Influence of potash fertilizers and microfertilizers on the quality of potatoes
Read the previous part. ← Influence of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on the quality of potatoes
The role of potash fertilizers
Potassium has a positive effect on the yield and quality of potatoes. It is necessary for the formation of tubers and for better movement of starch from the leaves to the growing tubers. This potassium gives the plant frost resistance.
Usually, the aboveground part (stem and leaf) dies during autumn frosts of -1 ...- 30C. In many potato-growing regions, after the first frost, the weather is warm for quite a long time. Therefore, preventing the complete or partial death of potato tops from the first frosts by applying potash fertilizers is of great importance in increasing yields and improving the quality of tubers. When potash fertilizer was added to the nitrogen-phosphorus background, the death of the tops was only 12%. Frost resistance of potato tops increases with increasing doses of potassium fertilizer.
With a lack of potassium in the soil, potato leaves acquire a dark green color, curl, dry out and fall off prematurely. One of the characteristic signs of potassium starvation of plants is the appearance of bronze spots on the leaves, which is often observed in potatoes grown on sandy and especially on peat and floodplain lands, poor in mobile potassium. The liming of such soils further enhances the potassium starvation of plants, since the calcium of the lime fertilizer is an antagonist of potassium and reduces its supply to the plant. Therefore, the use of potash fertilizers to prevent signs of potato leaf bronzing is critical.
Potassium has a positive effect on the relative resistance of potatoes to a number of diseases, among which ring rot is one of the most common. With massive damage to plants, it sharply reduces yields and the quality of tubers. Ring rot bacteria develop more intensively in a glucose-rich environment. Potassium, in contrast to nitrogen and phosphorus, limits the rate of glucose accumulation in the leaves, stems and tubers of potatoes. Therefore, fertilizing the soil with this element increases the resistance of tubers against ring rot.
Potassium fertilizers also prevent the incidence of potato fungal disease - macrosporium, which is expressed in the appearance of dry brownish spots on the leaves. With a strong development of the disease, spots cover all parts of the leaf, as a result of which the leaves dry out prematurely, which leads to a decrease in yield and a deterioration in the quality of tubers.
Potassium also helps in the fight against late blight potatoes, this is especially effective when copper, boron, molybdenum and cobalt fertilizers are applied together with potatoes.
The effect of potash fertilizers on the starchiness of tubers depends on the doses and forms of fertilizers used. Chlorine-containing potash fertilizers reduce the starchiness of tubers. A decrease in the starch content of tubers was noted with the introduction of 40% potassium salt both against the background of NP and together with 3 kg / m2 of manure. The starch content of tubers with the introduction of increasing doses of chlorine-containing potassium fertilizers (up to 12 g of K2O per 1 m2) decreased both on a manure and on a manure-free background approximately equally (from 12.9% to 11.9%).
On peaty soils poorly supplied with mobile phosphorus and well supplied with exchangeable potassium, these fertilizers did not impair the taste of potatoes. They somewhat reduced the vitamin C content, but did not reduce the starchiness of the tubers. Even high doses of potassium fertilizers (12-14 g / m2) on soils well supplied with exchangeable potassium did not reduce the starch content of tubers, but contributed to a significant increase in yield.
The effectiveness of potash fertilizers depends on the ratio of the applied fertilizers. With an optimally selected ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus and potassium, the starchiness of the tubers increases.
On the sod-podzolic sandy loam soils with an average content of mobile phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, potassium chloride reduced the digestibility and powderiness of potatoes and worsened its taste in comparison with chenite and potassium sulfate. Tubers fertilized with potassium sulfate, chenite and cement dust had the best taste. The content of vitamin C in potato tubers fertilized with potassium chloride was 18.4 mg%, and in potassium sulfate - 20.9 mg%. Potassium chloride also turned out to be the least profitable fertilizer compared to potassium sulfate and potash. So, against a nitrogen-phosphorus background, the starch content in potato tubers was 16.7%, with the introduction of potassium sulfate - 17.9%, with the introduction of potash - 17.9%, and with the use of potassium chloride - only 16.5%. The best results were obtained with the introduction of potassium magnesium: the starch content in the tubers increased to 16.5% and the starch collection increased to 256 g / m2.
Thus, low-percentage chlorine-containing forms of potash fertilizers (kainit, sylvinit, carnalite, etc.) usually worsen the quality of potatoes, reducing the starch content in them and impairing the taste of tubers. Concentrated forms of chlorine-containing potassium fertilizers (potassium chloride and 40% potassium salt) insignificantly affect the starch content in tubers, and chlorine-free fertilizers (chenite, potash, potassium magnesium, potassium sulfate) significantly increase the quality of the crop. Chlorine-containing forms of potash fertilizers reduce the starchiness of tubers due to the fact that chlorine increases the water content in tubers, enhances growth processes and retards the development and maturation of plants.
The best results in increasing the starchiness of tubers are obtained with the introduction of magnesium-containing potassium fertilizers, especially when growing potatoes on sour sandy soils.
Influence of various trace elements on the quality of potatoes
So, to sum up: organic and mineral fertilizers, when applied in optimal doses and the correct ratio of nutrients, increase the nutritional value of potatoes and do not negatively affect the starch content and taste of tubers.
Trace elements: boron, manganese, molybdenum, copper and others in combination with high agricultural technology increase the yield and improve the quality of potatoes. The positive role of macronutrients in improving the quality of the crop is due to the fact that they are important in metabolism, change the rate of redox reactions in the cell, and have a noticeable effect on respiration and photosynthesis.
The ability of boron to increase the activity of invertase (an enzyme that breaks down sucrose into glucose and fructose) in potato leaves leads to an accelerated accumulation of carbohydrates in tubers. Potatoes cannot develop normally without boron, they are susceptible to a strong disease in the form of a mosaic with leaf rolling. Foliar dressing with boron increases the content of soluble sugars in the leaves and starch in the tubers.
With a lack of manganese, potato leaves turn yellow. Manganese contributes to a more economical use of nutrients, plays an important role in plant respiration and in the processes of photosynthesis, which leads to a more intensive accumulation of starch in tubers.
Copper has a strong influence on the growth and development of potatoes. Foliar feeding with copper reduces the incidence of potato rhizoctonia and late blight. It increases the content of chlorophyll in leaves, starch, vitamins and minerals.
Cobalt, zinc and manganese increased the yield of tubers and increased the starch content from 17.2% to 18.5%, manganese increased the amount of starch to 17.8%.
Boron and molybdenum in the form of a solution of boric acid (0.05%) and ammonium molybdenum (0.01%), which moistened seed tubers on the eve of planting at the rate of 3 liters per 10 kg, as well as foliar dressings with a solution of boric acid 0.01 % and ammonium molybdate 0.01% (7 ml per m2) yield and starch content increased by 20%. Presowing treatment of seeds with boron increased the starch content from 14 to 15.7%. The use of boron in the form of foliar feeding made it possible to obtain tubers, which contained 19.2% starch. Molybdenum had a similar effect on the starch content.
The greatest influence on the yield and quality of potato tubers was exerted by soaking the seeds in a 0.1% solution of cobalt sulfate.
Thus, micronutrient fertilizers increase the yield of potatoes, increase the content of dry matter, starch, ascorbic acid and protein in tubers.
Influence of doses and ratios mineral fertilizers the yield and quality of potatoes is stronger than the use of nitrogen, phosphorus or potash fertilizers alone. The predominance of phosphorus or potassium in the early phases of plant development accelerates metabolic processes and leads to their faster aging, the yield of tubers is somewhat reduced, less dry matter accumulates, but the plants contain much more starch.
In the case of a predominance of nitrogen in the early phases, the development of plants is inhibited, their maturation is delayed. They develop a powerful vegetative mass, due to which the outflow of nutrients into the tubers is insufficient, which also leads to a decrease in yield, nitrogenous compounds accumulate in the tubers and their starchiness decreases. Consequently, by changing the ratio of the basic nutrients introduced into the soil, it is possible to influence the intensity and direction of metabolism in potato plants during the growing season and achieve high yields of good quality tubers.
On soddy-podzolic medium loamy soils, moderately supplied with available phosphorus and potassium, the most favorable ratio of nutrients in obtaining a high yield of good quality is N: P: K = 1: 1: 1 or 1: 1.5: 1. The yield of potatoes with such amounts of applied fertilizers is 2.38 kg / m2, and the starch content in the tubers is 17.3%. The use of these amounts of mineral fertilizers against a background of 3 kg / m2 of manure also contributes to the production of high quality tubers.
The best results in terms of yield and quality of early varieties were achieved with the predominance of nitrogen in the applied fertilizers over phosphorus and potassium. When applying mineral fertilizers under early ripening potato varieties nitrogen fertilizers should prevail over phosphorus fertilizers, and for later varieties it is necessary to give more phosphorus fertilizers than nitrogen fertilizers. In this case, the most favorable conditions are created for obtaining the maximum yield of tubers with good quality products.
Under early potatoes it is recommended to apply increased doses of nitrogen fertilizers (1: 0.8: 1), for medium-late varieties - increased doses of phosphorus-potassium (1: 1.3: 1.7), for seed potatoes, the doses of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are even higher (1: 1.4: 2.0).
Causes of darkening of the flesh of potatoes
A serious factor that reduces the organoleptic quality of potatoes is the darkening of their flesh. Currently, domestic and foreign scientists have established some of the causes of this phenomenon. According to German researchers, the darkening of the flesh of potatoes is associated with the oxidation of the amino acid tyrosine into melanin, which has a blue-black color, as well as with the oxidation of iron and the formation of its complex compounds with chlorogenic acid. These iron compounds take on a bluish green color. Mineral and organic fertilizers several times reduce the content of free tyrosine in tubers and increase the amount of absorbed potassium, which weakens the degree of darkening of tubers or completely eliminates this phenomenon. It is recommended to apply increased doses of potassium fertilizers under potatoes, which can reach 30-40 g per 1 m2, and the potassium content in tubers is at least 2.0-2.5% of the dry matter weight.
On clay soils, with a potassium content of 2.54% in tubers, a slight darkening of the pulp was observed, and with 2.0% potassium, 50% of tubers darkened. On loamy soils, potato tubers did not darken even when they contained 2.0% potassium. A unilateral increase in the doses of nitrogen fertilizers promotes darkening of the potato pulp. However, the use of these fertilizers against the background of potash or organic fertilizers containing a lot of potassium, sharply reduces the darkening of tubers.
In most cases, the use of mineral fertilizers, especially in doses calculated from the removal of nutrients by the crop, reduced the tyrosine content by more than four times and markedly increased the amount of potassium in tubers. Such tubers did not darken at all.
Some darkening of the pulp of potato tubers grown on peaty soils was found. The application of potash fertilizers on these soils also reduces the darkening of the tubers. In this way; To obtain tubers that are not subject to browning, potatoes should be grown in soils that contain sufficient potassium. The lack of this element in soils must be compensated for by the introduction of potash fertilizers.
The influence of fertilizers on the palatability of potatoes
The opinions of scientists about the effect of fertilizers on the taste of boiled potatoes are somewhat contradictory. Canadian researchers are of the opinion that increasing doses of fertilizers impair the taste of boiled potatoes. German scientists argue that fertilizers do not reduce this figure. Only a one-sided increase in nitrogen doses up to 24-30 g per 1 square meter slightly worsens the taste. Evaluation of the taste of potatoes in Sweden showed that the use of fertilizers slightly deteriorates the taste of potatoes, but it is recognized that all products meet the requirements of the Swedish standard in terms of taste.
Russian scientists believe that the sugar and free amino acids in the tubers negatively affect the taste of boiled potatoes. With an increase in their amount, the taste and smell of potatoes deteriorate. Unpleasant smell and taste are caused by the formation of a number of low-boiling volatile compounds from sugars and free amino acids during cooking - methanyl thiol, acrolein, hydrogen sulfide, etc. However, this happens only when unbalanced doses of fertilizers are applied.
It is sometimes believed that nitrogen fertilizers, along with an increase in the protein content in the tubers, cause a deterioration in the culinary quality of potatoes, in particular, after boiling, they become more sticky and less mealy, their aroma deteriorates, and boiled tubers quickly darken. However, such fears are often in vain. The deterioration of the culinary quality of potatoes can only be with the introduction of relatively high doses of nitrogen, more than 40 g per m2.
The timing and methods of using mineral fertilizers also significantly affect the yield and quality of potatoes. Fertilizers applied during potato planting enhance the effect of the main fertilizer. Superphosphate at a dose of 5-7 g / m2 and urea 5-6 g / m2, introduced when planting potatoes, accelerate the rate of germination of tubers due to the initial increase in starch hydrolysis in uterine tubers, increase the number of germinated eyes in tubers, which leads to an increase in yield and starchiness ... In addition, nitrogen fertilizers increase the chlorophyll content in leaves by 1.5-2 times.
As a result of the discussion of the problem, we come to the conclusion that the combination of the main fertilizer (manure 5-6 kg / m2, urea 15-20 gm2, double superphosphate 30-40 g / m2, potassium magnesium 40-50 g / m2, boric acid 1 g / m2, copper sulfate 1 g / m2, ammonium molybdate 0.5 g / m2, cobalt sulfate 0.5 g / m2 in the spring for digging the soil), local application (superphosphate and urea, 5-7 g / m2 each when planting in the nest) with top dressing (10-15 g / m2 of ammonium nitrate and potassium sulfate before the first hilling) allows potato plants to develop a more powerful root system, increase yield and improve the quality and nutritional value of tubers.
We wish you every success!
Gennady Vasyaev, Associate Professor, Chief Specialist
North-West Scientific and Methodological Center of the Russian Agricultural Academy,
Olga Vasyaeva, amateur gardener
Fertilizing when growing potatoes can be root and foliar methods. The first option is more popular due to its ease of execution. Pouring micronutrient fertilizers under the root of seedlings is within the power of even a novice gardener.
When foliar feeding potatoes, you need to choose preparations with surfactants (surfactants). These components, or adjuvants, overcome the protective barrier on the tops and keep the nutrients inside.
After planting, potatoes can be fed with several types of additives. The same fertilizers are allowed to be applied before the hilling of the bushes, so that micro and macro elements quickly reach the underground part of the plant. Suitable for root feeding:
- mineral fertilizers - a mixture of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus in proportions 1: 2: 1 (for 10 liters of water 25 g)
- mullein - you need to dissolve a liter of manure in 10 liters of liquid and insist for a day. The prepared solution is poured over the ground between the rows
- urea - 0.5 mixture (1 tablespoon of fertilizer per 10 liters of water) per potato bush
- chicken droppings - in a diluted form, they are introduced into the grooves between the seedlings.
This type of feeding is carried out throughout the growing season. Fertilizers need to be applied in the evening after watering, so as not to burn the tops.
The owners recommend using a mixture prepared from 150 g of monophosphate, 5 g of boric acid and 100 g of carbamide as a foliar feeding of potatoes. Spraying should be carried out on the leaf after the first shoots appear. After 14 days, feeding should be repeated.
If you do not want to use mineral fertilizers, nettle infusion is suitable. The leaves of this herb contain all the essential nutrients. To prepare the solution, grind 1 kg of nettle, add water and leave for 24 hours. The next day, add 30 g of shavings of laundry soap and use the infusion for a leaf spray.
The use of potash fertilizers in the country
In gardening and plant growing, not a single farmer can do without mineral fertilizing. Potash fertilizers, which effectively compensate for the deficiency of potassium in plant organisms, are in particular demand. Among the well-known names are potassium sulfate, potassium chloride, potassium salt. There are agrochemicals of a simple type and a complex one. In the cells of plantations, potassium is in the cytoplasm and cell sap in ionic form. Its maximum concentration is in young leaves and shoots, and low in old parts of plantings. In order for the fertilizer to have a beneficial effect on the crops grown, you need to learn more about its features and application rates.
Potassium is often mixed with other important plant nutrients and thus phosphorus-potassium, nitrogen-potassium and nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are obtained.
Potassium (potassium) nitrate
The fertilizer contains 45% potassium and 13-15% nitrogen. Potassium nitrate is a small, gray-white, yellow-tinged crystal. It is most often used indoors for feeding vegetables at the time of fruit ripening.
Fertilizer is applied in dry or liquid form. The solution is prepared in the following dosages: for flowers - 15 g per 10 l of water, for vegetables and berry bushes - 20 g per 10 l of water, for fruit trees - 25 g per 10 l of water. For 1 square meter of plantings, they consume from 0.7 to 1.3 liters of fertilizer.
Nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus are equally divided here (16% each). But there are varieties of nitroammophos with a different percentage of elements.
Also among gardeners, liquid potash fertilizers (mainly complex), wood ash (in addition to potassium, contains calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, boron, iron, copper) are popular, but they do not contain so much potassium.
It is difficult to say which potash fertilizer is better. When choosing it, it is necessary to take into account the sensitivity of a particular plant to chlorine. And with intolerance to this element, give preference to potassium sulfate fertilizers. And keep in mind: it is not recommended to feed the plants with potassium during the appearance of the first shoots and the formation of the root system.
Influence of mineral fertilizers on the development of potatoes
Research project "The influence of mineral fertilizers on the development of potatoes"
2. Chemical composition and nutritional value
4. Biological features of development
5. Relationship to environmental conditions.
1. The value of mineral fertilizers.
2. Influence of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on plant development.
3. Influence of soil and organic fertilizers on plant development.
4. Setting up the experiment.
5. Analysis of the results obtained.
1. Substantiation of the results obtained.
2. Using the results of the work.
The natural range of wild forms of tuberous representatives of the nightshade covers Central America, Peru, Bolivia and Chile. Their distribution is limited mainly to mountainous areas, but they are partially found on the plains of Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina.
The first information about potatoes dates back to 1536. In the mountains of Bolivia and Peru, sedentary Indian tribes have been cultivating potatoes for about 1000 years. This is evidenced by the descriptions of religious rites, and the images of potatoes on ancient ceramic vessels. The spread of potatoes in Europe went through Spain and Italy, as well as from Ireland and England, where it was cultivated in isolated cases already in the last quarter of the 10th century.
In Europe, this culture was initially planted only in pharmaceutical and botanical gardens. Until the X VIII century, it remained an amateur plant, unsuitable for food. This was also facilitated by the fact that the imported specimens contained a lot of solanine, which gave the tubers a bitter taste. Theologians even believed that he was bred to change the faith, they called him a "damn apple."
In Europe, it was believed that the potato "causes leprosy." In Sicily, they believed that it was enough to write the name of the hated person on a piece of paper and pin him to the tuber, and he would die a painful death.
The bad reputation of the potato remained among the people for a long time, and in different countries they tried in different ways to overcome the reluctance of the peasants to cultivate it. For example, English peasants were promised gold medals for growing potatoes.
Only in the middle of the 18th century, potatoes began to be cultivated on large areas, using as a food crop. He especially took root in Ireland.
In Germany, the spread of the potato was aided by outbreaks of famine during the Thirty Years' War. It was only after the Seven Years' War and the famine of 1770 that potato cultivation began to expand.
It is believed that potatoes appeared in Russia under Peter I. The history of the promotion of potatoes in Russia also knows tragic moments. The "potato riots" of the peasants in 1834 and the state ones in 1840-1843 caused by the authorities' demand to allocate part of the land for sowing potatoes without providing the seed fund, reflected the general dissatisfaction with serfdom.
Only a poor harvest of grain in the middle of the last century made potatoes an irreplaceable product.
In different countries, potatoes were called differently. Most likely, the name "potato" comes from the two German words "craft" and "teuffel", which means the fruit of devilish power.
Potatoes are also famous for their records. For example, a specimen weighing 8 kg 275 g, obtained by the Englishman Thomas Siddal, was received in 1795.
One bush planted by Baucock in 1975 yielded 233 kg of 500 g.
Potatoes were brought to Kazakhstan from Russia by Russian settlers. Potatoes are now grown in 130 countries. This is due to its high plasticity and adaptability to a wide variety of conditions.
New varieties of potatoes are constantly appearing in Peru at the International Potato Center, a collection of species, varieties and varieties of this crop has been created. It contains over 13 thousand samples and seeds.
So, despite the not simple history of growing potatoes, it is he who has now become a necessary food product.
The chemical composition is very diverse. The tubers contain up to 2% of proteins, starch from 13.1 to 36.8%, fiber, pectin substances, mono- and oligosaccharides: glucose, fructose, sucrose, vitamins and mineral salts.
The main vitamin is ascorbic acid. Almost the entire complex of vitamin B, folic and niacin is found in tubers. In addition, carotenoids, violaxanthin, lutein and others have been found.
Potatoes contain over 26 different chemical elements. Of the mineral salts, potassium and phosphorus salts prevail, that is, other micro and macroelements - iron, calcium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, cobalt, iodine. From organic acids - citric, oxalic, malic. The peel of the tubers and the entire aerial part of the plant contains the poisonous glycoalkaloid solanine.
Thus, the chemical composition of potatoes is very diverse. It contains many substances necessary for our body.
In Russia, the medicinal properties of potatoes have long been known. even at the beginning of the X I X century, it was known about the anti-scorching properties of the plant, about its use for eczema, for the treatment of catarrh of the upper respiratory tract, accompanied by persistent dry cough, with gastritis, severe headache. Many doctors advised tuberculosis patients to eat potatoes. Fresh and pounded in a mortar, "earthy apples" were applied to the burnt and singed places of the skin. At the same time, the pain was relieved, relief came.
Currently, due to the presence of potassium salts, potatoes are used in scientific medicine. It is widely used in medical nutrition as a valuable dietary product. In addition, it is a raw material for starch production. Glucose, alcohol, lactic acid, etc., which are widely used in medicine. Thus, the medicinal properties of potatoes are very diverse.
There are 5 main periods in the development of potatoes.
1 period - from germination of eyes to emergence of seedlings.
2nd period - from the appearance of the first green leaves to the development of stems with normal leaves.
3 period - from the appearance of buds to flowering.
4 period lasts from flowering to the cessation of the growth of tops
The 5th period lasts from the moment the tops die off until their complete drying and the physiological maturation of the tubers.
Thus, important physiological changes occur in each period.
The exactingness of potatoes to environmental conditions in different periods of life is not the same. Potatoes thrive better in cool summers. Optimum temperature + 18-25 С 0
Potatoes are picky about soil moisture, but their need for moisture varies in growth and development phases. Potatoes are a culture of loose soils, so they make high demands on their air regime.
Potatoes need an increased amount of nutrients for growth and development. The latter is due to its biological characteristics associated with the accumulation of a large mass of dry matter with a relatively poorly developed root system. He has the greatest need for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium.
Potatoes are a light-loving plant. In the absence or lack of light, the plants stretch out, development slows down, the leaves lose their ability to assimilate carbon dioxide.
Thus, in order to get a high yield, it is necessary to observe all the features of this plant.
In Kazakhstan, potatoes are grown everywhere, but a good harvest is obtained only where they know how to create favorable conditions for the growth and development of plants, to select varieties with potentially high yields.
Our region is distinguished by its soil and climatic characteristics. Therefore, in order to get a high yield, it is necessary to select suitable varieties.
From domestic varieties "Nevsky". But it has one drawback. It is often affected by late blight. More stable yields are provided by Dutch varieties such as Latona, Romano, Sante, Sagita and Red Scarlet.
So, with traditional cultivation methods, usually the yield does not exceed 300-350 kg per one hundred square meters. But changing conditions call for a creative approach to growing technology. A conscientious attitude towards cultivation technology allows for higher yields. One of these conditions is the correct use of various types of fertilizers.
Fertilizers are called salts and other inorganic natural or industrially obtained substances containing in their composition elements necessary for plant nutrition and increasing soil fertility, used in order to obtain high and sustainable crop yields.
About 70 elements take part in the formation of plant tissues, in its growth and development. The most important among them are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, on which the metabolism in the plant and its growth depend. Nitrogen is a part of proteins and chlorophyll, and takes part in photosynthesis. Its excessive content causes fattening of the stems, delays the ripening of crops. Abundant application of nitrogen fertilizers increases the yield, but on the other hand, an excess of nitrogen impairs taste, increases wateriness, worsens keeping quality during storage, increases susceptibility to diseases, and leads to the accumulation of nitrates.
Phosphorus compounds play an important role in the respiration and reproduction of plants, participating in the conversion of carbohydrates and nitrogen-containing substances.
Phosphorus most of all affects the quality of the crop, increases starchiness, improves taste and increases storage stability, increases the viability of the seed, and also reduces the effect of nitrogen, which inhibits development. The colder the beginning of summer and the shorter the growing season, the more important is the application of phosphorus fertilizers.
Potassium regulates life processes in the plant, improves the water regime, promotes metabolism and the formation of carbohydrates in plant tissues. Plants easily take it from the soil. The direct effect of potassium on the amount and ripening of the crop is small. But it increases size, reduces starchiness, but improves resistance to processing and storage.
The plant receives the bulk of oxygen, carbon and hydrogen from air and water, and extracts the rest of the elements from the soil. With the modern scale of cultural agriculture, the natural cycle of nutrients in nature is disrupted, since some of them are taken out with the harvest and do not return to the soil, and are also washed out of the soil by rainwater or become inactive. This makes it necessary to compensate for the loss of nutrients, i.e. mineral fertilizers. the composition of mineral fertilizers is characterized by the content of active substances in them: nitrogen in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium - conditionally in terms of their oxides. Fertilization is one of the main conditions for a high yield and good taste. The greatest effect is obtained by a combination of organic and mineral fertilizers. Organic fertilizers not only supply the plants with the necessary nutrients, but also loosen the soil and improve its structure.They serve not only as a source of food for plants, but also enrich the soil with beneficial microorganisms, which convert compounds inaccessible to plants into an easily digestible form. Organic fertilizers promote the accumulation of humus in the soil, which improves the physical properties, air and thermal conditions of the soil. Loamy soils become less cohesive, better water permeable and easier to cultivate, sandy soils better retain nutrients and water. Organic fertilizers, decomposing, provide the leaves with carbon dioxide - the most important element of plant air nutrition. The best organic fertilizer is rotted manure. Manure contains all the nutrients that plants need. However, it must be remembered that organic fertilizers decompose relatively slowly. Introduced before planting, they do not immediately become available for plants, therefore, they are poorly used during the initial period of growth. In order to provide the plant with a sufficient amount of nutrients from the very beginning of development, it is necessary, along with organic fertilizers, to make a complete mineral fertilizer. The effect of mineral fertilizers on growth and development on different soils is not the same. On sandy and loamy soils with a low humus content, higher yields are obtained from the use of nitrogen fertilizers. On chernozem areas, the yield increases with the use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. Wood ash is a good fertilizer. Its value lies in the fact that potassium is here in a carbonic form without chlorine. This potassium compound has the most beneficial effect on the yield. In addition to potassium, ash contains phosphorus, calcium and trace elements that are essential for plants. It was found that ash not only increases the yield, but also improves the taste, reduces the damage to plants by various diseases. In ash, as in meadow grasses, the plant itself filtered nutrients from the soil, and therefore the excess of individual elements in them is less dangerous than when applying chemically pure microelements mixed with mineral fertilizers. This widespread and very valuable micronutrient reduces soil acidity and significantly improves palatability. Ash is useful for all types of soils and is recommended as an obligatory addition to special mineral fertilizers.
In general, the effectiveness of the use of mineral and organic fertilizers depends on the cultivation of the soil on the site: the lower it is, the weaker the effect of fertilizers, and vice versa.
It should also be remembered that if the soil does not contain at least one nutrient in sufficient quantities, then the harvest will not be complete. For example, if there is enough potassium in the soil to obtain only 200 kg of potatoes from a hundred square meters, then no matter how much nitrogen or phosphorus you add, you cannot get a crop higher than this level, since the value of the crop is limited by the element that is at a minimum.
To obtain high and sustainable potato yields, along with organic fertilizers, it is necessary to apply mineral fertilizers.
The most important condition for the maximum effect of fertilizers is their differentiated use, taking into account soil conditions, biological characteristics of cultivated varieties, as well as the purpose of the crop. In development from the mechanical composition of the soil, the doses of mineral fertilizers can vary within the range: nitrogen -5-15 g / m, phosphorus 2-13 g / m, potassium 5-20 g / m.
Mineral fertilizers are applied mainly in spring, with the exception of potassium chloride, which is better applied in autumn, since chlorine has a negative effect on the quality of tubers. Potatoes are resistant to an increased concentration of fertilizers in the soil, therefore they respond well to local fertilization. It is more efficient to fertilize the rows when planting. Row fertilization enhances plant nutrition in the first period of development, contributes to the acceleration of their growth. In this case, it is better to use three-component granular fertilizers: nitrophoska, carbammofoska, fertilizer mixture and others at the rate of 20-30g / m. on a personal plot with a smooth landing. Local application of organic and mineral fertilizers under the tuber is very effective, while the consumption of organic and mineral fertilizers is halved.
When using less quality organic fertilizers, the rates of mineral fertilizers are increased.
Therefore, it is necessary to use both organic and mineral fertilizers.
For the experiment, we have chosen the varieties "Sagitta" and "Red Scarlet". These are medium-early high-yielding varieties. The tubers are regular, oval in shape with a pale yellow color. Gives a stable high yield on any soil. Resistant to Porsche, viral diseases, nematodes, cancer, mechanical damage.
In the spring, at the onset of positive temperatures, diseased, rotten, damaged and irregular in shape were removed from the tubers intended for planting. After that, the seeds were planted for light germination. Germination promotes fast and uniform germination, accelerated growth and development of plants, increases the number of stems. Sprouted tubers must be planted in the ground at a soil temperature at a depth of 10 cm 5-6 ° C. Before plowing, a new plant was introduced. On the tenth day after planting, the first shoots appeared. When the plants reached a height of 15-20 cm, hilling was carried out. The drip method was used for irrigation. Also, foliar feeding was carried out using the drugs "Novalon" and "Potassium Lignohumate". Agrotechnical measures were used to control weeds. Chemicals were used to protect against the Colorado potato beetle. During the development process, the following observations were noted.
During development, mineral fertilizers were applied in dissolved form. For comparison, foliar feeding was given with different preparations. For the Sagita variety, Novalon was used, and for the Red Scarlet variety, potassium lignohumate was used. In the course of development, the following observations were distinguished. Plants developed rapidly. The stems were thick, dark green in color. By the end of the growing season, the height of the batwa reached more than a meter. When the development ended, the tops were removed first. This technique accelerates the ripening of tubers, prevents them from infestation with diseases developing on the tops and facilitates harvesting. This is usually done 10 days before harvesting. It interrupts the outflow of nutrients from the tops to the tubers, as a result of which the accumulation of the crop stops, but the formation of tubers and dense rind on the tubers is accelerated.
When we cleaned up, we got the following results.
The average yield of the variety "Sagita" where the drug "Novalon" was used was 580 kg from one hundred square meters. Individual tubers reached a weight of 800g. The average yield of the Red Scarlet variety, where the potassium Lignohumate preparation was used, was 620 kg per one hundred square meters. The weight of individual tubers reached 1 kg.
Thus, to obtain high yields, types of fertilizers, both organic and mineral.
III. The methods that we used when setting up the experiment can be useful to a wide range of gardeners. Most of the described agrotechnical methods are universal. They are also applicable when using non-traditional methods of growing potatoes. we believe that there is plenty of useful information in this work and that it can be used for Iraqi purposes. In particular, the characteristics of this crop are given and what fertilizers should be used in order to get the maximum yield.
This is not the end of our work, and next year it will be continued.
The correct name - Red Scarlett (Red Scarlett) - a Dutch early maturing variety, which has recently become widespread in the Central and Southern regions of Russia. It is considered one of the best (among the Redskins) varieties and is included in the State Register of the Russian Federation.
Low, type - intermediate, semi-upright. Leaves are green, medium in size, with a slight waviness of the edge. Inflorescences are of medium size, red-violet or light lilac hue. The tops form and develop quite quickly, with good density and density.
Size - medium to large (80-150 g). They are formed amicably and in large numbers. The shape is oval, elongated-oval. The rind is smooth, red. The eyes are shallow, shallow. Dry matter content - 18.6%, starch - 10-15%. Taste is normal. Variability - medium. The color does not change during cooking.
Early maturing, high-yielding, for table purposes. The growing season is 70-75 days. Drought tolerant. Tubers are capable of not darkening with mechanical damage. Market keeping quality 97-98%. Suitable for washing. It is used for industrial cultivation, production of chips and french fries.
- golden potato nematode
-alternariosis (preventive treatment is necessary at the beginning of flowering).
Features of growing Dutch varieties
The situation should be resolved: a popular variety may become unpopular. Many varieties of Dutch potatoes, which were initially actively cultivated by domestic potato growers, left the crop rotation. This was explained by the fact that the promised advantages of Dutch varieties in practice have not been confirmed. That is, not quite so: at first everything was fine, but after a season ... It turned out that the "Dutch" suffer from late blight no less than domestic varieties, the promised high yields remained promised. Holland is a country with established traditions of potato growing, and therefore the growing rules must be followed as closely as possible.
The Dutch method of growing potatoes is based on the assertion that there are “three whales” in the foundation of successful cultivation: well-loosened soil, unhindered access of air and moisture. This is the only way to create optimal conditions for the cultivation of highly promising Dutch varieties. It follows from this that it is necessary to maintain a row spacing of no more than 60-70 cm for early varieties and 75-80 cm for late ripening varieties. You should not increase the planting area, narrowing the row spacing, the loss of yield with such a "gain in area" reduce it to zero. The planting depth of tubers should not exceed 4 cm. After the emergence of seedlings, it is necessary to form ridges: height - 20-25 cm, width at the base - 75 cm, inter-row cultivation in this case can be omitted. Weeds are fought with herbicides. The low incidence of late blight in potatoes in Holland is explained by a rigid system of processing with special drugs (successful prevention is achieved by 5-6 single treatments with strict adherence to the recommendations for alternating drugs). If these conditions are not met, Dutch varieties “pick up” phytophthora in the same way as all others, because they have no special immunity at all.
Particular attention should be paid to the preparation of planting material. To grow seed, planting frequency should be maintained: there should be thirty bushes on one square meter. To obtain a similar result, it is necessary to select from the sprouted tubers those in which at least five eyes have sprouted. The diameter of the tubers should be 3-5 centimeters. It is imperative to monitor the immiscibility of varieties, then it will be easier to track the degeneration of the planting material. If these rules are observed, one can expect to achieve the indicators of the planting material that are as close as possible to the elite ones. Pre-planting treatment of planting material with drugs that protect against viral infection is mandatory.
Cleaning also has some features. Harvesting, in comparison with the terms accepted in our country, is done much earlier (end of August - first decade of September, seed - in July, first decade of August). The tops are removed from the field 10 days before the start of digging out the tubers. This will accelerate the ripening of the tubers and will provide an opportunity for the skin to tighten, which will serve as protection against possible mechanical damage.
It should be considered mandatory to change the sown crops. Planting potatoes is best alternated with planting legumes. They will perfectly prepare the soil for the future potato harvest. Compliance with these simple rules will allow you to properly evaluate all the benefits of Dutch varieties.
Potash belongs to potassium compounds and potassium-containing materials, the most common of which is KCl. The term potash comes from the middle Dutch word potaschen (pot of ash).
The old way of making K2O was by collecting or producing wood ash, leaching the ash and then evaporating the resulting solution in large iron pots, leaving a white precipitate called ash. Approximately 10% by weight of conventional wood ash can be recovered as pot ash. Later, potash became the term widely used for naturally occurring potash salts and the commercial product derived from them.