When to fertilize flowers and why to fertilize. Why fertilize
Spring is the time of renewal and active growth of flowers. And here I am looking at my indoor plants, and some do not please with their appearance. As well as for us - people - winter did not pass without a trace for them. Some have partially dropped the leaves (for example, I have it balsam). In others, the tips of the leaves turned brown and shriveled. The hibiscus is disproportionately stretched and "bald". Conclusion - the plants lack something for full growth. What? Of course, minerals and trace elements. They, like us, have spring vitamin deficiency. It's time to feed!
When to fertilize flowers
When winter began, we did not forget to remind the owners of indoor flowers that they should not be fed during the dormant period. Indeed, at this time the plants receive less light, their growth is suspended and nutrients from the soil are not consumed in large volumes. Top dressing in winter can lead to excessive soil salinity.
But now spring is the beginning of the growing season in 95% of plants. And this is the time when to fertilize flowers... You can start from February-March.
It should be borne in mind that in different periods of the growing season, different microelements are also required. At the beginning of the period of active growth, nitrogen fertilizers are used to build up the green mass. And during the period of laying flower buds and with the appearance of buds, flowers need phosphorus and potassium fertilizers.
You also need to intelligently adjust the frequency of feeding. You cannot fertilize often immediately. If in winter you applied top dressing once a month or even less often, start fertilizing according to the scheme once every 2 weeks. Then fast-growing plants can be fed every week, and slow-growing plants 2 times a month (some even once).
Other reasons for fertilizing
There are other reasons why it is desirable to feed indoor flowers. Regardless of the season, the soil mixture in flower pots is constantly depleted. If you have not transplanted the plant for a long time and did not renew the soil (did not add a new one), then it is better, of course, to transplant or add. But sometimes this cannot be done - if it could damage the plant. Then you need to enrich the soil with fertilizers.
If you take proper care of the flower, it does not get sick, but you still observe a clear deterioration in its appearance, then feeding may be necessary. There are even symptoms by which you can determine what the plant lacks. For example, if the leaves have become smaller or have lost the brightness of color, nitrogen compounds are needed. When the flower seems to freeze (it does not grow well), or the buds of a flowering plant fall off, the fruits do not ripen, pamper it with fertilizers with phosphorus and potassium. And in general, if you presumably know the flowering periods of your green pet, then feed it with phosphorus fertilizers in advance (2 weeks in advance).
The flower needs minerals, just like us, so as not to get sick. For example, if a plant is deficient in potassium, then it becomes vulnerable to fungal diseases. And with a lack of calcium in a flower, young shoots and stems can even die off. Magnesium deficiency leads to delays in flowering and weakening of leaves. Also, the leaves become discolored due to a lack of iron. And if you observe a complete breakdown in the plant (the roots are sick, the stems do not grow, chlorosis is observed in the leaves, the flowers fall off even in the buds) - perhaps it does not have enough boron.
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In one of the newspapers I read an article about fertilizers: “Superphosphate can be used in conjunction with potash fertilizers. But using them with nitrogen fertilization is fraught with plant death ”.
And, for example, nitroammofosk, along with phosphorus and potassium, also contains nitrogen. But is it not fatal to plants?
Further: "... Phosphorus and nitrogen must not be dissolved in water." But in the literature, it is recommended to use solutions of these elements for feeding? For example, superphosphate, urea, nitroammophoska.
Let's try to understand these intricacies and analyze the use of mineral fertilizers in a complex as well as in relation to various types of vegetables separately.
In recent years, our attitude to mineral fertilizers has changed dramatically. On the one hand, there was a completely unreasonable campaign for a complete rejection of chemistry. On the other hand, these fertilizers have risen in price so much that many simply cannot afford to pour this very chemistry anywhere and anyway.
And then there were some articles in print, misleading many gardeners and summer residents.
Before applying fertilizers, you need to know a lot about the soil in your garden: the content of macro- and microelements, humus, acidity. You need to know what fertilizers plants like and when to apply them. Some are brought in for the main cultivation of the soil, others are used in the form of dressings.
As for nitroammophoska, the whole secret is in the percentage of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium available to the plant. You can't mix a box of urea, simple superphosphate and potassium chloride. This will do nothing to the plants except harm.
First of all, it is categorically impossible to agree with the widespread opinion that environmentally friendly products can be obtained if mineral fertilizers are not used. It remains only to be surprised at the silence of agrochemists and agronomists.
After all, it has long been known that plants absorb nutrients in the form of simple salts, soluble in water or weak acids. This means that all organic fertilizers: manure, humus, compost, not to mention peat (you can read about the preparation of peat compost here) - can provide plants with the necessary nutrients only under the condition of mineralization, that is, the transformation of complex organic compounds into simple salts.
This transformation is carried out by bacteria and other microorganisms, usually living in soil and organic fertilizers. In favorable conditions, microorganisms multiply rapidly and decompose the applied organic fertilizers. But all the same, this process takes some time.
This explains the long-term effect or, rather, the aftereffect of organic fertilizers, which manifests itself over several years.
Mineral fertilizers contain nutrients available to plants, often in a water-soluble form, and are quickly absorbed by them. The accumulation by plants of some compounds harmful to humans, for example, nitrates, can occur with an unbalanced application of nitrogen fertilizers.
By the way, nitrates can also accumulate when one manure is applied, for example, when there is a lack of light in greenhouses.
A convincing example of the advisability of growing vegetables using only mineral fertilizers is vegetable growing according to the Meatlider method (here is an article detailing the method of Dr. Meatlider to increase land fertility and increase yields on the site). The balanced introduction of the main nutrients with the addition of microelements allows you to get high yields of organic vegetables on almost any soil.
To begin with, without haste, consider the fertilizers that can be bought in stores and remember that for the growth and development of plants, plants need, first of all, the so-called basic nutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
- Nitrogen - the most important element of plant nutrition. Nitrogen fertilizers enhance their growth and development, increase the protein content.
- Phosphorus is part of the most important plant proteins - the cell nucleus, compounds that regulate the water regime of cells, a number of enzymes and vitamins. It accelerates the development of plants, improves the quality of the crop.
- Potassium participates in carbohydrate and protein metabolism, in the activity of enzymes. The quality of the crop largely depends on its presence in plant nutrition.
For example, in July and August, plants solve two problems: supply fruits and berries with nutrients and lay fruit buds. Therefore, they, especially plentifully fruiting trees, need good feeding and watering. Otherwise, next year the trees may not yield a harvest, and in a harsh winter they may freeze out.
In August, fruit trees are fed with phosphorus and potassium fertilizers at the rate of 20-30 g of potassium salt and 30-50 g of superphosphate per 1 m 2 of the trunk circle.
It is good to carry out foliar feeding with phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (30 g of superphosphate and 50 g of potassium salt per 10 liters of water). This will contribute to better preparation of plants for winter, the development of flower buds and thickening of skeletal branches.
Potatoes fertilized with potassium, when peeling, are distinguished by a special whiteness of the flesh, there are fewer dark spots and stripes in it, it crunches when cut and does not flab for a long time in room conditions. Moreover, even the shape of the tubers, being predominantly a varietal trait, is improved by the use of potash fertilizers.
Potato flavor is not determined by starch content alone.
Potassium increases the size of starch grains, so even potatoes fertilized with potassium chlorides have a soft, tasty mealy pulp after cooking. Watery potatoes are produced with excess nitrogen fertilization, unbalanced by the use of potassium.
To determine the pH using an analyzer, you need to make several wells throughout the area, fill them with distilled water and, each time wiping the probe, measure the indicators. Next, the average indicator is calculated, which should be guided by.
Determine the acidity of the soil without equipment, you can use vinegar and soda. To do this, you need to collect earth in two containers. Pour vinegar into one, distilled water into the other and pour soda on top. If there is a reaction in the first container, the earth is alkaline, if the soda hiss is sour.
You can neutralize the acidity of the soil by adding wood ash, hydrated lime, ground limestone, shell rock or chalk. Application rates: 250-600 g / m2 depending on the type of soil.
You can acidify the soil with organic matter. But for heavy clay soils, ferrous sulfate, sulfur and ammonia fertilizers are used according to the manufacturer's instructions. The introduction of organic fertilizers to acidify clay soils will have the opposite effect.
An excellent fertilizer for all home (and not only) flowers - dormant coffee, all the more convenient because it does not need to be specially prepared. Just after drinking a cup of a fragrant drink, do not pour out the coffee grounds, but mix it with the earth in a flowerpot.
Sleep coffee is a wonderful natural fertilizer
Thanks to this simple technique, the soil will become looser and lighter, the acidity of the soil will increase, and there will be more oxygen in it. Using drunk coffee as a top dressing for home flowers, remember: not all plants have a good effect on the acidity of the soil. And do not forget about green pets in the flower garden: such fertilizer will be beneficial:
- all kinds of roses
- rhododendrons and other evergreens.
Not all plants will like coffee dressings.
For feeding home flowers, tea leaves are often used. Unfortunately, it can give not only a positive, but also a negative effect. Undoubtedly, such additives will make the soil in a flower pot looser, but do not forget that black flies (sciarids) simply "adore" tea leaves in the soil, so be careful.
Types of mineral nitrogen fertilizers
The entire range of nitrogen fertilizers production can be combined into 3 groups:
- Ammonia fertilizers (eg, ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride)
- Nitrate fertilizers (such as calcium or sodium nitrate)
- Amide fertilizers (eg urea).
In addition, fertilizers are produced containing nitrogen simultaneously in ammonium and nitrate forms (for example, ammonium nitrate).
The main assortment of nitrogen fertilizers production:
|Type of nitrogen fertilizer||Nitrogen content|
|Calcium ammonium nitrate||20,5%|
|Ammoniates based on ammonium nitrate||34,4-41,0%|
|Calcium nitrate based ammonia||30,5-31,6%|
|Urea-formaldehyde and methylene-urea (slow acting)||38-42%|
|Ammonia based urea||37-40%|
The use of nitrogen fertilizers is often necessary in combination with phosphorus and potash fertilizers. For example, there is a mixture of ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, and bone or dolomite meal. However, in different phases of plant development, it needs different ratios of fertilizers. For example, during the flowering period, excess nitrogen can only worsen the final yield. Naturally, the plant needs these three most important nutrients, but there are other macro and micronutrients necessary for optimal plant development. So nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are not a panacea.
Below is the classification of mineral nitrogen fertilizers:
There are 2 ways or types of fertilization:
- Root - watered at the root.
- Foliar - sprayed with leaves.
In the spring, fertilizers are usually applied at the root in a liquid form, sometimes dry granules are scattered over the site and covered with earth. When watering or during rain, they will gradually dissolve in the soil.
But foliar fertilizers are applied in the summer.
Small furrows are made around the bushes, into which fertilizers are applied, then they are dug in with earth. Most often used
mineral fertilizers with macronutrients, as well as organic matter.
Important! Foliar dressing is especially effective when plants lack certain microelements.
Therefore, for spraying bushes, fertilizers are most often used, which include trace elements.
Important! Foliar dressing will not replace root dressing. Therefore, the root ones are considered basic, and the foliar ones are considered additional.
Important! Potassium chloride and phosphorus fertilizers (for example, potassium salt, potassium chloride, diammophos) should not be used for root feeding of raspberries. Otherwise, the bushes can get sick with chlorosis.
Almost all berries are sensitive to an excess of chlorine, including red and white currants, strawberries, wild strawberries, and grapes. Only black currants and gooseberries are more resistant.
The best spring ready-made fertilizers
You can purchase complex fertilizers for berry bushes with a set of macro- and microelements:
- Gumi-Omi "Berry" based on chicken manure.
- "Berry bushes" from Fasco is granular, which is scattered in dry form along the diameter of the bushes, after which the soil is watered.
Yeast top dressing (before flowering):
- 100 g fresh or 30-35 g dry yeast
- 100 g sugar
- 5 l warm water
- everything is mixed and insisted for 1-3 days
- stir periodically
- the solution is diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10
- 5 liters of funds are poured under 1 bush.
Important! Yeast fertilizer completely dissolves potassium in the soil, therefore, after 7-10 days, it is necessary to feed the soil with potassium. For example, wood ash or potassium sulfate (potassium sulfate).
To get a good harvest of raspberries
apply as a root top dressing 5 liters under a bush of a solution from:
- 2 tbsp. tablespoons of ammonia
- 10 liters of water.
As a prophylaxis against many fungal diseases and as a foliar feeding, raspberry bushes are sprayed with a solution of:
- 2 tbsp. tablespoons of ammonia
- 10 l of water
- 2 tbsp. spoons of tar soap (as an adhesive).
In addition to the fact that raspberries need feeding, a number of other activities need to be carried out in spring, which include:
- spring pruning
- transplant (if necessary)
- loosening and weeding
- directly feeding
- processing raspberries from diseases and pests.
You can read about the peculiarities of growing and caring for raspberries here.
How to properly prune raspberries can be found in the article: Pruning raspberries in spring and autumn for beginners.
Watch the video! Top dressing of raspberries in spring
How and when to fertilize cabbage seedlings? "
Some summer residents have already sowed early ripe varieties of cabbage and are interested in different types of dressings. The best "AiF" recommended Head of the laboratory for selection and seed production of cabbage crops of the Federal Scientific Center for Education, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences Sci. Lyudmila Bondareva:
- Wait until cotyledon leaves appear on the seedlings, and then the first true leaf. Note that this moment - the appearance of the first true leaf - is the most dangerous in cabbage. You can ruin all the seedlings without knowing the intricacies of watering. So, after opening the cotyledon leaves, it is recommended to water the seedlings and in no case moisten them again until the first true leaf appears.
But in the phase of the first true leaf, it can be watered and fed with specialized fertilizers intended for cabbage seedlings - Kemira and Aquarin. Cabbage responds especially well to nitrogen fertilizers. Urea (carbamide) is suitable for it, it has a mild effect on seedlings, without causing burns to the roots and leaves. Ammonium nitrate, which slightly acidifies the soil mixture, has also proven itself well. Just do not overfeed the seedlings under any circumstances: it will begin to “fatten”, it will not tolerate the picking well, and then planting in the ground.
Not bad cabbage seedlings belong to micronutrient fertilizers, they grow strong, with resistance to some diseases. Most often, feeding is carried out by spraying the seedlings over the leaves, spraying trace elements dissolved in water with a spray bottle. The second feeding is carried out in the phase of 3 true leaves.