How and where does figs grow in Russia
The oldest fruit tree mentioned in history is undoubtedly the fig. Its leaves were the first clothes of Adam and Eve, there is even a version that the tree of knowledge was not an apple tree at all, but a fig.
The history of the ancient world is inextricably linked with the cultivation of figs. In Greece, these fruits were a symbol of fertility (the number of fruit seeds reaches 1000 or more).
Soft fig leaves replaced napkins for the Romans ... By the way, the she-wolf nursed the founders of Rome under the shade of the fig tree. Until now, Italians consider figs to be a Christmas symbol of abundance.
In this article, we will learn what a fig (white and black) looks like, where it grows in Russia, and how to eat its fruits.
What is a fig, what it looks like and its other name
In another way, figs are called "ficus carica". It is difficult to call this multi-stemmed tree up to 10 meters high a bush. The crown is spreading, the bark is gray, the curved branches are covered with very large beautiful foliage.
The outer side is dark, the lower leaves are much lighter, rough from small villi. Figs, like other ficuses, contain a very caustic milky juice.
Fig fruits - with a very delicate skin, filled inside with sweet reddish "jelly" and small grains. In fruits, fermentation processes often begin right on the branches, hence the second name - "wine berries".
The plant is dioecious, "male" and "female" inflorescences grow on different trees. How does a tree bloom? Nondescript flowers grow in the axils of the leaves. Pollination occurs in a very specific way - a special kind of wasps develop inside the fig flower and fly out, carry the pollen.
Due to the lack of natural pollinators (these wasps), figs could not acclimate in America until special varieties were developed for new growing conditions. In our time, industrial plantations of fig trees are entirely composed of only such self-fertile varieties.
How, where does the fig grow and bloom, how to determine its ripeness?
The plant is so unpretentious that it can grow not only on poor soils, but even on rock debris and stone walls. The soil does not require any processing before planting at all - neither cultivation, nor fertilization.
For the plant to feel comfortable, only one thing is necessary - the soil should not be too moist. The fig tree doesn't even have insect pests.
The fig tree propagates by seeds, root suckers, green cuttings. The plant easily tolerates cutting and pruning at any age. Figs begin to bear fruit early - for 2-3 years, starting from about 7 years old, it gives a stable harvest, lives up to 100 years (even 300-year-old specimens are known).
The closest relative of the well-known ficus, the fig grows as a spreading shrub or tree up to 10-12 meters high. The plant is extremely tropical, even a temperature of -100C is destructive for it, on the Black Sea coast, frequent frosts significantly damage the plantings of cultivated figs.
The specificity of the plant is that frost itself is not terrible for figs. Pollinating wasps overwintering in fruits do not tolerate cold weather.
An unpretentious fruit tree with such tasty and healthy fruits has spread in India, Australia and the islands of Oceania, the semi-deserts of Africa, in Central and Latin America, Bermuda and the Caribbean.
Since ancient times, figs have been growing in the Crimea, Transcaucasia and Central Asia. It was brought to the Black Sea coast by Greek colonists.
When are berries harvested?
The most unusual thing in our understanding is that on the branches there are simultaneously figs of the current harvest and the rudiments of the fruits of the next season. Moreover, these buds, having overwintered, are ready for harvesting at the end of May. They are much larger than the fall harvest, but not as tasty.
The first crop (insignificant) is harvested in June-July, and the main second one - in the fall, in September-October. However, in modern industrial plantings, varieties with one-time fruiting are cultivated.
You can determine the ripeness of wine berries not only by taste - they are softer to the touch, slightly withered by the tail. Harvest in several steps, selectively. Figs are carefully cut with a knife or secateurs.
If the figs are to be dried, the x is left on the branches for a longer time, where they wither and dry spontaneously almost to the required condition in natural conditions.
Now they are mastering varieties of low-growing figs, as well as varieties that wither on branches much faster. All this facilitates the production of valuable fruits.
The very delicate berries can only be stored for a few hours and must be processed quickly or eaten fresh.
How to harvest figs correctly: green or ripe?
Figs, as a thousand years ago, are harvested only by hand. This is due exclusively to the very “delicate” structure of the fruit - a jelly-like pulp with small seeds is covered with a thin peel. Fruits are removed from each tree in several stages, choosing only ripe figs as they ripen. Unripe fruits should not be eaten, as they contain a poisonous bitter "milk".
Every inhabitant of the tropical zone, where fig trees grow, knows the main rule - figs are harvested only early in the morning in clothes that cover their hands. The fact is that under the influence of the sun, the villi on the leaves secrete a substance that causes a burning sensation (like nettles) and even dermatitis.
The fruits are harvested not only very carefully. Fruit pickers must wear thick cotton gloves,
- so as not to damage delicate wine berries,
- to protect yourself from the caustic sap of the plant.
Fruits cut with a sharp pruner or knife are placed in low pallets, transferred to the shade and sent to consumers.
How to store and consume the harvested fruits of the tree?
Fresh figs are stored for just a few hours. Considering the high sugar content (up to 30% in fresh fruits), the fermentation processes begin very quickly - no longer than 6 hours (hence the second name - "wine berry").
In the United States, a significant proportion of figs are deep-frozen immediately. Some varieties are perfectly stored in a 30-40% cane sugar solution at a temperature of -12about C in refrigerators. The main part is supplied to consumers in dried form.
For drying, light fruits are most often used from about 5 centimeters. They are kept in the sun for 4-5 days.
Small fruits are the most expensive. The fruits are of the highest quality, each gram of which contains more than 900 grains. If there are less than 500, then the product is mediocre.
The classic way of drying figs is under a canopy, strung on a string through a punctured stalk (in the form of "beads"). Sometimes it is dried by spreading "eye" up, spread out in the sun. Sometimes figs are dipped in hot syrup for just a few seconds before drying and then brought to condition over gas or in the sun.
Figs with dark berries are frozen. It is pre-washed, dried, packaged and frozen. Store at -16-18 about From about six months. But this storage method is not the most popular.
Useful properties of ripe fruit
Figs are not only tasty, but also very healthy. In addition to pectins, organic acids, vitamins (B, C, PP, beta-carotene), these fruits contain many minerals and trace elements. The potassium content of figs is almost like that of nuts, and iron is more than that of an apple.
To recuperate after an illness and just to raise immunity, a "miracle mixture" is recommended.
For its preparation, it is necessary to take in equal shares:
- dried figs,
- dried apricots,
- shelled walnuts.
Pass everything through a meat grinder and mix with the same proportion of honey. Keep refrigerated. Taking 1 tablespoon every morning is not only very tasty, but also well supports the cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract and the general tone of the body.
In southern countries, figs are processed into jam, marshmallow, and even high-grade alcoholic drinks are prepared from it. From the products we have available, try our original cookies.
Necessary products :
- 1/2 cup granulated sugar
- 50 grams of unsalted butter
- 1.5 wheat flour
- 1 chicken egg
- 1/4 cup milk
- 200 grams of chopped figs
- 1 teaspoon of baking powder, vanilla sugar, lemon zest and lemon juice,
- a pinch of salt.
It is very simple to prepare: mix everything and gradually stir in flour. Roll out the dough 1-2 centimeters thick. Cut into a glass, put on a baking sheet. Bake at 160about From about 15-20 minutes.
Fig is a tree of the tropics and subtropics. Of course, it can be grown in a greenhouse, and even in a room to get a few berries. But all the beneficial properties are preserved in dried berries, which can always be bought in the retail network.
And grow another ficus at home ...
The name of this tree originates from the Celtic language, which contains a word like "Elm". The German and Latin names of the plant are also very similar - "Ulmus". The literal translation of all these words means "bending rod".
Outwardly, the elm is a mighty tree, the description and photo of which are presented below. The trunk of this representative of the elm at a young age is covered with a smooth light brown bark. As the plant grows, it becomes thick, and also rather coarse and over time begins to flake off in thin plates. Deep cracks on its surface resemble battle scars. On some branches, growths can form and develop.
The powerful root system of birch bark runs very deep, so it can calmly reach the groundwater level. Due to this feature of the roots, the elm grows up to 25-30 m in height, with a trunk circumference of 1.5 m. However, some varieties take root not deep, but more into the upper layers of the earth, occupying a huge area. Many members of this family can be between 200 and 300 years old.
The long-lived record holder was able to survive the fire of 1812, which occurred in Moscow. However, the sultry summer of 2010, he still could not endure and completely dried out.
Figs in Central Russia
There are several hundred varieties of figs in the world. Of these, you can choose those that will grow in Central Russia. Only the low probability of fruiting is upsetting. This is explained by the fact that walnut wasps are needed for pollination of fig flowers. And they live exclusively in a certain area. But there is a way out - it is necessary to plant and grow self-pollinating varieties.
Growing figs outdoors
Which variety to choose
To solve the problem of fruiting figs in those regions of Russia in which the walnut wasp does not live, breeders have bred varieties of figs that are self-fertile.
Today there are a lot of them:
- Abkhazian purple
- Crimean black
- Early gray
- Brown Turkey and others.
Gardeners of central Russia prefer Dalmatian figs, the cultivation of which does not bring any particular problems. Its fruits are very tasty, besides, it perfectly tolerates temperature changes. Feels great even with a decrease in indicators to minus 15 ° C.
The largest yield is formed on shoots of 3-4 years of age. On average, the fruits weigh from 150 to 200 g, have an asymmetric shape and a greenish-yellow color.
Brown Turkey has the best winter hardiness. It can withstand short-term cold snaps up to minus 20 ° С. Bears abundantly. The fruits are pear-shaped, weighing up to 100 g. The color is red-brown.
Suitable for the middle strip and Crimean figs. Fruits with fruits of an oval shape of a purple hue and weighing up to 100 g. Planting gives the best results in the Crimea, Stavropol and Krasnodar Territories, but in the Middle Lane and the Moscow Region it can also be planted in order to obtain tasty fruits. But breeding in Siberia is most often doomed to failure - it is better to choose a different variety.
A tree with light gray, smooth bark.
The leaves are large, alternate, 3-5-7-palmate-lobed or separate, rigid, with drooping stipules. In the axils of the leaves, shortened generative shoots develop, bearing inflorescences of two types - capryphigus and figs (syconium). They develop on different trees, characterized by the fact that the axis grows into a spherical-oval formation with a hole at the top and a cavity inside, where small nondescript dioecious flowers are located. Capriffigs - smaller inflorescences containing male flowers: Flower formula: ∗ P C a (5) A 3 (3 _) < displaystyle mathrm < ast P ^ In figs, with the exception of artificially bred parthenocarpic varieties, pollination is very interesting: it occurs with the help of small black os-blastophages, which transfer pollen from male trees to female ones. Blastophagous wasps themselves cannot reproduce without figs. A female blastophage wasp fertilized by a wingless male inside a male fig inflorescence crawls out through a hole in the top of the male inflorescence. At the same time, it takes pollen from male flowers onto its body. In search of male inflorescences, some of the females get inside the female inflorescences. The pollen carried by them falls on the stigma of the pistils, due to which the pollination of the flowers occurs   . Judging by the paleontological data, such a pollination system was formed at least 34 million years ago . Figs turn into juicy, sweet, pear-shaped fruit with seeds inside. They are covered with a thin skin with fine hairs. At the top there is a hole - a peephole covered with scales. Figs are colored from yellow to black-blue, depending on the variety. Yellow-green fruits are more common. Iran is considered the birthplace of medlar. The culture prefers mountain slopes. In addition to Iran, it is common in other countries. Where do fruit trees naturally grow? In Russia, they are found in the Caucasus and Crimea. A wild fruit tree grows in the Balkan Peninsula, Indonesia, and Asian countries. It does not need fertile soil. It develops normally on loams and on rocky ground. Under natural conditions in the Caucasus and Crimea, the medlar of the Germanic variety grows. It forms a voluminous bush. The root system is powerful, but does not go deep into the ground, therefore, soils that retain moisture well are important for it. Medium-density trunk wood. Craftsmen make interior items from it. The bark is smooth, gray in color. How an exotic culture grows in its natural environment:
In figs, with the exception of artificially bred parthenocarpic varieties, pollination is very interesting: it occurs with the help of small black os-blastophages, which transfer pollen from male trees to female ones. Blastophagous wasps themselves cannot reproduce without figs. A female blastophage wasp fertilized by a wingless male inside a male fig inflorescence crawls out through a hole in the top of the male inflorescence. At the same time, it takes pollen from male flowers onto its body. In search of male inflorescences, some of the females get inside the female inflorescences. The pollen carried by them falls on the stigma of the pistils, due to which the pollination of the flowers occurs   . Judging by the paleontological data, such a pollination system was formed at least 34 million years ago .
Figs turn into juicy, sweet, pear-shaped fruit with seeds inside. They are covered with a thin skin with fine hairs. At the top there is a hole - a peephole covered with scales. Figs are colored from yellow to black-blue, depending on the variety. Yellow-green fruits are more common.
Iran is considered the birthplace of medlar. The culture prefers mountain slopes. In addition to Iran, it is common in other countries. Where do fruit trees naturally grow? In Russia, they are found in the Caucasus and Crimea.
A wild fruit tree grows in the Balkan Peninsula, Indonesia, and Asian countries. It does not need fertile soil. It develops normally on loams and on rocky ground.
Under natural conditions in the Caucasus and Crimea, the medlar of the Germanic variety grows. It forms a voluminous bush. The root system is powerful, but does not go deep into the ground, therefore, soils that retain moisture well are important for it.
Medium-density trunk wood. Craftsmen make interior items from it. The bark is smooth, gray in color. How an exotic culture grows in its natural environment:
Wild Caucasian or German medlar belongs to deciduous crops. In autumn, the leaves become burgundy, fall off. The flowering period is in the spring. The plant blooms almost all summer.
Fruits ripen in October-November. They are plucked in December, when frosts begin. In Central Asia, the loquat of the Japanese variety grows in its natural environment:
- it is an evergreen plant. It does not shed foliage
- his flowering period is in autumn
- fruits ripen in winter
- fruit the size of a large apricot, orange tint
- the flesh of the fruit of a wild tree is not very juicy. The culture is found on the slopes of the Himalayas, in China, in Japan.
In the garden plots, not only Germanic, but also Japanese medlar are cultivated. It does not grow as a bush, as in its natural habitat, but as a tree. It rises up to 8 m. The tree forms a lush crown. The average crown diameter is 5-8 m. The culture does not require special care.
A wild-growing loquat differs from a cultivated plant in the characteristics of its fruits, but their vegetative characteristics are the same. They must be taken into account not only by gardeners, but also by lovers of indoor exoticism. When choosing a variety, it is recommended to find out on what basis it was created. If the ancestor is the Germanic variety of the plant, then you should expect the bush to shed its foliage for the winter. Varieties that originate from the Japanese medlar do not shed their leaves.
It is grown in the same way as other fruit trees, but it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the growing season.
Exotic fruit crops are grown in many countries that are located in the subtropical climatic zone: the Caucasus, Crimea, Turkey, China, Japan. Some states of the USA.
Description of indoor fig varieties
In room conditions, the following varieties bear fruit: Kadota, Dalmatsky, Oglobsha, Violet Sukhumi, Sochi-7, Solnechny.
Kadota. The fruits are pear-shaped, convex, ribbed, large, weighing up to 100 g, very tasty. The fruits of the second harvest are formed on the shoots of this year.
Sukhumi violet. Gives one harvest per year - in August-September. The fruits are blue-violet, almost black, the flesh is red, not very sweet.
Sochi No. 7. Fruits are large, up to 55-60 g, yellow, with a matte bloom. The pulp is maroon, with a thick sweet juice. When ripe, some fruits crack. Figs of this variety bear fruit once a year, the fruits ripen at the end of August.
Seedling Oglobin. Fruits are medium-sized, yellow-green. When propagated by cuttings, it begins to bear fruit in the 2-3rd year.
White adriatic. It bears fruit 2 times a year, in June and at the end of August. The fruits are yellow, sweet.
Black Crimean. A very productive variety, bears fruit twice a year. The fruits are large enough, dark purple, almost black, pleasant to the taste.
Dalmatic. Fruiting is annual, twice a year. The first time is in July, the second time is in September. Forms large seedlings weighing from 60 to 150 g, pear-shaped, widened at the apex and narrowed towards the base. The color of the fruit is grayish-green, the flesh is dense, fibrous, sweet, light red in color. The surface is ribbed, slightly pubescent.
Features of bashful mimosa
Let's talk about how capricious the plant is. There are some factors that it cannot tolerate. Dry indoor air, drafts and tobacco smoke will all negatively affect the condition of your flower. From insufficiently moist air, the leaves will begin to turn yellow and dry at the ends. Drafts and tobacco smoke can be the reasons that the beautiful mimosa will simply shed all its bright green leaves. It is advisable not to experiment, checking whether she will really reset them or not. The fact is that it will take a lot of time for the plant to restore its previous form.
To grow mimosa at home, grow it from seed. Usually they are soaked in warm enough water (but not in boiling water) for about 20 minutes. Then they are placed in a moistened soil without deeply deepening. From above, it is advisable to cover the container with seeds with glass or film, and then put it in a warm place.
Do not forget to check the moisture content of the soil in which the seeds are planted, periodically water it with water at room temperature. When the seeds germinate, and two true leaves appear on the sprouts, you can safely transplant the plants into separate pots. In order for the mimosa to grow intensively and evenly enough, place it in the sunniest place. Don't forget about watering and spraying.