How to determine the gender of a chicken? Chicken habits
Cockerel or hen
Lately, people often ask me: how to distinguish chicks by sex at an early age? Is it possible to have more chickens in the brood? It is clear where these questions come from. In nature, males are always born more, it is generally wasteful.
It is believed that cockerels hatch from pointed eggs, and chickens from round eggs. This is not true, the shape of the egg is determined only by the structure of the mother-chicken's oviduct. It is still impossible to determine who is who at the stage of laying eggs for incubation. The Japanese have spent $ 1 billion on solving this problem, but have not achieved a practical result. So what, ultrasound is done for pregnant women, too, not at the time of conception, but somewhat later.
In the industrial poultry industry, the sexual problem is solved with the help of four linear crosses, while the chickens are bred beige, and the males are white. Where broilers are grown, white ones are left, beige ones are drowned, and where layers are needed, vice versa. By the way, broiler chickens, unnecessary for the poultry farm, are very good on the personal backyard, because the first year they rush normally, and in the second year, you see, and already a solid carcass walked up. There are such breeds, called autosex, in which chickens differ in sex at one day old. Classic in this regard is the Italian partridge, cockerels and hens there can be distinguished by the color and brightness of the stripes on the backs and arrows near the eyes.
I kept Adler silvers, they are also autosex: chickens are born yellow, and cockerels are lemon-colored with a bright black stripe on their heads.
An experienced poultry farmer can disassemble chicks by sex, even if the breed is not autosexual. So, in my dark gate, the chickens always have clear outlines of stripes on the backs and bright brown dots on the head, and the cockerels are blurry. In short, you wanted to have some kind of breed, read the literature before, find out how to distinguish between chickens, come to the Gardener's House, to our club, we will give you the breed standard, everything is described there.
By 21 days of life, most breeds already show external sexual characteristics. At all, in all breeds, chickens fledge faster than males, their tails grow earlier... The rooster first grows and then feathers. Often already large roosters run naked, with feathers only on their wings. At two months of age, males show a comb and a beard, the "face" turns red, the legs become longer, the paw itself is more massive than that of a chicken, then rounded feathers appear in the tail - plaits. Chickens never have braids at all. Chickens have spurs, but only very old ones. A large comb in a chicken is a sign of an egg-laying breed.
If you catch a rooster on the nest, do not be afraid, his orientation is fine, he simply shows the chickens that he has found a safe place to lay. The pugnacious ones are usually the best cocks. In a good chicken, when feeling between the pubic bones, 3 fingers are placed.
In heavy meat and meat-egg breeds, a large number of cockerels in a brood is not such a problem, but in egg breeds it is unprofitable to raise roosters for meat, feed is now expensive, in our cold climate, energy costs are high, the bird eats a lot in order to normally warm up and fledge.
What can be done to increase the number of chickens in the brood?
Before selecting eggs for incubation, the Americans sharply reduce the protein content in the feed and lower the eggs in a solution containing female sex hormones, although they say that this leads to a rapid degeneration of the herd.
I do it easier. If I need chickens, then I remove all young roosters, in the spring only old three-year-old aksakals are left to walk in pullets, the percentage of fertilized eggs will be lower, but such hardened daddies know how to do daughters well. If it is necessary to select a good producer from a large number of applicants, young "stallions" remain to drive the old layers.
People often ask: will chickens lay without a rooster?
There will be. The cock does not affect egg production, on the contrary, but an unfertilized egg is devoid of some of the qualities that a fertilized one possesses.
Also interested in: is it possible to keep a dwarf rooster with large chickens?
You can, if you are not going to bring out the chickens. On the contrary, it is unacceptable.
Is it okay to keep one rooster just for beauty?
It is possible, but is it necessary? It is common knowledge that lonely men do not last long.
How many chickens should there be for one rooster?
It depends on the breed and temperament. To have normal fertilization, there must be four to eight chickens per rooster.
Is it possible to keep roosters and chickens of different breeds?
You can, if you are not going to breed any breed clean. True, 11 days before the selection of eggs for incubation, the bird can be seated according to species, and the rest of the time can be kept in one flock.
Who tastes better: a rooster or a chicken?
Chicken tastes better.
Who eats more?
In childhood - a rooster, in an adult - a chicken. Breeding roosters are even fed separately.
How many years can chickens be kept?
You can keep it until they themselves die, if they are pets for you, and not food. It makes sense to keep chickens for two years, roosters for up to three years. Sometimes old chickens are kept up to four years old, using only as hens.
Who are "kuropekh" and "capon"?
Kuropekh is called a rooster with blurred sexual characteristics, which is a by-product of imbreeding, i.e. closely related crossing. Such a bird must be discarded. This is the same as sobchak in dogs. The capon is a castrated rooster raised for meat. This method was used before broiler hatching.
What is the difference between a brood hen, a nest and a quail?
The brood hen sits on the eggs, the nest leads the chickens, and the hen is called the mother in general, starting from the moment when she stops getting up from the nest.
What chickens sit on eggs?
All meat breeds and most of the common ones sit down. The best hens are dwarf chickens.
No matter how much they frighten us with exotic diseases, where are we, Russians, going to get away from the earth! And on its own land there should be a house with three windows, a chicken coop, the cockerel should yell for the whole neighborhood, the pussy should bask in the sun, the dog should bark at passers-by, and the owners should dig in the beds. Here it is, a simple Russian dream!
Lyudmila Romanikhina, Secretary of the Russian Society of Poultry Lovers in St. Petersburg
Photo by the author
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What I chose for next year.
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What factors influence the successful emergence of chicks from eggs
There are a number of factors that affect how chicks hatch, and whether or not they hatch at all. They should be taken into account when breeding chicks, so as not to waste eggs, and not to waste time and energy. Most of these factors can affect both positively and negatively at the same time, it all depends on the specific situation. It should be borne in mind that it is more difficult for chicks to hatch in an incubator than those that are bred by a brood hen. Therefore, the farmer who uses the incubator must pay special attention to the hatching process.
It is worth dividing all factors into two main groups. And we are not talking about positive and negative influences and reasons. They are subdivided according to a different criterion, namely, according to whether they are bred in an incubator, or by a brood hen. At the same time, there are a number of factors that act in both cases. All of them will be listed separately. You should start with those factors that affect both artificial hatching and natural incubation. Here is a list of these influences, and the possible results of their influence:
- The first factor that always affects the quality of eggs is the feeding that hens and layers receive. The hatching process of a small chick will not even start if the embryo lacks nutrients. Therefore, it is worth paying attention to the quality and quantity of the food that the parents of the chicks receive.
- The second factor, which is sometimes combined with the first, is the amount of vitamins and minerals in the poultry feed. There must be a balance here. An example is the amount of calcium a hen receives. If there is little calcium, then the shell is too fragile, and the embryo is weak, and with thin bones. If there is a lot of calcium, then the shell turns out to be hard, and chicks usually do not hatch unaided.
- The third factor, which, of course, always affects the percentage of hatch from eggs is the breeding stock of chickens. If the birds are sick, or closely related crossing is allowed, then many chicks do not hatch, or they are unable to break through the shell. Sometimes they don't even squeak inside, but silently suffocate in the shell.
- Eggs that have been in storage for a long time. The so-called old eggs are the reason that chicks do not hatch well in the incubator or under the hen. There is even a separate table that shows how shelf life affects the overall hatch rate of chicks. And in order for the chicks to hatch on time, it is better to use a fresh egg.
- Eggs too large. Embryos in them always hatch worse, and larger chicks are weaker than their counterparts, and often die without hatching. When hatched in an incubator, they are more sensitive to humidity and temperature and heat up more. Therefore, the owners of these cabinets usually have to lay the larger eggs separately from the rest of the clutch.
What exactly affects hatching in the incubator and under the hen
The group of factors described below affects exclusively hatching and should only be considered by those who prefer to use artificial cultivation. But the owners of layers can also use this information if they decide to purchase or make an incubator. They are also worth considering because sometimes a good laying hen can turn out to be a bad hen, and the egg will have to be urgently transferred to the incubator. Here is a list of factors that affect hatching of chicks in an incubator:
- Indoor humidity level. Due to the low humidity, there is often no biting, and the egg is already dead by the time of hatching. And with high humidity, the baby may die after the bite has appeared. Or the shell may crack ahead of time and before the allotted time.
- Temperature conditions. For example, at high temperatures, the egg may not even bite. And if the temperature was increased on the last day before hatching, the chick may die after biting. Well, at low temperatures, the embryo may not even develop.
- Egg flips. If they are not turned over correctly, or left pointed upside down, the embryo may die. Therefore, it is worth watching the available video on how to properly turn the clutch in an incubator. The help of a more experienced farmer will not be superfluous.
- Ventilation quality. If ventilation is poorly done, it has a very negative effect on the percentage of chicks born. Too strong or weak ventilation leads to sad consequences. Possible options are the absence of pecking, the death of already hatched babies, and their adhesion to the shell.
The reasons that affect exclusively the hatching under the hen are somewhat less. The greatest influence in this case is exerted by the maternal qualities of the laying hen. In many egg-laying chickens, the maternal instinct is not developed, and the clutch has to be shifted under other birds, or artificially incubated. And in the event that the laying hen honestly incubates the clutch, a lot depends on its owner. You need to make sure that she leaves for food and drink, and also make sure that she sits back on her nest in time.
Role of tea in regulating pressure
High blood pressure is a persistent medical condition that can lead to many serious health problems. Of course, it is impossible to cope with hypertension by drinking tea drink alone. However, when combined with proper nutrition and exercise, it will make a positive contribution.
- Reduces cholesterol levels. This is the prevention of atherosclerotic lesions. Atherosclerosis leads to a narrowing of the vascular lumen, the formation of blood clots and an increase in pressure.
- The composition of biologically active substances strengthens blood vessels. As a result, not only their tone improves, but also the risk of developing a stroke and heart attack decreases.
- Diuretic effect. When getting rid of excess fluid, the volume of circulating blood decreases and the pressure normalizes. This reduces the load on the heart and decreases cardiac output.
Many hypertensive patients are afraid to drink tea because of the presence of caffeine in it, which, as you know, tones up and promotes vasoconstriction. For years, doctors have been talking about this and warned by various publications. However, recent research has rehabilitated this substance in the public eye.
It has been proven that a moderate amount of caffeine in coffee or tea is good for people with high blood pressure. When combined with other compounds, it protects heart cells and significantly reduces the risk of myocardial infarction. With the proviso that the dose of caffeine should not be higher than 300-400 mg per day. This equates to 3-4 cups of coffee or 4-5 cups of tea.
Attention! Mass-market drinks with flavors and sugar do not have the properties of natural green tea, and, if consumed frequently, are harmful to health.
Conditions of detention
Keeping chickens out of the hatchery at home is easy. Remember a few rules for caring for a chicken house:
- An important condition for the premises is cleanliness. Be sure to clean up the place where the chicks are kept every day, remove garbage, uneaten food. Otherwise, infections can quickly appear in an uncleaned room.
- If litter is available in the house, it is regularly changed. It should always be clean and dry.
- It is not advisable that a large number of poultry be present in the place of detention. It is important to provide young animals with free space so that they can walk freely, run, fully exercise all motor functions
- Number of livestock keeping directly depends on the area of the place for keeping chicks.
Do not keep chicks indoors all the time. Regularly, you need to take the bird population outside for walking, but preferably at 2 months of age. Fresh air, obtaining additional green fodder are the main conditions for the full functioning of all the poultry's digestive organs.
The second important condition for keeping chicks is light. The length of daylight hours depends on the age of the young.
From the first days of a chicken's life, it is necessary to maintain the duration of daylight hours at least 18 hours... This is then reduced to 10 hours before the chicks reach 4 months of age.
These indicators do not depend on the type of chicken breed. In addition, it does not matter what the poultry is grown for - for eggs or meat, this indicator should remain unchanged. The duration of daylight hours in winter can be maintained by the presence of additional lighting in the room where the individuals are kept.
Temperature for breeding healthy individuals
Temperature parameters depend on the age of the bird:
- For diurnal individuals up to 5 days of age, a suitable temperature regime in the room is considered to be up to +32 degrees Celsius
- With the onset of 6 days of life and up to 9 days, the temperature gradually decreases to +28 degrees Celsius
- From day 10 to day 20, the temperature regime is reduced by another 3 degrees +25 degrees Celsius
- In the subsequent period, the temperature should be maintained from +20 degrees to 24 degrees Celsius.
Maintaining an optimal temperature level can be ensured by using lamps for lighting. In winter, additional heaters can be installed.
Food for newborns
The most useful for small, 1-2-day-old chickens are special compound feed "zero", they are finely ground and contain vitamins, amino acids and vegetable fats. Wheat, corn, barley, peas are usually used as the main ingredients in them.
For one chicken, 1-2 tablespoons of compound feed are calculated per day. Starter feed is easy to prepare at home. Ingredients for 1 kg of mixture:
- 3 cups full of corn.
- 1/3 cup barley
- 1 glass of wheat.
- 1/2 cup low-fat kefir.
- 1 glass of cake.
Finely grind and mix all components, so it will be easier for chickens to digest and assimilate nutritious feed.
Note! Food for day-old chicks at home should be as sterile and easily digestible as possible. The delicate organism and the newly developing digestive system are very sensitive.
How to get rid of lice from chickens
Lice in chickens is a problem that many breeders face, regardless of the number of livestock kept on the farm and the conditions in which they are kept. In the language of science, this problem is called malofagosis. It is considered one of the most common ailments in the poultry industry.
To date, about 40 species of arthropods have been recorded that live on poultry. Their diet consists of feathers or fluff and blood. The most common pest of this series is the louse. The difficulty of solving the problem lies in the fact that parasites of several species can live on one individual at the same time.
Mallophagosis is a dangerous disease, because chicken lice live on humans in the same way as on birds. To prevent this from happening, the fight against parasites should be carried out immediately with folk and medication.