Results of the contest "Envy, Neighbor!"

Results of the contest

Our competition

On August 19 the exhibition "Autumn Flora - 2004" finished its work. By tradition, on the penultimate day, the results of the landscape design competition "Envy, neighbor!" Were announced, which was held for the second time by our editorial staff with the active support of the exhibition administration. If readers remember, we announced it back in mid-April. And they did it deliberately so that everyone who decides to participate had more time to prepare. The current season was difficult for both vegetable growers and gardeners. Many complained that not all of the plans worked out. Nevertheless, the materials for the competition were received. The jury, headed by the general director of the Mika firm OM Mikhailov, summed up the results. And on September 18, the winners and prize-winners of the "Envy, Neighbor! -2004" contest went to the podium of the Eurasia Cultural and Exhibition Center. The jury unanimously awarded the first place to Nina Vladimirovna Golenkaya for a good style solution. Together with her husband and son, they created a truly beautiful garden. In one of the next issues we will try to publish the winner's story about the creation of the garden and photographs of its most wonderful corners. She won a prize from the permanent general sponsor of our contests - the firm "Life in the Country" - a collapsible garden bench and a vertical trellis for ornamental plants (see photo). N. V. Golenkaya also received the Audience Award, also provided by the firm "Life at the Dacha". For skillful use of natural stones and boulders in landscape design, the second place was awarded to the winner of our spring competition "Summer Season-2004" Natalia Valentinovna Denisova. She received a decorative vase from the Dom-Sad store on Industrial Avenue and lawn grass seeds from the Elita farm. Another second place went to Svetlana Ivanovna Dotsenko from Stary Peterhof. "For the courage and heroism shown in the struggle for the beauty of our city" - this is how the jury defined its decision. Despite all the difficulties associated with any attempt to improve our courtyards, she, together with her mother-in-law Lyubov Ignatievna, created a surprisingly cozy, beautiful corner in a vacant lot near the new building. We will also tell you more about their deeds and successes later. They received as a prize ornamental plants from the Mika company and the Northern Flora nursery. The third place was awarded to our permanent author and experienced gardener Larisa Aleksandrovna Egorova - for the successful application of modern trends in landscape design. An ornamental plant from the Tellura firm, a black film from the Shar firm, lawn seeds from the Agbina firm she received as a prize. We received prizes provided by our sponsors: Severny Ogorod firms - sets of flower seeds and fertilizers; "Search for St. Petersburg" - fertilizers and seeds; "Agbina" - lawn grass seeds; "Telluria" - flower bulbs; private nursery "Makarevich" - grape seedlings and flower bulbs, and other active participants in the competition: N. Alexandrova, O. Vinokurov, G. I. Balueva, S. Petrov, L. Shchelchkova, Dmitry Malun. We would like to thank the gardener K. A. Bogdanova for his constant active participation in the competition. Once again, the editorial staff expresses heartfelt gratitude to our good friends - sponsoring firms for their support of the competition and generous prizes. We hope that you will support all our other endeavors. We wish our winners and prize-winners, as well as the teams of sponsoring firms, prosperity, new achievements and good luck!

Rosenthal's textbook.

Rosental D.E., Dzhandzhakova E.V., Kabanova N.P. DIRECTORY ON SPELLING, PRONUNCIATION, LITERARY EDITING M.: Chero, 1999 SPELLING I. SPELLING OF VOIDS IN THE ROOT §1. Checked unstressed vowels §2. Unverifiable unstressed. Show more

Rozental D.E., Dzhandzhakova E.V., Kabanova N.P. DIRECTORY ON SPELLING, PRONUNCIATION, LITERARY EDITING M.: Chero, 1999 SPELLING I. SPELLING OF VOIDS IN THE ROOT §1. Checked unstressed vowels §2. Unchecked unstressed vowels §3. Alternating vowels §4. Vowels after sibilants §5. Vowels after c §6. Letters e - e §7. Letter d II. SPELLING OF CONSENT IN THE ROOT §8. Voiced and voiceless consonants §9. Double consonants at the root and at the junction of the prefix and the root §10. Unpronounceable consonants III. USE OF CAPITAL LETTERS §11. Uppercase letters at the beginning of the text §12. Uppercase letters after punctuation marks §13. Personal names of persons §14. Names of animals, names of plant species, varieties of wines §15. The names of the characters in fables, fairy tales, plays §16. Adjectives and adverbs derived from individual names §17. Geographical and administrative-territorial names §18. Astronomical names §19. Names of historical eras and events Hide


Formation of elementary mathematical concepts in preschool children.

Zhigulina Olga Alexandrovna

The urgency of the problems. 3
Chapter 1. Program requirements for the methodology of teaching mathematics to preschoolers in modern preschool education. 6

Chapter 2. Conditions for successful teaching of preschoolers to beginnings

mathematics. 12
Chapter 3. Influence of the game on the formation of elementary mathematical abilities. sixteen
3.1. Using didactic games. 17
3.2. Role-playing games. 25
3.3. Interesting questions and joke tasks. thirty
3.4. Finger gymnastics in mathematics classes. 36 3.5. Development of mathematical concepts by means of folklore and artistic words. 42
Chapter 4. Mathematical competitions and leisure activities. 47
Conclusion. fifty
Bibliographic list. 51

The main goal of cognitive development, in accordance with the Federal State Educational Standard, is the development of the intellectual-cognitive and intellectual-creative abilities of children. One of the most complex knowledge, abilities and skills included in the content of social experience that the younger generations master is mathematical. The formation of elementary mathematical concepts is aimed at the development of the most important component of the child's personality - his intellect and intellectual and creative abilities. In this regard, the effective development of the intellectual abilities of preschool children, taking into account the periods of development, is one of the urgent problems of our time.

Both parents and teachers know that the formation of elementary mathematical concepts has unique opportunities for the development of children, and it is also a powerful factor in the development of a child, which forms the vital personal qualities of pupils - attention and memory, thinking and speech, accuracy and diligence, algorithmic skills and creativity. But, in order to develop certain elementary mathematical skills and abilities, it is necessary to develop the logical thinking of preschoolers. At school, they will need the ability to compare, analyze, generalize. Therefore, it is necessary to teach the child to solve problem situations, draw certain conclusions, come to a logical conclusion. Since, in modern primary school curricula, special (important) importance is attached (given) to the logical component. And it is most expedient to develop the logical thinking of a preschooler in the mainstream of mathematical development. Mathematical development is a significant component of the formation of a child's "picture of the world".

Modern psychological and pedagogical studies prove that the assimilation of the system of mathematical representations by preschoolers has a qualitative impact on the entire course of their mental development, ensures readiness for schooling (G.A. Korneeva, A.M. Leushina, 3.A. Mikhailova, N. I. Nepomnyashchaya, R. L. Nepomnyashchaya, F. Pali, J. Pali, T.D. Richterman, E.V. Serbina, E.V. Solovieva, A.A. Stolyar, T.V. Taruntaeva, E. V. Shcherbakov and others). Children of preschool age with a developed intellect memorize material faster, are more confident in their abilities, adapt more easily to a new environment, and are better prepared for school. Therefore, teaching preschoolers to the beginnings of mathematics in a preschool organization should be given an important place.

One of the important tasks of educators and parents is to develop a child's interest in mathematics at preschool age. Teaching math doesn't have to be boring. Children's memory is selective. The child learns only what interested him, surprised, delighted or frightened. He is unlikely to remember something not interesting, even if the adults insist. Introduction to this subject in a playful and entertaining way helps the child to learn the school curriculum faster and easier in the future. The goal of pedagogical activity is the maximum development of elementary mathematical concepts through the use of various forms and methods of entertaining material.

The goal is achieved through teaching, developmental and educational tasks.

1. To form basic mathematical representations, speech skills

2. Develop imagination, creativity of thinking (ability to think flexibly, originally)

3. Harmoniously, in a balanced way to develop in children emotionally-figurative and logical principles

4. To instill an interest in games that require mental stress, intellectual effort

5. Promote the desire to achieve a positive result, persistence and resourcefulness.

With the help of the goals and tasks put forward, the pedagogical idea is solved, which is that the inclusion of preschoolers in solving mathematical problems and situations through various types of entertaining material contributes to the formation of elementary mathematical concepts in them.

Thus, already at preschool age, children become familiar with mathematical content and master elementary computational skills, and the formation of elementary mathematical concepts in them is one of the important areas of work of preschool institutions.

Chapter 1. Program requirements for the methodology of teaching mathematics to preschoolers in modern preschool educational institutions

The modern program in mathematics "From birth to school" edited by N. Ye. Veraksa, T. S. Komarova, M. A. Vasilyeva is aimed at developing the cognitive interests of children, expanding the experience of orientation in the environment, sensory development, developing curiosity and cognitive motivation the formation of cognitive actions, the formation of consciousness, the development of imagination and creative activity the formation of primary ideas about the objects of the surrounding world, about the properties and relationships of objects of the surrounding world (shape, color, size, material, sound, rhythm, tempo, causes and effects, etc.)

The development of perception, attention, memory, observation, the ability to analyze, compare, highlight the characteristic, essential signs of objects and phenomena of the surrounding world, the ability to establish the simplest connections between objects and phenomena, to make the simplest generalizations. (2, p. 64).

Modern requirements for FEMP in preschoolers in accordance with the Federal State Educational Standard:

1. Ensuring consistency in the FEMP process. 2. Improving the quality of assimilation of mathematical concepts and concepts by children. 3. Formation of not only mathematical concepts, but also basic mathematical concepts. 4. Orientation to the development of the child's mental abilities. 5. Creation of favorable conditions for FEMP in children. 6. Development of cognitive processes and abilities in the process of FEMP in preschool children. 7. Learning by children of mathematical terminology. 8. Increasing the level of cognitive activity in the FEMP lessons for preschoolers. 9. Mastering the methods of educational activity by children. 10. Organization of training, taking into account individual abilities.

In the mathematical training provided by the program, along with teaching children to count, developing ideas about the number and number within the first ten, dividing objects into equal parts, much attention is paid to operations with visual material, making measurements using conventional measurements, determining the volume of liquid and bulk solids, development of the eyes of children, their ideas about geometric shapes, about time, the formation of an understanding of spatial relationships. The program "From birth to school" for the formation of elementary mathematical concepts is aimed at developing logical thinking, mental activity, ingenuity, that is, the ability to make the simplest generalizations, comparisons, conclusions, prove the correctness of certain judgments, and use grammatically correct turns of speech. According to the curriculum, work in each age group on mathematical development consists of five sections: "Number and count", "Size", "Geometric figures", "Orientation in space", "Orientation in time".

In the classroom in mathematics, the educator implements not only educational tasks, but also solves educational ones. The teacher acquaints preschoolers with the rules of behavior, instills in them diligence, organization, the habit of accuracy, restraint, perseverance, purposefulness, an active attitude to their own activities. According to the Federal State Educational Standards (FSES), one of the principles of preschool education is: assistance and cooperation between children and adults, recognition of the child as a full-fledged participant (subject) of educational relations. At the same time, the solution of educational tasks is carried out in the joint activities of an adult and children, not only within the framework of direct educational activities (GCD), but also in regime moments, in accordance with the specifics of preschool education.

The teacher organizes work on the development of elementary mathematical concepts in children in class and outside of class: in the morning, in the afternoon during walks, in the evening 2-3 times a week. Educators of all age groups should use all types of activities to consolidate children's mathematical knowledge. For example, in the process of drawing, sculpting, designing, children gain knowledge about geometric shapes, the number and size of objects, their spatial arrangement, spatial representations, counting skills, ordinal counting - in musical and physical education classes, during sports entertainment. In various outdoor games, the knowledge of children about measurements by conventional measurements of the sizes of objects can be used. To consolidate mathematical concepts, educators widely use didactic games and game exercises separately for each age group. In the summer, the program material in mathematics is repeated and fixed during walks, in games.

The methodology of teaching mathematical knowledge is based on general didactic principles: systematic, consistent, gradual, individual approach. The tasks offered to children are sequentially, from lesson to lesson, becoming more complicated, which ensures the availability of learning. When moving on to a new topic, one should not forget about repeating what has been covered. Repetition of the material in the process of learning new things not only makes it possible to deepen the knowledge of children, but also makes it easier to focus on new things.

In mathematics classes, educators use various methods (verbal, visual, play) and techniques (story, conversation, description, instruction and explanation, questions to children, children's answers, a sample, showing real objects, paintings, didactic games and exercises, outdoor games) ...

Methods of developmental education take an important place in working with children of all age groups.This is the systematization of the knowledge offered to him, the use of visual aids (reference samples, the simplest schematic images, substitute objects) to highlight various properties and relationships in real objects and situations, the use of a general method of action in new conditions.

If teachers choose visual material themselves, they should strictly observe the requirements arising from the learning objectives and characteristics of the children's age. These requirements are as follows:

- a sufficient number of objects used in the lesson

- a variety of items in size (large and small)

- playing with children of all types of visualization before class in different periods of time, so that they are attracted to the lesson only by the mathematical side, and not the game (when playing around the game material, you need to tell the children its purpose)

- dynamism (children act with the object offered to them in accordance with the teacher's tasks, therefore the object must be strong, stable so that it can be rearranged, moved from place to place, picked up)

Visuals should appeal to children aesthetically. Beautiful manuals make the children want to study with them, contribute to the organized conduct of classes and good assimilation of the material. For the mental development of preschoolers, classes on the development of elementary mathematical concepts are of great importance. In the classroom, children are not only engaged in mastering the skills of counting, solving and composing simple arithmetic problems, but also get acquainted with geometric shapes, the concept of a set, learn to navigate in time and space. In these classes, to a much greater extent than in others, intelligence, ingenuity, logical thinking, the ability to abstract are intensively developed, laconic and accurate speech is developed.

The task of the kindergarten teacher conducting mathematics classes is to include all children in the active and systematic assimilation of the program material. To do this, he, first of all, must know well the individual characteristics of children, their attitude to such activities, the level of their mathematical development and the degree of their understanding of new material. An individual approach to conducting mathematics classes makes it possible not only to help children in mastering the program material, but also to develop their interest in these activities. Ensure the active participation of all children in common work, which leads to the development of their mental abilities, attention, prevents intellectual passivity in individual children, fosters perseverance, purposefulness and other volitional qualities. The teacher should take care of the development of children's abilities to carry out counting operations, teach them to apply the previously acquired knowledge, and be creative in solving the proposed tasks. He must solve all these questions, taking into account the individual characteristics of children, manifested in mathematics classes.

In a modern way, FGOS in pre-educational institutions has now ceased to simply give knowledge "on a silver platter." After all, if a child is told something, he can only remember it. But to speculate, reflect and come to your own conclusion is much more important. After all, doubt is the road to creativity, self-realization and, accordingly, independence and self-sufficiency. How often do today's parents hear in childhood that they are not yet mature enough to argue. It's time to forget about this trend. The developmental effect of training is achieved only when it (according to L. S. Vygotsky and G. S. Kostyuk) is focused on the "zone of proximal development." As a rule, in this case, the child acquires knowledge with little help from an adult. The teacher must remember that the "zone of proximal development" depends not only on age, but also on the individual characteristics of children. (3, p. 44)

From the above, it follows that when teaching mathematics to preschoolers, the teacher must be able to create problem situations for the development of cognitive processes, organize productive independent work, create a favorable emotional and psychological background for the learning process. The subject of mathematics is so serious that one must not miss an opportunity to make it entertaining (B. Pascal). The development of elementary mathematical concepts is an extremely important part of the intellectual and personal development of a preschooler. In accordance with the Federal State Educational Standard, a preschool educational institution is the first educational stage and a kindergarten performs an important function of preparing children for school. And the success of his further education largely depends on how well and on time the child is prepared for school.

Chapter 2. Conditions for the successful teaching of preschoolers to the beginnings of mathematics

Currently, there are two approaches to the content of teaching the beginnings of mathematics. A number of academic teachers see the effectiveness of the mathematical development of children in expanding the information saturation of classes, up to the introduction of the material of the 1st grade program. Others defend the position of enrichment of content aimed at developing intellectual abilities and the formation of meaningful, scientific ideas and concepts. It is not for nothing that psychologists argue that in preschool age one should not strive for artificial acceleration of children. Another thing is important - to actively enrich those aspects of development to which each age is most sensitive and receptive. At the same time, it is necessary to be guided by the idea of ​​developing education - to focus not on the achieved level of development of children, but to run a little ahead, so that the child needs to make some efforts to master the material. It should be remembered that the most important conditions for the effectiveness of mathematical development are systematicity, consistency, and an individual approach. All work is built on the principle of gradual movement from the concrete to the abstract, from sensory knowledge to logical, from empirical to scientific.

The practice of teaching the beginnings of mathematics has shown that its success is influenced not so much by the content of the material as by the form of its presentation. The explanation should be clear, clear, specific, accessible to the perception of a child of a given age, and most importantly, fascinating. The knowledge given to children in an entertaining way gives immeasurably more than dry, boring exercises. How a child's eyes begin to sparkle when he is offered to go on a wonderful journey! Although he knows very well that on the way he will have to solve complex mathematical problems, reason, think logically, justify his actions. However, this does not scare him. The child is fond of the game, trying to help every character in trouble. As a result, without even suspecting, he gladly fulfills all the tasks set by the teacher for the children.

The task of teaching is to guide cognition, to direct the process of assimilating concepts from random signs to essential ones. During preschool childhood, there is an intensive formation of children's mental abilities - the transition from visual forms of mental activity to logical, from practical thinking to creative. In older preschool age, the formation of the first forms of abstraction, generalization, simple forms of inference begins.
The main emphasis in teaching is given to the independent solution of the assigned tasks by preschoolers, their choice of methods and means, and verification of the correctness of its solution. Teaching children includes both direct and mediocre methods that contribute not only to the mastery of mathematical knowledge, but also to overall intellectual development. The learning process must be organized so that the child's own activity appears, so that children can argue, prove the truth, communicate freely with each other. Classes involve various forms of uniting children (couples, small subgroups, the whole group), depending on the goals of educational and cognitive activities. This allows preschoolers to develop the skills of interaction with peers, collective activity. A person who has not been accustomed from childhood to think independently, assimilating everything ready-made, will not be able to show the inclinations given to him by nature.
In order for learning to contribute to the development of the preschooler's thinking, it is necessary to use methods that will give the child the opportunity to comprehend the educational material. It is necessary to rely on a significant issue for the child, when a preschooler is faced with a choice, sometimes makes a mistake, and then corrects it on his own. In the course of solving each new problem, the child is included in active mental activity, striving to achieve the final goal.

Mathematics is an exact science. It contains many special terms that we also use in working with preschoolers. When explaining new material, it is necessary to rely on the knowledge and ideas available to preschoolers, maintain the interest of children throughout the lesson, use game methods and a variety of didactic material, intensify attention in the classroom, bring them to independent conclusions, teach them to reason their reasoning, the ability to explain, prove their point of view, encourage a variety of options for children's answers. It is important that children are able to explain the path to achieving the goal.

The potential of the educator is not in the transfer of certain mathematical knowledge and skills, but in the introduction of children to the material that gives food to the imagination, affecting not only the purely intellectual, but also the emotional sphere of the child. The teacher must make the child feel that he will be able to understand, master not only particular concepts, but also general laws. And the main thing is to know the joy in overcoming difficulties. Much attention is paid to individual work with children in class. In addition, tasks are offered for parents in order to involve them in joint activities with the teacher.
The educator's knowledge of the capabilities of each child will help him to properly organize work with the whole group. However, for this, the educator must constantly study the children, identify the level of development of each, the rate of his advancement, look for the reasons for the lag, outline and solve specific tasks that would ensure the further development of the child. To educate a person in all respects, wrote K. D. Ushinsky, you need to know him well. (3, p. 46)

When organizing work, the educator should rely on the following indicators:

§ the nature of the switching of mental processes (flexibility and stereotype of the mind, the speed or sluggishness of establishing relationships, the presence or absence of one's own attitude to the material being studied)

§ level of knowledge and skills (awareness, efficiency)

§ performance (the ability to act for a long time, the degree of intensity of activity, distraction, fatigue)

§ level of independence and activity

§ the nature of cognitive interests

§ the level of volitional development.

The educator must remember that there are no conditions for success in learning that are uniform for all children. It is very important to identify the inclinations of each child, to reveal his strength and capabilities, to make him feel the joy of success in mental work (3, 47)

Based on the foregoing, we can conclude that the effective formation of mathematical concepts in preschool children should take place in a combination of play, problem-search and practical activities. The use of surprise moments, game and problem situations, developmental, logical and mathematical, entertaining games and exercises arouses in children interest in the process of cognition itself, in overcoming difficulties on the way, in an independent search for a solution and achieving a goal. This, in turn, contributes to the development of cognitive activity, analytical perception, stable attention, memory, speech, spatial imagination, forms the moral-volitional and motivational sphere of the child's personality.

Chapter 3. Influence of the game on the formation of elementary mathematical abilities

With the introduction of the new Law of the Russian Federation "On Education", Federal State Educational Standards, with the definition of new goals of education, providing for the achievement of not only subject, but also personal results, the value of the game increases even more. Using the game for educational purposes in the process of implementing programs of psychological and pedagogical support allows you to develop communication skills, leadership qualities, form competencies and teach a child to study in emotionally comfortable conditions for him and in accordance with age tasks.

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