Indoor fern - care, reproduction, transplantation, watering and soil selection
The legend of the fern blooming on the night of Ivan Kupala is directly related to our family. My grandfather, when he was young, went exactly at midnight from July 6 to July 7 to the forest to see how the fern was blooming. And he argued that only evil spirits did not allow him to do this: the wind rose, the horses appeared out of nowhere, reared up. The grandfather got scared and ran away from that place.
Fern is truly one of the most mysterious plants on Earth, if only for the reason that its history goes back millions of years. Scientists-archaeologists still find fossils with imprints of leaves of fern plants.
Ferns are very hardy and survive in any disasters, but only some species feel good at home. The most popular indoor fern is nephrolepis. Sometimes in apartments there are also maidenhair (Venus of hair) and platycerium.
Indoor Fern - Environmental Inspector
Indoor ferns, like their wild relatives, are considered unpretentious plants. But, nevertheless, not in all conditions they will grow well and look attractive. In the forest, ferns thrive on sandy, and especially peaty soils. And without daily watering, in the heat, without replanting or pruning. But in an urban environment, even in good land, they can wither. Why? Because ferns are a kind of indicator of the purity of the atmosphere.
Ferns do not tolerate gas pollution and smoke pollution of the atmosphere very badly, they react to dry air, and if you decide to start an indoor Fern at home, then provide it with access to fresh air in the first place. But on the other hand, if you bought this flower, and it began to wither at home, this is a reason to think if everything is in order in your apartment. Maybe there is a gas leak somewhere or it's time to install an extractor hood in the kitchen. In addition, indoor fern can dry out from low air humidity - this is a hint for you that it is time to buy a humidifier or at least put a couple of vessels with water in the house for evaporation.
Nephrolepis at home is more suitable for apartments than other Ferns, as it is the most hardy species. Moreover, they are decorative and beautiful. Leaves can have both light green and dark green saturated shade. It depends on the level of illumination and the composition of the soil mixture.
Otherwise indoor fern is unpretentious in care... This is a shade-tolerant plant, so you can decorate with it the corner of the room farthest from the window. Watering the Fern should be moderate and fertilizing infrequent. Let us consider the rest of the nuances of caring for indoor Fern in more detail.
As I said, this is a shade-tolerant plant. But indoor varieties of Nephrolepis still need diffused sunlight. So if you have free corners opposite the windows or have space near the southwest window, place the Pot with Indoor Fern there.
An adult Fern is a fairly large plant and needs a lot of free space: the leaves grow both in height and to the sides, so you can hardly put a pot of Fern on the windowsill. Look for a spacious place for it.
When watering a Fern, you need to be guided by the principle of moderation. An earthen clod in a pot with indoor fern should not dry out, it should always be in a state of light moisture, but not swampy. And if you first dry out the earthen lump, and then pour it abundantly, then you have every chance of rotting the roots of the Fern. So the main thing in watering is regularity and moderation. It needs to be watered 2-3 times a week and can be sprayed at the same time. Both watering and spraying should be done with soft, settled or rainwater.
Above, I have already mentioned that dry air is destructive for indoor fern. Therefore, you need to spray it often. If the air in the apartment is very dry, then every day, and if the dryness is moderate, twice a week is enough. Spraying can be combined or alternated with watering.
Remember what kind of soil is in the forest? Loose, with a lot of rotted leaves, sometimes needles, peat residues. This is the kind of land that indoor Fern needs.
The soil should be slightly acidic. It is good if the composition of the soil mixture for the Fern includes peat, sod and leafy soil, humus and sand. The soil must be loose and permeable. Water should not stagnate in the pot, otherwise the roots of the Fern will rot, and the plant will begin to ache and may die. The first sign of waterlogging in the soil is brown or brown spots on the leaves. Then they dry up completely. However, Fern behaves in the same way in very dry air and dry soil.
Indoor fern, in my opinion, does not need frequent feeding. Many people advise to fertilize it every 2 weeks. I do this once a month with a solution of mineral fertilizers of a weak consistency. You can also use organic fertilizers, for example, mullein infusion, but it is easy to overdo it with them, so I chose ready-made concentrated mineral potash fertilizers for feeding the Indoor Fern, which I dilute in accordance with the instructions on the bottle to feed the Fern in spring and summer.
Transplant and reproduction
You can transplant Nephrolepis or other types of Indoor Fern annually. But it is better not to transplant, but to transfer it, so as not to injure the roots.
For transplanting, we choose a pot with a diameter of 2-3 centimeters larger than the previous one, and carefully transfer the flower there, trying not to shake the soil from the roots. Then add fresh earthy mixture. It is better to do this at the beginning of the growing season - in the spring. If you make a transshipment in the fall, the indoor fern will take root for a long time and hurt.
During transplantation, you can divide the bush. This is the easiest and most reliable breeding method for Indoor Fern. This is done if small root rosettes appear near the main bush. You can try to separate them together with part of the rhizome and plant them in a separate container. After transplanting, a small bush needs greenhouse conditions. True, not all children take root, some die, and nevertheless, this is the most convenient way of breeding Ferns.
The method of reproduction using seeds (spores) is very complicated. I would say that it is almost impossible to grow a Fern from a spore at home.
Diseases and pests
If the care of the Indoor Fern is correct, he is unlikely to get sick. But the main mistake - improper watering - can cause various diseases and infections.
As I mentioned before, if you water the Fern incorrectly, brown spots will immediately appear on its leaves. It all starts with the tips of the leaves: they turn brown, dry out, and then the whole leaf disappears.
If you take cold, unstable water for irrigation, then a nematode can start in the ground. and the Fern will have to be transplanted immediately, although this may not save the flower, because these insects start both in the leaves and in the roots, from where they cannot be completely etched out. But you can try - when transplanting, sprinkle with Actellik solution.
If the air in the house is too dry, the Fern can infect aphids, thrips or scale insects. To prevent this from happening, spray the plant more often. The infected plant is best treated with solutions of Karbofos or Actelik.
That's all the intricacies of caring for indoor Fern... If you do everything right, you can feel like in a thousand-year-old forest - shady and cool.
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Pteris can be grown even under artificial lighting, providing "daylight hours" with special phytolamps or ordinary fluorescent lamps. The main thing is not to put the pot closer than half a meter to the lamp.
In the wild, pteris likes to grow in the shade of deciduous trees. Like the rest of the fern representatives, he does not like the burning rays of the sun. But too strong a shadow will damage it, the plant will lose its decorative effect. It is most favorable to place the pot in places with a predominance of diffused light or partial shade. This can be either a window or the middle of a room. If the bright sun is shining, then the pteris is shaded with paper, tulle.
Temperature conditions and air humidity
Fern tolerates cool rooms well, although it is more favorable to keep it at + 20 ° C - + 23 ° C. In summer, an increase in temperature conditions up to + 30 ° C is permissible, but do not increase the number of spraying and watering. Differences in thermometer indicators are not terrible for the plant, hot dry air is much more destructive for it. Therefore, it must be removed from the battery in winter.
Basic rules for caring for pteris, which should be followed:
- regular ventilation of the room to provide fresh air
- the temperature in the room at night is slightly lower than during the day
- protection against drafts during the frosty season
- keep in the fresh air only in summer, be sure to protect from rain and bright light.
Pteris is a typical fern that adores high humidity. With dry indoor air, the indoor flower is sprayed daily from a spray bottle, but always with soft or boiled water. It is good to place the pot on a tray filled with water and expanded clay, but the bottom of the container itself should not touch the water.
The choice of container and soil for planting
The easiest option is to buy ready-made fern potting mix at the supermarket. You need to make good drainage in the pot. To do this, use expanded clay, they fill about a quarter of the container in height. In ceramic pots, there are usually holes for draining water, in plastic containers they will have to be done independently. You can drill, pierce the bottom with a hot nail or knitting needle. For large specimens, the pot should be stable.
The soil for pteris can be prepared independently, the main thing is that it has the ability to pass moisture and air well. The plant needs fertile soil with a slightly acidic or neutral reaction. To obtain it, sod, peat, river sand and leafy soil are taken in equal volumes. Those who are engaged in planting (reproduction) of pteris do not add turf to the soil mixture; leaf land is taken 2 times less than sand and peat.
Indoor ferns: description and care features
The fern is a very popular plant that is easy to keep at home. Sprawling, lush foliage, coupled with unpretentious care, make it an ideal decoration for any room. An extensive genus of ferns - nephrolepis ("nephros" - bud and "lepis" - scales), got its name due to its external resemblance of leaves to fish scales.
Ferns are perennial epiphytic plants characterized by a shortened rhizome. In addition to leaves, ground loops can grow on the stems, which, when touched with the ground, easily take root and give life to a new plant even at home.
The classic image of a fern is a rosette of arched, strongly dissected leaves, called "frond", which means "palm branch". However, there are specimens with lanceolate, small rounded leaves, leaves similar to holly leaves, etc.
The color of the leaf plates can vary from light green to dark green, juicy. It depends on the care, the level of illumination of the room, as well as on the quality of the soil. In summer, sporangia are formed on the lower part of the leaf blades, thanks to which these plants reproduce. But the flowers of ferns, despite the famous legend, do not form.
Without exception, all ferns very poorly tolerate a gas-polluted space, smoke, dustiness, as well as excessively dry air. Therefore, deciding to start a fern at home, you need to provide him with sufficient care - humidity and fresh air.
In nature, there are more than eight thousand species of ferns, striking in their external diversity and characteristic features. In indoor floriculture, about two hundred species are grown.
This plant has a slow growth rate and can only produce a few new leaves each year.
In general, caring for indoor ferns is not particularly difficult, but some species are characterized by increased care requirements. The most popular and unpretentious are Nephrolepis, Kostenets nesting, Davallia, Cretan Pteris, Pellea, Citromium.
The choice of soil and container for growing
In order for the planted sprout to take root perfectly, it is necessary to choose the optimal flowerpot and soil in which the plant will grow. The primer can be purchased in a specialized store, or you can make it yourself. But in order to sow spores into the ground, you should check that there are special components in the ground.
For the optimal composition of the soil substrate, the following list of ingredients will be required:
- River sand and brown peat. To combine a soil substrate, you will need 1 part of sand and 3 parts of peat.
- River sand and leafy earth are taken in identical proportions (1: 3).
- Leafy soil, river sand and peat in a ratio of 1: 1: 3, respectively.
For good rooting and rapid development of the root system, you can also use soil for violets. It contains the optimal amount of all the nutrients required for planting a young fern sprout.
It is imperative that the planting soil be loose, well permeable to nutrient oxygen and introduced moisture.
For planting spores, the soil requires specific preparation. Initially, the earth is sieved, all large stones and solid particles, various debris are removed from it. Experienced gardeners recommend disinfecting before rooting.
To do this, rinse the soil with a weak solution of Potassium Permanganate and put it in one layer on a baking sheet in the oven. The soil should be sterilized within a few hours. Only after that you can prepare the landing container. If the fern is propagated by spores, then for sowing you will need a shallow, rectangular pot made of plastic or glass.
When planting plant sprouts in ordinary peas, you can select any options. A clay container is perfect. It has the ability to absorb moisture. And as necessary, give it back to the soil. But you shouldn't overfill the pot. This situation can provoke the development of a fungal infection, which is very problematic to be eliminated from a clay pot.
You can also use plastic containers for planting. But it must be remembered that it is very unstable and does not allow air to pass through. Therefore, it is worth choosing large pots, but so that they are half the total volume of the fern branches. And in order for the plant to receive a sufficient amount of air, it is worth loosening more often.
How to care for a Fern
If you want to acquire this lush plant on your site, it is also important to pay attention to the following recommendations.
Location in the garden
Find the perfect spot for your Fern in your garden. Before planting a plant in your garden, keep in mind that Ferns like a lot of shade and moisture, and thrive under the canopy of several other larger plants or trees. Plant (or transplant) the fern in a shady area with no direct sunlight. If the crop is planted in direct sunlight, the leaves will burn.
Keep the soil moist. If your area does not have regular rainfall, you will need to water the ferns daily to maintain moisture in the soil. Add a thick layer of pine needles or mulch leaves about 5 to 7 cm thick. This will help to retain moisture and maintain a low evaporation rate - the air near the ferns will be more humid.
Fertilize your plants once a month. Six months after the initial planting, you can start feeding the Ferns for extra growth. Select an organic fertilizer that is sprayed and apply to the plant (following the directions on the package). Alternatively, you can add a layer of compost and mulch to the soil to create a better growing environment for ferns. Keep in mind that ferns need less fertilization than other plants.
Fern in the garden is also recommended to be fertilized with urea by spraying. For this, 1 g of the substance is taken per 1 liter of water. Also for crops, mineral dressings in liquid form are suitable. The optimal solution is to use ammonium nitrate (1.5 g), potassium salt (1 g) and superphosphate (1.5 g). All components are mixed, and 50-100 ml of the prepared composition is added under one bush.
Ferns do not have many natural outdoor pests other than snails and one or two rare diseases. However, if you notice damage or disease to the Fern leaves, use garden shears to cut them. This will preserve the integrity of the rest of the plant and prevent it from spreading to other plants.
Some tips for garden fern care
The plant has always pleased you with its appearance, we offer a few more secrets of caring for it:
- planting a garden fern is most optimal in early spring or early September, since at other times the culture simply will not take root
- leave enough space for the bush as the fern takes up a lot of space to create a beautiful shape
- plant large varieties at a distance of 50-60 cm, medium - 35-40 cm, small - 20-25 cm
- creeping species (eg horsetails) require the use of barriers to create an amazing landscape ensemble.
Using Ferns in the garden, you can create amazing compositions that will emphasize your impeccable taste.
Why does Fern often turn yellow in the garden?
Growing a Fern can sometimes be challenging. For example, gardeners often complain that the leaves of a crop begin to turn yellow. This phenomenon can be a consequence of:
- irrigation system disturbances
- exposure to ultraviolet rays
- lack of nutrients in the soil.
With an excess or lack of moisture, the leaves of the plant begin to change their color. To get rid of this problem, it is necessary to adjust the irrigation system.
Fern breeding methods primarily depend on belonging to a particular species.
- Maidenhair and nephrolepis can be successfully propagated by dividing the bush, as well as grown from rooted offspring.
- Kochedzhnik is propagated by rooting offspring that form on fronds. You can plant them in the same pot in which an adult plant grows.
- Nephrolepis can be propagated by disputes. To do this, the leaves are cut, wrapped in paper and left in a dry room. As the spores dry, the spores spill out on their own and can be sown. Sowing is carried out in flat containers filled with a mixture of peat and sand, which is slightly moistened beforehand. To create greenhouse conditions, the bowls are covered with glass and shaded. After sprouting, maintain a temperature of at least 22 ° C and watered moderately from a saucer.
Reproduction can be carried out by spores
This feature becomes obvious when
considering the structure of the fern. Leaves, or more correctly, fronds
make up the aerial part of plants and, as a rule, are distinguished by curly,
feathery or multiple dissected form. Young, not yet
open leaf plates in ferns are tightly coiled into a spiral.
As they grow back, they unwind, become darker and denser. Fern rhizomes are located under the soil layer.
How to care for a fern at home?
When caring for indoor ferns at home, they
trying to create a microclimate that is as close to natural as possible. It's in
air temperature at different times of the year, ambient humidity, lighting, and frequency and volume of watering, fertilizing, and transplanting.
How to care for a fern if this
maximum exceeded? The plant will need not only the usual protection from
direct sunlight, but also frequent irrigation on particularly hot days. Will help
filling the entire free volume of the pot with moist sphagnum or
placing a flower in a moist florarium. A useful solution would be
relocation of the fern for the entire warm period under the open sky.
Read also: Even a beginner can provide good care for Thompson's clerodendrum
with the onset of autumn, even before the first frost, the grower will have to find
a cool place for a green pet under the roof. Part of the species
content at normal room temperature at least 17
° C. But there are those who are more comfortable at 14-16 ° C. Minimum
the permissible temperature of the content is +10 ° C, if the air is colder,
this threatens with hypothermia of the rhizomes, which is especially dangerous in wet
At home, caring for indoor fern will be significantly
simplified if the pot is placed on the east or west window. Here
plants are not threatened with sunburn, and the incoming lighting is sufficient
for active growth and maintenance of decorativeness.
Do not forget that all members of the family
react negatively to air pollution, smoke, car exhaust.
Therefore, not the best place for a flower is a smoker's room or
balcony overlooking a noisy street with heavy traffic.
Dryness of the substrate leads to the death of the leaves. Do not expect that those who have lost their turgor and bright color of frond will revive after the resumption of watering. Even with the resumption of proper care, they die off, which negatively affects the appearance of the flower.
How to care for a fern that has lost everything at home
aboveground part? You can reanimate a plant affected by drought,
knowing the intricacies of the fern development cycle. The plant is removed and already
dead, and still remaining green fronds, after which the pot is transferred to
well-lit windowsill. With regular, but not too abundant
watering, the fern can quickly recover. And a sign
awakenings will appear over the substrate tight green spirals of a new
Effectively help maintain complex plants
top dressing with the inclusion of organics and minerals. Them on a regular basis
carried out from mid-spring to autumn.
Pot fern transplant
The best time to transplant a room
fern - spring. Depending on the type of home plant, the procedure
may have its own characteristics.
Read also: Do you have a sick room maidenhair? We know how to help
among the ferns there are not only terrestrial plants, but also epiphytes, then
prepare for this stage of caring for indoor fern at home
conditions will have to be done in advance. To do this, select:
a suitable pot, basket or piece of wood for epiphytic varieties, suitable for the needs of the culture, loose, necessarily light substrate.