Growing a rose: caring for roses, pruning roses
Read the previous part — Growing a rose: purchasing seedlings, choosing a place for planting and suitable varieties
Caring for roses is weeding, watering, loosening, feeding, pruning faded inflorescences, removing wild growth, as well as sanitary and formative pruning, pest and disease control, shelter for the winter and opening in spring.
And so as not to cut off more than one branch from a bush per season for bouquets! Because it weakens him, he may not winter. Unless a small bouquet with short "legs" can be cut from a climbing large-flowered rose. Because in the roses grown in the north, every leaf must be protected for photosynthesis. Cutting roses on long "legs" is done only from bushes specially grown in greenhouses.
Rose bushes have a deep root system, and the bush can do without watering for a long time. The leaves will remain green and dense, but the flowers will be small and literally have a pale appearance. Therefore, watering is required for them.
In a hot summer, watering should be done often, pouring up to a bucket of water under the bush - the older the bush, the more water is required. Large bushes of park, spray and climbing roses require even more - one and a half to two buckets. First years especially need watering. It is better to water less often, but abundantly, and not in the middle of the bush, but around, stepping back from the middle of 10 - 20 cm.
A very bright color of roses is obtained if the bushes are watered with magnetized water. Irrigation water should not fall on the leaves, so as not to help the development of fungal diseases.
In August, you need to water as little as possible - for better wintering.
After watering and rains, it is necessary to loosen the soil, but not deeper than 2-3 cm, so as not to damage the roots that grow close to the surface.
In the first year after planting, the rose can not be fed until the buds form. Then young bushes are fed with liquid organic fertilizer - cow dung (1:10) or chicken droppings (1:20). In the subsequent years of life, in early spring, as soon as the main shelter was removed after wintering and the rose was dismantled, a complete mineral fertilizer with a predominance of nitrogen should be scattered around the bushes and embedded in the soil. Fertilizers are always applied to the root placement zone - this is within a radius of 15-20 cm from the root collar. At this time, the bush needs to be mulched with humus - the rose will really like it. Mulching roses is a very important agricultural technique.
When buds appear, top dressing is carried out with liquid summer dressing, which is prepared as follows. A bucket of cow dung (or half a bucket of chicken dung) and 1 kg of ash are placed in a barrel of 100 liters, filled with water. The solution is allowed to ferment, it is stirred several times a day. As soon as the bubbling stops, the solution is ready for use. For 10 liters of such "kvass" add 15 g of ammonium nitrate and potassium salt and 30 g of superphosphate, and this is fertilized after rain or watering. This dose goes to 1 sq. meter. You can add trace elements to the feeding - according to the instructions for them, you can give it by the foliar method.
Around the middle of August, you need to give potassium-phosphorus fertilizing, but in no case give nitrogen.
Real climbing roses - ramblers - must be well fed with compost - a bucket per bush in spring and after flowering. They are very fond of foliar feeding with bird droppings - little by little, but often.
Roses can be given "home" dressing: in the spring, add eggshells crushed on a coffee grinder to the trunk circle, at the beginning of bud formation - furnace soot, from which the color of the roses becomes very clear and bright. Doses - by eye, about a glass per sq. meter, because there are no scientific recommendations on this score. The main thing is not to overdo it.
Removing flowers and buds
On roses, it is imperative to remove the fading flowers. Otherwise, it will look sloppy. Or it will litter and throw petals around - collecting them is very tedious.
In summer, on hybrid tea roses, for a quick re-flowering, the flower is removed to the first true leaf (on which not 3 slices, but 5 or 7, depending on the variety) or a strong bud. If 2-3 buds are formed at the end of the shoot, then to get a large flower we leave one bud, remove the rest.
For all the others, we remove the fading flowers as soon as at least one petal flies from them. In flower brushes, we gradually just pluck out faded or crumbling flowers until the whole brush has faded.
With prolonged rains on some varieties of roses, the buds do not open, their outer petals begin to rot. We'll have to cut these buds. Or it is necessary to protect such roses from rains by covering them with a film on top.
The first buds of the seedlings planted this year are pinched, the bush should develop roots better, gain biomass. In the second half of August, one bud can be left and allowed to bloom, so that the bush will enjoy life and to make sure that the variety matches what you bought.
Pruning roses, basic principles
If the roses are not cut, then the bushes will soon turn into green thickets. Pruning stimulates flowering, without it it is impossible to grow a beautifully blooming rose. Pruning is different: spring, autumn for wintering, shaping, pruning when planting, which we have already talked about. Pruning roses requires a very sharp pruner that produces smooth cuts rather than crinkling the stems.
You need to cut off the shoot above the bud 0.5 cm above its top, at an angle of 450, so that the rain rolls down. If the stump is larger, then it will gradually dry out, if less, then the kidney will dry out. These are the subtleties.
Before pruning, you need to feed the bush with a small amount of humus in order to activate the growth of the shoots. If several shoots grow from one bud, the weak ones must be removed, leaving one strongest.
It is worth paying attention to skeletal shoots: they should be at some distance from each other, the center of the bush should be free so that there is no stagnation of air and diseases. Always remove to the base all the thin stems that go into the bush and thicken it. All cuts must be lubricated with garden varnish or "brilliant green", preferably with Novikov's liquid.
If the rose is grafted, it is necessary to remove the wild root shoots immediately after detection. It differs from cultivated leaves and can form at a great distance from the bush. You need to get to the place where the wild boar grows, and cut it to the base.
In the spring, after the complete removal of the shelter, as soon as the daytime temperature is above zero, the dead branches and diseased parts of the stems are removed to the base to healthy wood. All diseased, overlapping, weak, dead branches are also removed. At this time, the most serious pruning takes place, forming a bush: if it is compact, pruning is done on the outer bud so that the center does not thicken, and rarely on the inner bud if the bush is spreading and the center is very empty.
Young bushes, planted last spring, are pruned strongly - at a height of 10-15 cm from the soil surface. This strengthens the root system and stimulates the growth of strong young shoots. In climbing roses, the dead ends of the shoots are removed.
Pruning of adult bushes is done during the entire growing season. It depends on the class of the rose.
Pruning different classes of roses
Hybrid tea roses: in most roses, the apical bud dominates the axillary buds, and until it is cut off, nothing else will grow from this shoot. Therefore, it is impossible to leave fading flowers on the stem for a long time, they inhibit the growth of shoots from the lower buds.
Cropping depends on what you want to get. In the spring, when we want to get the earliest possible flowering, the shoots should be cut as weakly as possible. Part of the shoots can be cut strongly - for 2 - 3 buds. In this case, we will have powerful shoots and late flowering - after 60 - 70 days. The flowers on these shoots will be larger and brighter, and their "legs" will be longer. In this way, we prolong the flowering of the bush.
In the second half of summer, powerful "Ivanov" shoots grow on the bushes. At the end of the first year of life, they must be completely cut out in the fall. From the second year - to leave. They can bloom - and let them bloom. If they grew in the second half of August, it is better to pinch them by 1/3 so that they have time to ripen before winter.
Floribunda, miniature, polyanthus roses have excitable dots all over the shoot. The shoots of these roses should not be cut too much so as not to lose a lot of nutrients. Usually they are pruned to a strong bud. To accelerate the awakening of the buds, you need to immediately pick off the fading flowers without touching the leaves: in the floribunda, every leaf must be protected.
With the help of pruning, they form a powerful bush. To do this, on a young bush, after every four leaves, a pinch is done on the shoot. When a sufficient leaf apparatus accumulates on the bush, this will provoke the growth of a powerful skeletal shoot.
We will allow him to bloom only in September in order to delay the growth of new shoots in the fall. To do this, until the end of August, we will pinch all the pea-sized buds on it. This tactic is carried out for two years, until a bush with several powerful skeletal branches is formed.
The general method for pruning floribunda bushes is the same as for hybrid tea roses, but pruning is done more moderately - by 4 - 6 buds. Every year, 1 - 2 young shoots should be left on the bushes, and 1 - 2 old ones should be cut out completely. In general, pruning is a creative process, the main thing is to try to follow the principles.
Climbing roses. They mostly bloom on last year's shoots. Flowering shoots develop in the upper part of the bush, so you need to cut off the top of the whip very carefully, removing only the dead parts.
In the second half of summer, young bushes form 1 - 2 basal shoots. In order for the wood to ripen, in mid-August - early September, you need to pinch the tops of all the shoots. Thin, short, completely unripe shoots must be removed completely. In order for full-fledged basal shoots to form next year, after full flowering, 1 - 2 old shoots are removed on adult bushes.
In total, in a climbing rose bush, you must have 4 - 5 ripe shoots under the age of three years. A couple more old shoots in the fall are shortened by 1 - 2 buds - in case of freezing of the main shoots, they will be a lifesaver. In the spring, if the winter passes safely, they are cut out completely. And so - every year.
Park roses. Blossom on the shoots of last year. For 4 - 5 years old shoots are cut out on the ring. In the future, the old shoot after shoot is removed year after year.
L. Bobrovskaya, florist.
Photo by the author
Pruning roses in spring
The spring direct care program for garden queens starts with sanitary mowing and thinning pruning. For these luxurious shrubs, it is imperative to strictly observe the deadlines: pruning can only be done until the buds begin to bloom on the roses. In order not to be late, it is best to schedule pruning immediately after the winter shelter is removed and carry out it within a week.
Roses that have successfully survived wintering should be carefully examined, paying special attention to the bushes planted only last fall. All frostbitten, dry, damaged, diseased shoots should be cut to healthy tissue, just below the site of frostbite or injury.
The wild growth that appears below the place of budding (grafting) is completely removed in order to prevent the rose from running wild in time. It is better to immediately carry out the removal of the oldest branches, from 4-5 years old, as well as thin shoots growing inside the bush. Treat wounds, large cuts immediately with garden varnish or a special tool.
If the roses are frozen over and seem to be dead, do not rush to dig up and throw away the bushes. Perhaps several buds have survived on the rose, and with the arrival of spring, the shrub will still come to life, release new shoots. © Jay W. Pscheidt
If sanitary cleaning is mandatory for any roses, then pruning and shaping directly depend on the species, group to which a particular bush belongs. Floribundas and hybrid tea roses are pruned in the spring, shortening all shoots by a third.
Shrub and flower bed roses of single flowering do not form in the spring, and for multi-flowering, the shoots are shortened by a third of their length. Ground cover roses are rarely pruned, rejuvenating the bushes every 4-5 years by cutting to 20-30 cm stumps.Repair roses only need thinning, their skeletal shoots are cut once every 3-4 years.
Climbing roses are pruned annually, leaving 3-5 buds on the side branches and be sure to remove shoots older than 5 years, thus constantly rejuvenating the rose. Standard roses are formed along certain contours.
When carrying out spring pruning, you should strictly monitor the cleanliness and sharpness of the tools, treat them with disinfectants for each bush. Cut the sections only above a well-developed kidney (0.5 cm) and only at an angle, obliquely.
If the roses are frozen over and seem to be dead, do not rush to dig up and throw away the bushes. Perhaps several buds have survived on the rose, and with the arrival of spring, the shrub will still come to life, release new shoots. Only after making sure that the root system has died, throw the rose from the site.
Diseases and pests of border roses
Border roses are unstable to diseases and pests, most often they are struck by: powdery mildew, black leg, rust, altenariosis, aphids, spider mites, beetles, caterpillars, small rodents.
You can get rid of diseases and pests with the help of purchased products or self-made ones.
- To get rid of powdery mildew and altenariosis, you can use a solution of soap and soda ash. 20g soap, 40g soda for 4 liters. water
- With the help of wood ash or manganese solution, they get rid of the black leg, pouring it around the bush - a solution or sprinkle with ash
- Get rid of aphids with soapy water on a bucket of water, rub a large bar of laundry soap
- A mixture of ammonia 30 g will protect against spider mites. And a dissolved bar of soap in 10 liters of water
- For bugs, caterpillars and rodents - it is better to purchase products in the store, as they will be more effective than home remedies.
It is necessary to process roses both for the prevention of diseases and for protection from pests, and most importantly, to observe proper care for them.
Border roses attract gardeners not only for their appearance, but also for their rich, bright aroma.
Today the assortment of roses includes numerous types, shapes, varieties and varieties. Every year it is replenished with about 200 new varieties. For decorative landscaping, roses are grown mainly of two groups: park and garden.
Park roses - these are species and varieties that grow without requiring shelter, or winter with light protection. Special attention should be paid to roses spiky, thigh-leaved or small-leaved, cinnamon, red-leaved or gray, rusty, shiny, yellow, prickly (wrinkled) and others. The group of park roses is also represented by frost-resistant species - a variety of centifolous, damask, white and French.
Garden roses bred selectively, during their cultivation, agricultural technology is actively used. They are quite delicate and definitely require protection in the winter. Currently, more than 20 thousand of their varieties are grown. The most popular are groups of climbing roses, semi-climbing, miniature roses, Cordes roses, and mossy.
Rose is a very fragrant flower. And if your rose garden is filled with noble bushes, you will constantly admire the continuous flowering of remontant, climbing flower waterfalls, collect wonderful bouquets of miniature species and inhale the scent of the most beautiful flowers on earth.
4. Top dressing of roses in August
Closer to mid-August, I carry out the first feeding of roses: 6 tbsp. superphosphate, 1, 5 tbsp.potassium sulfate / 10 l of water. Half a bucket of solution leaves the bush. A week later, the time comes for the second feeding: 1 tbsp. potassium sulfate / 10 l of water. The consumption rate is the same as for the first time.
At the end of the month, I pour a handful of ash under each bush.
ON A NOTE
At this time, it is impossible to feed the roses with nitrogen: it stimulates the regrowth of new shoots, which will not have time to ripen by winter and: subsequently freeze.
Roses: care in the fall, preparation for winter
Proper care of roses in the fall, as well as during the previous summer period, increases the endurance of the plants. Top dressing, autumn watering and shelter during the cold season will help the flowers survive adverse weather conditions.
- Preparing roses for winter
- Preparing roses for winter in the middle lane
- Preparing roses for winter in the suburbs
- Preparing roses for winter in the Urals
- How to care for roses in autumn
- Pruning park roses for the winter
- Pruning garden roses
- Top dressing
- Prevention of diseases and pests
- Shelter for the winter
- How to propagate a garden rose in the fall