length can reach up to 20 cm. In the middle of the stem, elongated sessile leaves of shorter length depart, and at the very top there are rounded leaf blades with a characteristic yellowish tinge. Inflorescences are umbellate, on the sides are smaller than the axial flowers. In the fruits of this type of hairs, the skin is excised with longitudinal grooves.

Bupleurum multinerve

The height of the shoots is approximately 30-100 cm, depending on the climatic conditions of the region where it grows. The shell of the stems is smooth; closer to the top, the bushes begin to branch. The leaves located near the roots are longer and narrower, and those that extend from the middle part of the stem have a heart-shaped base. The peduncle is formed from corymbose yellow umbrellas. After the withering of the peduncles, tiny round-shaped fruits appear on the shoots of the bullock.

Bupleurum martjanovii

A perennial herb with only one erect stem. Its height is about 70 cm. The surface of the stem is corrugated, the upper tier is slightly branching. The underside of the leaves is pale and the top is deep green in color. The leaf blades on the crown or middle part of the shoot are sessile, and the basal ones are oblong and obverse-lanceolate. Their length, starting from the petiole, reaches about 15 cm. Yellow flowers in the amount of 10 pcs. gather in small complex inflorescences. The umbel of the largest diameter is located at the very top of the main stem. Many rays can be seen inside the inflorescences. Egg-shaped fruits with a diameter of not more than 4 mm are firmly attached to the bush.


How to collect and store medicinal yarrow

Collecting medicinal yarrow is easy, as it can be found wherever there is open sunny places: in fields, forest trees, meadows, orchards and vegetable gardens. The flowering of the plant begins at the end of June and lasts until the end of August, it is during this period that it is necessary to start harvesting a herbaceous plant. At the beginning of flowering, the buds accumulate a large amount of essential oils, therefore, healing properties.

Collecting inflorescences begins in the first half of flowering

Leaves and flowers are best dried outdoors. It is not recommended to dry the plant in the sun, as it destroys essential oils and chlorophyll. The prepared raw materials are laid out in a thin layer on paper and mixed periodically so that the plant does not rot during drying. You can also dry the yarrow in bunches. The prepared bundles are suspended under a canopy, and after drying, the coarse stems are removed, and the raw materials are laid out in containers and removed to a dark, dry place.

Bundles should be 20 cm long

The degree of drying is looked at by the state of the raw material, the stems break well, and the flowers crumble. The medicinal dried herb should consist of leaves and inflorescences, have a strong aroma and a bitter taste. Store raw materials in a glass jar, paper bag or canvas bag in a cool dark place. Shelf life is no more than 2 years. If the herb is stored for much longer, it loses its medicinal properties.

Yarrow is not only a medicinal plant, but also an ornamental plant. Thanks to the numerous varieties, gardeners make beautiful bouquets and original compositions for decorating their garden.

If you have questions to the author of the article or want to share your recipe for a spicy yarrow infusion, leave your recipes below the article.


Watch the video: The Reason Why Turmeric Doesnt Work!